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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



NAME
     locale - subset of a  user's  environment  that  depends  on
     language and cultural conventions

DESCRIPTION
     A locale is  the  definition  of  the  subset  of  a  user's
     environment  that  depends  on language and cultural conven-
     tions. It is made up  from  one  or  more  categories.  Each
     category  is  identified  by  its name and controls specific
     aspects  of  the  behavior  of  components  of  the  system.
     Category names correspond to the following environment vari-
     able names:

     LC_CTYPE
           Character classification and case conversion.

     LC_COLLATE
           Collation order.

     LC_TIME
           Date and time formats.

     LC_NUMERIC
           Numeric formatting.

     LC_MONETARY
           Monetary formatting.

     LC_MESSAGES
           Formats of informative  and  diagnostic  messages  and
           interactive responses.

     The standard utilities  base their behavior on  the  current
     locale, as defined in the ENVIRONMENT section for each util-
     ity. The behavior of some of the C-language  functions  will
     also  be modified based on the current locale, as defined by
     the last call to setlocale(3C).

     Locales other than those supplied by the implementation  can
     be  created by the application via the localedef(1) utility.
     The value that is  used  to  specify  a  locale  when  using
     environment  variables  will  be the string specified as the
     name operand to  localedef when the locale was created.  The
     strings  "C" and "POSIX" are reserved as identifiers for the
     POSIX locale.

     Applications can select the desired locale by  invoking  the
     setlocale()  function  with  the  appropriate  value. If the
     function is invoked with an empty string, such as:

     setlocale(LC_ALL, "");




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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



     the value of the corresponding environment variable is used.
     If  the environment variable is unset or is set to the empty
     string,  the   setlocale()  function  sets  the  appropriate
     environment.

  Locale Definition
     Locales can be described with the file  format  accepted  by
     the localedef utility.

     The locale definition file must contain one or  more  locale
     category  source definitions, and must not contain more than
     one definition for the same locale category.

     A category source definition consists of a category  header,
     a  category  body  and a category trailer. A category header
     consists of the character string  naming  of  the  category,
     beginning  with  the  characters LC_.   The category trailer
     consists of the string END, followed by one  or  more  blank
     characters and the string used in the corresponding category
     header.

     The category body consists of one or  more  lines  of  text.
     Each line contains an identifier, optionally followed by one
     or more operands. Identifiers are either keywords, identify-
     ing a particular locale element, or collating elements. Each
     keyword within a locale must have a unique  name  (that  is,
     two  categories  cannot  have  a commonly-named keyword); no
     keyword can start with the characters  LC_. Identifiers must
     be  separated from the operands by one or more blank charac-
     ters.

     Operands must be characters, collating elements  or  strings
     of  characters.  Strings  must be enclosed in double-quotes.
     Literal double-quotes within strings must be preceded by the
     <escape  character>, described below. When a keyword is fol-
     lowed by  more  than  one  operand,  the  operands  must  be
     separated  by  semicolons; blank characters are allowed both
     before and after a semicolon.

     The first category header in the file can be preceded  by  a
     line  modifying  the comment character. It has the following
     format, starting in column 1:

     "comment_char %c\n",<comment character>

     The comment character defaults to the number sign (#). Blank
     lines  and  lines  containing the <comment character> in the
     first position are ignored.

     The first category header in the file can be preceded  by  a
     line  modifying the escape character to be used in the file.
     It has the following format, starting in column 1:



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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



     "escape_char %c\n",<escape character>

     The escape character defaults to backslash.

     A line can be continued by placing an  escape  character  as
     the  last character on the line; this continuation character
     will be discarded from the input. Although  the  implementa-
     tion  need  not  accept  any one portion of a continued line
     with a length exceeding {LINE_MAX} bytes, it places no  lim-
     its on the accumulated length of the continued line. Comment
     lines cannot be continued on  a  subsequent  line  using  an
     escaped newline character.

     Individual characters, characters in strings, and  collating
     elements  must  be  represented  using  symbolic  names,  as
     defined below. In addition, characters  can  be  represented
     using  the characters themselves or as octal, hexadecimal or
     decimal constants. When non-symbolic notation is  used,  the
     resultant locale definitions will in many cases not be port-
     able between systems.  The  left  angle  bracket  (<)  is  a
     reserved symbol, denoting the start of a symbolic name; when
     used to represent itself it must be preceded by  the  escape
     character.  The following rules apply to character represen-
     tation:

     1. A character can  be  represented  via  a  symbolic  name,
        enclosed  within  angle  brackets  <  and >. The symbolic
        name, including the angle brackets, must exactly match  a
        symbolic  name  defined in the charmap file specified via
        the localedef -f option, and will be replaced by a  char-
        acter value determined from the value associated with the
        symbolic name in the charmap file. The use of a  symbolic
        name  not found in the charmap file constitutes an error,
        unless the category is LC_CTYPE or  LC_COLLATE, in  which
        case it constitutes a warning condition (see localedef(1)
        for a description of action  resulting  from  errors  and
        warnings).  The  specification  of  a  symbolic name in a
        collating-element or collating-symbol section that dupli-
        cates a symbolic name in the charmap file (if present) is
        an error. Use of the escape character or  a  right  angle
        bracket  within  a  symbolic  name  is invalid unless the
        character is preceded by the escape character.

        Example:

        <c>;<c-cedilla>  "<M><a><y>"


     2. A character can be represented by the  character  itself,
        in   which   case   the   value   of   the  character  is
        implementation-dependent. Within a  string,  the  double-
        quote character, the escape character and the right angle



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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



        bracket character must be escaped (preceded by the escape
        character)  to  be  interpreted  as the character itself.
        Outside strings, the characters


     ,     ;     <     >     escape_char

     must be escaped to be interpreted as the character itself.

     For example:

     c    beta-char   "May"

     3. A character can be represented as an octal  constant.  An
        octal  constant is specified as the escape character fol-
        lowed  by  two  or  more  octal  digits.  Each   constant
        represents   a  byte  value.  Multi-byte  values  can  be
        represented by concatenated constants specified  in  byte
        order  with the last constant specifying the least signi-
        ficant byte of the character.

        For example:

     \143;\347;\143\150    "\115\141\171"

     4. A character can be represented as a hexadecimal constant.
        A hexadecimal constant is specified as the escape charac-
        ter followed by an x followed by two or more  hexadecimal
        digits. Each constant represents a byte value. Multi-byte
        values  can  be  represented  by  concatenated  constants
        specified in byte order with the last constant specifying
        the least significant byte of the character.

        For example:

     \x63;\xe7;\x63\x68    "\x4d\x61\x79"

     5. A character can be represented as a decimal  constant.  A
        decimal  constant  is  specified  as the escape character
        followed by a d followed by two or more  decimal  digits.
        Each  constant represents a byte value. Multi-byte values
        can be represented by concatenated constants specified in
        byte  order  with  the last constant specifying the least
        significant byte of the character.

        For example:


     \d99;\d231;\d99\d104   "\d77\d97\d121"

     Only characters existing in the character set for which  the
     locale definition is created can be specified, whether using



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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



     symbolic names, the characters themselves, or octal, decimal
     or hexadecimal constants. If a charmap file is present, only
     characters defined in the charmap  can  be  specified  using
     octal,  decimal or hexadecimal constants. Symbolic names not
     present in the charmap file can be  specified  and  will  be
     ignored, as specified under item 1 above.

  LC_CTYPE
     The  LC_CTYPE  category  defines  character  classification,
     case  conversion  and  other character attributes.  In addi-
     tion, a series of characters can  be  represented  by  three
     adjacent  periods representing an ellipsis symbol (...). The
     ellipsis specification is interpreted as  meaning  that  all
     values   between  the  values  preceding  and  following  it
     represent valid characters. The  ellipsis  specification  is
     valid  only  within a single encoded character set; that is,
     within a group of characters of the same size.  An  ellipsis
     is  interpreted as including in the list all characters with
     an encoded value higher than the encoded value of the  char-
     acter  preceding  the  ellipsis  and  lower than the encoded
     value of the character following the ellipsis.

     For example:

     \x30;...;\x39;

     includes in the character class all characters with  encoded
     values between the endpoints.

     The following keywords are recognized. In the  descriptions,
     the  term ``automatically included'' means that it is not an
     error either to include or omit any of the referenced  char-
     acters.

     The character classes digit, xdigit, lower, upper, and space
     have  a set of automatically included characters. These only
     need to be specified  if  the  character  values  (that  is,
     encoding) differ  from the implementation default values.

     cswidth
           Moved to extensions file (see extensions(5)).

     upper Define  characters  to  be  classified  as  upper-case
           letters.

           In the POSIX locale, the  26  upper-case  letters  are
           included:


     A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z





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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



          In a locale definition file, no character specified for
          the  keywords  cntrl,  digit,  punct,  or  space can be
          specified. The upper-case letters A to Z are  automati-
          cally included in this class.

     lower Define  characters  to  be  classified  as  lower-case
           letters.  In  the  POSIX  locale,  the  26  lower-case
           letters are included:


     a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

          In a locale definition file, no character specified for
          the  keywords  cntrl,  digit,  punct,  or  space can be
          specified. The lower-case letters a to z of  the  port-
          able  character  set are automatically included in this
          class.

     alpha Define characters to be classified as letters.

           In the POSIX locale, all  characters  in  the  classes
           upper and lower are included.

           In a locale definition file,  no  character  specified
           for  the keywords cntrl, digit, punct, or space can be
           specified. Characters classified as  either  upper  or
           lower are automatically included in this class.

     digit Define the characters  to  be  classified  as  numeric
           digits.

           In the POSIX locale, only


     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

     are included.

     In a locale definition file, only the digits 0, 1, 2, 3,  4,
     5,  6,  7,  8,  and  9  can  be specified, and in contiguous
     ascending sequence by numerical value. The digits 0 to 9  of
     the  portable  character  set  are automatically included in
     this class.

          The definition of character class digit  requires  that
          only  ten  characters;  the ones defining digits can be
          specified; alternative digits (for  example,  Hindi  or
          Kanji) cannot be specified here.

     space Define characters  to  be  classified  as  white-space
           characters.




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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



           In the POSIX locale,  at  a  minimum,  the  characters
           SPACE,  FORMFEED,  NEWLINE,  CARRIAGE RETURN, TAB, and
           VERTICAL TAB are included.

           In a locale definition file,  no  character  specified
           for the keywords upper, lower, alpha, digit, graph, or
           xdigit  can  be  specified.  The   characters   SPACE,
           FORMFEED, NEWLINE, CARRIAGE RETURN, TAB, and  VERTICAL
           TAB of the portable character set, and any  characters
           included in the class blank are automatically included
           in this class.

     cntrl Define characters to be classified as control  charac-
           ters.

           In the POSIX locale, no characters in classes alpha or
           print are included.

           In a locale definition file,  no  character  specified
           for  the  keywords  upper, lower, alpha, digit, punct,
           graph, print, or xdigit can be specified.

     punct Define characters  to  be  classified  as  punctuation
           characters.

           In the POSIX locale, neither the space  character  nor
           any  characters  in classes alpha, digit, or cntrl are
           included.

           In a locale definition file,  no  character  specified
           for  the  keywords  upper, lower, alpha, digit, cntrl,
           xdigit or as the space character can be specified.

     graph Define characters to be classified as printable  char-
           acters, not including the space character.

           In the POSIX locale, all characters in classes  alpha,
           digit,  and punct are included; no characters in class
           cntrl are included.

           In a locale definition file, characters specified  for
           the  keywords  upper, lower, alpha, digit, xdigit, and
           punct are automatically included  in  this  class.  No
           character  specified  for  the  keyword  cntrl  can be
           specified.

     print Define characters to be classified as printable  char-
           acters, including the space character.

           In the POSIX locale, all characters in class graph are
           included; no characters in class cntrl are included.




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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



           In a locale definition file, characters specified  for
           the  keywords  upper,  lower,  alpha,  digit,  xdigit,
           punct,  and  the  space  character  are  automatically
           included in this class. No character specified for the
           keyword cntrl can be specified.

     xdigit
           Define the characters to be classified as  hexadecimal
           digits.

           In the POSIX locale, only:


     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F a b c d e f

     are included.

     In a locale definition file, only the characters defined for
     the  class  digit  can be specified, in contiguous ascending
     sequence by numerical value, followed by one or more sets of
     six  characters representing the hexadecimal digits 10 to 15
     inclusive, with each set in ascending order (for example  A,
     B,  C,  D,  E,  F, a, b, c, d, e, f). The digits 0 to 9, the
     upper-case letters A to F and the lower-case letters a to  f
     of  the portable character set are automatically included in
     this class.

          The definition of character class xdigit requires  that
          the  characters  included  in  character class digit be
          included here also.

     blank Define characters to be classified  as  blank  charac-
           ters.

           In the POSIX locale, only the space and tab characters
           are included.

           In a locale definition file, the characters space  and
           tab are automatically included in this class.

     charclass
           Define one or  more  locale-specific  character  class
           names  as strings separated by semi-colons. Each named
           character class can then be  defined  subsequently  in
           the  LC_CTYPE  definition. A character class name con-
           sists of at least one and at most {CHARCLASS_NAME_MAX}
           bytes  of  alphanumeric  characters  from the portable
           filename character set. The first character of a char-
           acter  class  name  cannot be a digit. The name cannot
           match any of the LC_CTYPE  keywords  defined  in  this
           document.




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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



     charclass-name
           Define characters to be classified as belonging to the
           named  locale-specific  character  class. In the POSIX
           locale, the locale-specific  named  character  classes
           need  not exist. If a class name is defined by a char-
           class keyword,  but  no  characters  are  subsequently
           assigned  to it, this is not an error; it represents a
           class without any  characters  belonging  to  it.  The
           charclass-name can be used as the property argument to
           the wctype(3C) function,  in  regular  expression  and
           shell pattern-matching bracket expressions, and by the
           tr(1) command.

     toupper
           Define the mapping of lower-case letters to upper-case
           letters.

           In the POSIX locale, at a minimum, the  26  lower-case
           characters:


     a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

     are mapped to the corresponding 26 upper-case characters:


     A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

          In a locale definition file, the  operand  consists  of
          character  pairs,  separated by semicolons. The charac-
          ters in each character pair are separated  by  a  comma
          and the pair enclosed by parentheses. The first charac-
          ter in each pair is the lower-case letter,  the  second
          the  corresponding  upper-case letter.  Only characters
          specified for the  keywords  lower  and  upper  can  be
          specified.  The  lower-case  letters  a to z, and their
          corresponding upper-case letters A to Z, of  the  port-
          able  character  set are automatically included in this
          mapping, but only when the toupper keyword  is  omitted
          from the locale definition.

     tolower
           Define the mapping of upper-case letters to lower-case
           letters.

           In the POSIX locale, at a minimum, the  26  upper-case
           characters:


     A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z





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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



     are mapped to the corresponding 26 lower-case characters:


     a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

          In a locale definition file, the  operand  consists  of
          character  pairs,  separated by semicolons. The charac-
          ters in each character pair are separated  by  a  comma
          and the pair enclosed by parentheses. The first charac-
          ter in each pair is the upper-case letter,  the  second
          the  corresponding  lower-case letter.  Only characters
          specified for the  keywords  lower  and  upper  can  be
          specified.  If  the tolower keyword is omitted from the
          locale definition, the mapping will be the reverse map-
          ping of the one specified for toupper.

  LC_COLLATE
     The   LC_COLLATE  category  provides  a  collation  sequence
     definition for numerous utilities (such as sort(1), uniq(1),
     and so forth), regular expression matching  (see  regex(5)),
     and   the   strcoll(3C),   strxfrm(3C),   wcscoll(3C),   and
     wcsxfrm(3C) functions.

     A collation sequence definition defines the  relative  order
     between  collating  elements (characters and multi-character
     collating elements) in the locale. This order  is  expressed
     in  terms  of  collation  values; that is, by assigning each
     element one or more collation values (also known  as  colla-
     tion  weights). At least the following capabilities are pro-
     vided:

     1. Multi-character  collating  elements.  Specification   of
        multi-character collating elements (that is, sequences of
        two or more characters to be collated as an entity).

     2. User-defined ordering of collating elements. Each collat-
        ing  element  is  assigned a collation value defining its
        order in the character  (or  basic)  collation  sequence.
        This  ordering is used by regular expressions and pattern
        matching and, unless   collation  weights  are  explicity
        specified,  also  as  the  collation weight to be used in
        sorting.

     3. Multiple weights and equivalence classes. Collating  ele-
        ments  can  be  assigned  one  or  more  (up to the limit
        {COLL_WEIGHTS_MAX} ) collating weights for use  in  sort-
        ing.  The  first  weight  is hereafter referred to as the
        primary weight.

     4. One-to-Many mapping. A single character is mapped into  a
        string of collating elements.




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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



     5. Equivalence class definition. Two or more collating  ele-
        ments have the same collation value (primary weight).

     6. Ordering by weights. When two  strings  are  compared  to
        determine their relative order, the two strings are first
        broken up into a series of collating elements;  the  ele-
        ments  in  each successive pair of elements are then com-
        pared according to the relative primary weights  for  the
        elements.  If  equal,  and  more than one weight has been
        assigned, then the pairs of collating elements are recom-
        pared according to the relative subsequent weights, until
        either a pair of collating elements  compare  unequal  or
        the  weights  are  exhausted.  The following keywords are
        recognized in a collation sequence definition.  They  are
        described in detail in the following sections.

     7. Define a collating-element symbol representing  a  multi-
        character collating element. This keyword is optional.

     8. Define a collating symbol  for  use  in  collation  order
        statements. This keyword is optional.

     9. Define collation rules. This statement is followed by one
        or  more  collation order statements, assigning character
        collation values and collation weights to collating  ele-
        ments.

     10.
        Specify the end of the collation-order statements.

  collating-element keyword
     In addition to the collating elements in the character  set,
     the  collating-element  keyword  is  used  to  define multi-
     character collating elements. The syntax is:

     "collating-element %s from \"%s\"\n",<collating-symbol>,<string>

     The <collating-symbol> operand is a symbolic name,  enclosed
     between angle brackets (< and >), and must not duplicate any
     symbolic name in the current charmap file (if any),  or  any
     other  symbolic  name  defined in this collation definition.
     The string operand is a string of  two  or  more  characters
     that  collates  as  an entity. A <collating-element> defined
     via this keyword is only  recognized  with  the   LC_COLLATE
     category.

     For example:

               collating-element <ch> from "<c><h>"

               collating-element <e-acute> from "<acute><e>"




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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



               collating-element <ll> from "ll"

  collating-symbol keyword
     This keyword will be used to define symbols for use in  col-
     lation sequence statements; that is, between the order_start
     and the order_end keywords. The syntax is:

     "collating-symbol %s\n",<collating-symbol>

     The <collating-symbol> is a symbolic name, enclosed  between
     angle  brackets  (<  and >), and must not duplicate any sym-
     bolic name in the current charmap  file  (if  any),  or  any
     other symbolic name defined in this collation definition.

     A collating-symbol defined via this keyword is  only  recog-
     nized with the  LC_COLLATE category.

     For example:

               collating-symbol <UPPER_CASE>

               collating-symbol <HIGH>

     The collating-symbol keyword defines a  symbolic  name  that
     can  be associated with a relative position in the character
     order  sequence.  While  such  a  symbolic  name  does   not
     represent any collating element, it can be used as a weight.

  order_start keyword
     The order_start keyword must precede collation order entries
     and  also  defines  the number of weights for this collation
     sequence definition and other collation rules.

     The syntax of the order_start keyword is:

     "order_start %s;%s;...;%s\n",<sort-rules>,<sort-rules>

     The operands to the order_start  keyword  are  optional.  If
     present,  the  operands  define  rules  to  be  applied when
     strings are compared. The number of operands define how many
     weights  each  element  is  assigned;  if  no  operands  are
     present, one forward operand is assumed.   If  present,  the
     first  operand  defines  rules  to be applied when comparing
     strings using the first (primary) weight;  the  second  when
     comparing  strings  using  the  second  weight,  and  so on.
     Operands are separated by semicolons (;). Each operand  con-
     sists of one or more collation directives, separated by com-
     mas  (,).  If   the   number   of   operands   exceeds   the
     {COLL_WEIGHTS_MAX}  limit,  the utility will issue a warning
     message. The following directives will be supported:

     forward



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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



           Specifies that comparison operations  for  the  weight
           level  proceed from start of string towards the end of
           string.

     backward
           Specifies that comparison operations  for  the  weight
           level proceed from end of string towards the beginning
           of string.

     position
           Specifies that comparison operations  for  the  weight
           level  will consider the relative position of elements
           in the strings not subject to IGNORE. The string  con-
           taining  an  element  not  subject to IGNORE after the
           fewest collating elements subject to IGNORE  from  the
           start  of  the  compare  will  collate  first. If both
           strings contain a character not subject to  IGNORE  in
           the  same  relative  position,  the  collating  values
           assigned to the elements will determine the  ordering.
           In case of equality, subsequent characters not subject
           to IGNORE are considered in the same manner.

     The directives forward and backward are mutually exclusive.

     For example:

     order_start    forward;backward

     If no operands are specified, a single  forward  operand  is
     assumed.  The  character  (and  collating  element) order is
     defined by the order in which characters  and  elements  are
     specified  between  the  order_start and order_end keywords.
     This character order is used in range expressions in regular
     expressions (see  regex(5)). Weights assigned to the charac-
     ters and elements define  the  collation  sequence;  in  the
     absence  of  weights, the character order is also the colla-
     tion sequence. The position keyword provides the  capability
     to  consider, in a compare, the relative position of charac-
     ters not subject to IGNORE. As an example, consider the  two
     strings  ``o-ring''  and  ``or-ing''. Assuming the hyphen is
     subject to IGNORE on the first pass, the  two  strings  will
     compare equal, and the position of the hyphen is immaterial.
     On second pass, all characters except the hyphen are subject
     to  IGNORE,  and  in  the  normal case the two strings would
     again compare equal. By taking position  into  account,  the
     first collates before the second.

  Collation Order
     The order_start keyword is followed by collating  identifier
     entries. The syntax for the collating element entries is





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     "%s %s;%s;...;%s\n"<collating-identifier>,<weight>,<weight>,...

     Each collating-identifier consists  of  either  a  character
     described   in   Locale  Definition  above,   a  <collating-
     element>, a <collating-symbol>, an ellipsis, or the  special
     symbol  UNDEFINED. The order in which collating elements are
     specified determines the character order sequence, such that
     each  collating element compares less than the elements fol-
     lowing it. The  NUL character compares lower than any  other
     character.

     A <collating-element> is  used  to  specify  multi-character
     collating   elements,   and  indicates  that  the  character
     sequence specified via the <collating-element> is to be col-
     lated  as  a unit and in the relative order specified by its
     place.

     A <collating-symbol> is used to define  a  position  in  the
     relative  order for use in weights. No weights are specified
     with a <collating-symbol>.

     The ellipsis symbol specifies that a sequence of  characters
     will collate according to their encoded character values. It
     is interpreted as indicating  that  all  characters  with  a
     coded character set value higher than the value of the char-
     acter in the preceding line, and lower than the coded  char-
     acter  set value for the character in the following line, in
     the current coded character set, will be placed in the char-
     acter collation order between the previous and the following
     character in ascending order according to their coded  char-
     acter  set  values. An initial ellipsis is interpreted as if
     the preceding line specified the NUL character, and a trail-
     ing  ellipsis as if the following line specified the highest
     coded character set value in  the  current  coded  character
     set.  An  ellipsis is treated as invalid if the preceding or
     following lines do not specify  characters  in  the  current
     coded character set.

     The symbol UNDEFINED is interpreted as including  all  coded
     character  set  values  not  specified explicitly or via the
     ellipsis symbol. Such characters are inserted in the charac-
     ter  collation  order  at the point indicated by the symbol,
     and in ascending order according to  their  coded  character
     set  values.  If  no  UNDEFINED symbol is specified, and the
     current coded character set contains characters  not  speci-
     fied  in this section, the utility will issue a warning mes-
     sage and place such characters at the end of  the  character
     collation order.

     The optional operands for each collation-element are used to
     define the primary, secondary, or subsequent weights for the
     collating element. The first operand specifies the  relative



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     primary  weight,  the  second the relative secondary weight,
     and so on. Two or more collation-elements  can  be  assigned
     the  same  weight; they belong to the same equivalence class
     if they have the same primary weight. Collation  behaves  as
     if,  for  each  weight level, elements subject to IGNORE are
     removed, unless the position collation directive  is  speci-
     fied  for  the corresponding level with the order_start key-
     word. Then each successive  pair  of  elements  is  compared
     according  to  the relative weights for the elements. If the
     two strings compare equal, the process is repeated  for  the
     next weight level, up to the limit {COLL_WEIGHTS_MAX}.

     Weights are expressed as  characters   described  in  Locale
     Definition above, <collating-symbol>s, <collating-element>s,
     an ellipsis, or the special symbol IGNORE. A single  charac-
     ter, a <collating-symbol> or a <collating-element> represent
     the relative position in the character collating sequence of
     the  character or symbol, rather than the character or char-
     acters themselves.  Thus,  rather  than  assigning  absolute
     values  to  weights,  a particular weight is expressed using
     the relative order value assigned  to  a  collating  element
     based on its order in the character collation sequence.

     One-to-many mapping is indicated by specifying two  or  more
     concatenated  characters  or symbolic names. For example, if
     the character <eszet> is given  the  string  "<s><s>"  as  a
     weight,  comparisons  are performed as if all occurrences of
     the character <eszet> are replaced by <s><s> (assuming  that
     <s>  has  the  collating  weight <s>). If it is necessary to
     define <eszet> and <s><s> as an equivalence  class,  then  a
     collating element must be defined for the string ss.

     All characters specified via an ellipsis will by default  be
     assigned  unique  weights,  equal  to  the relative order of
     characters. Characters specified via an explicit or implicit
     UNDEFINED  special  symbol  will  by default be assigned the
     same primary weight (that is, belong to the same equivalence
     class).  An  ellipsis  symbol  as a weight is interpreted to
     mean that each character in the sequence has unique weights,
     equal  to the relative order of their character in the char-
     acter collation sequence. The  use  of  the  ellipsis  as  a
     weight  is  treated  as an error if the collating element is
     neither an ellipsis nor the special symbol UNDEFINED.

     The special keyword IGNORE as a weight indicates  that  when
     strings  are  compared  using the weights at the level where
     IGNORE is specified, the collating element is ignored;  that
     is,  as if the string did not contain the collating element.
     In regular expressions and pattern matching, all  characters
     that  are  subject to IGNORE in their primary weight form an
     equivalence class.




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     An empty operand is interpreted  as  the  collating  element
     itself.

     For example, the order statement:

     <a>  <a>;<a>

     is equal to:

     <a>

     An ellipsis can be used as an operand if the collating  ele-
     ment  was  an  ellipsis,  and is interpreted as the value of
     each character defined by the ellipsis.

     The collation order as defined in this section  defines  the
     interpretation  of  bracket  expressions  in regular expres-
     sions.

     For example:

     order_start                   forward;backward
     UNDEFINED                     IGNORE;IGNORE
     <LOW>
     <space>                       <LOW>;<space>
     ...                           <LOW>;...
    <a>                           <a>;<a>
    <a-acute>                     <a>;<a-acute>
    <a-grave>                     <a>;<a-grave>
    <A>                           <a>;<A>
    <A-acute>                     <a>;<A-acute>
    <A-grave>                     <a>;<A-grave>
    <ch>                          <ch>;<ch>
    <Ch>                          <ch>;<Ch>
    <s>                           <s>;<s>
    <eszet>                       "<s><s>";"<eszet><eszet>"
   order_end


     This example is interpreted as follows:

     1. The UNDEFINED means that all characters not specified  in
        this  definition  (explicitly  or  via  the ellipsis) are
        ignored for collation purposes;  for  regular  expression
        purposes they are ordered first.

     2. All characters between <space> and <a> have the same pri-
        mary  equivalence  class and individual secondary weights
        based on their ordinal encoded values.

     3. All characters based on the upper- or lower-case  charac-
        ter a belong to the same primary equivalence class.



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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



     4. The multi-character collating element <ch> is represented
        by the collating symbol <ch> and belongs to the same pri-
        mary equivalence class as the  multi-character  collating
        element <Ch>.

  order_end keyword
     The collating order  entries  must  be  terminated  with  an
     order_end keyword.

  LC_MONETARY
     The  LC_MONETARY category defines the rules and symbols that
     are  used  to   format  monetary  numeric  information. This
     information is available through the localeconv(3C) function

     The following items are defined  in  this  category  of  the
     locale.  The  item  names are the keywords recognized by the
     localedef(1) utility when defining a locale.  They are  also
     similar  to  the member names of the lconv structure defined
     in <locale.h>. The localeconv  function  returns  {CHAR_MAX}
     for  unspecified integer items and the empty string ("") for
     unspecified or size zero string items.

     In a locale definition file the operands  are  strings.  For
     some  keywords,  the strings can contain only integers. Key-
     words that are not provided, string values set to the  empty
     string  (""),  or  integer  keywords  set to -1, are used to
     indicate that the value is not available in the locale.

     int_curr_symbol
           The international currency symbol. The  operand  is  a
           four-character string, with the first three characters
           containing the alphabetic international currency  sym-
           bol  in  accordance  with  those  specified in the ISO
           4217:1987 standard. The fourth character is the  char-
           acter used to separate the international currency sym-
           bol from the monetary quantity.

     currency_symbol
           The string used as the local currency symbol.

     mon_decimal_point
           The operand is a string containing the symbol that  is
           used  as  the  decimal  delimiter (radix character) in
           monetary formatted quantities. In contexts where stan-
           dards   (such   as  the  ISO  C  standard)  limit  the
           mon_decimal_point to a  single  byte,  the  result  of
           specifying a multi-byte operand is unspecified.

     mon_thousands_sep
           The operand is a string containing the symbol that  is
           used  as  a separator for groups of digits to the left
           of  the  decimal  delimiter  in   formatted   monetary



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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



           quantities.  In  contexts  where  standards  limit the
           mon_thousands_sep to a  single  byte,  the  result  of
           specifying a multi-byte operand is unspecified.

     mon_grouping
           Define the size of each group of digits  in  formatted
           monetary  quantities.  The  operand  is  a sequence of
           integers separated by semicolons. Each integer  speci-
           fies the number of digits in each group, with the ini-
           tial integer defining the size of  the  group  immedi-
           ately preceding the decimal delimiter, and the follow-
           ing integers defining the  preceding  groups.  If  the
           last  integer is not -1, then the size of the previous
           group  (if  any)  will  be  repeatedly  used  for  the
           remainder  of  the  digits. If the last integer is -1,
           then no further grouping will be performed.

           The following is an example of the  interpretation  of
           the  mon_grouping  keyword. Assuming that the value to
           be formatted is 123456789 and the mon_thousands_sep is
           ',  then  the  following  table  shows the result. The
           third column shows the equivalent string in the ISO  C
           standard that would be used by the localeconv function
           to accommodate this grouping.


           _______________________________________________________________
          |    mon_grouping        Formatted Value        ISO C String   |
          | 3;-1                 123456'789            "\3\177"          |
          | 3                    123'456'789           "\3"              |
          | 3;2;-1               1234'56'789           "\3\2\177"        |
          | 3;2                  12'34'56'789          "\3\2"            |
          | -1                   123456789             "\177"            |
          |______________________________________________________________|

           In these examples, the octal value  of  {CHAR_MAX}  is
           177.

     positive_sign
           A string used to indicate a  non-negative-valued  for-
           matted monetary quantity.

     negative_sign
           A string used to indicate a negative-valued  formatted
           monetary quantity.

     int_frac_digits
           An  integer  representing  the  number  of  fractional
           digits  (those  to the right of the decimal delimiter)
           to be written in a formatted monetary  quantity  using
           int_curr_symbol.




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     frac_digits
           An  integer  representing  the  number  of  fractional
           digits  (those  to the right of the decimal delimiter)
           to be written in a formatted monetary  quantity  using
           currency_symbol.

     p_cs_precedes
           An  integer  set  to  1  if  the  currency_symbol   or
           int_curr_symbol  precedes  the  value  for  a monetary
           quantity with a non-negative value, and set  to  0  if
           the symbol succeeds the value.

     p_sep_by_space
           An  integer  set  to  0  if  no  space  separates  the
           currency_symbol  or int_curr_symbol from the value for
           a monetary quantity with a non-negative value, set  to
           1  if a space separates the symbol from the value, and
           set to 2 if a space separates the symbol and the  sign
           string, if adjacent.

     n_cs_precedes
           An  integer  set  to  1  if  the  currency_symbol   or
           int_curr_symbol  precedes  the  value  for  a monetary
           quantity with a negative value, and set to  0  if  the
           symbol succeeds the value.

     n_sep_by_space
           An  integer  set  to  0  if  no  space  separates  the
           currency_symbol  or int_curr_symbol from the value for
           a monetary quantity with a negative value, set to 1 if
           a  space  separates the symbol from the value, and set
           to 2 if a space separates  the  symbol  and  the  sign
           string, if adjacent.

     p_sign_posn
           An integer set to a value indicating  the  positioning
           of  the  positive_sign  for a monetary quantity with a
           non-negative value. The following integer  values  are
           recognized for both p_sign_posn and n_sign_posn:

           0     Parentheses  enclose  the   quantity   and   the
                 currency_symbol or int_curr_symbol.

           1     The sign string precedes the  quantity  and  the
                 currency_symbol or int_curr_symbol.

           2     The sign string succeeds the  quantity  and  the
                 currency_symbol or int_curr_symbol.

           3     The sign string precedes the currency_symbol  or
                 int_curr_symbol.




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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



           4     The sign string succeeds the currency_symbol  or
                 int_curr_symbol.


     n_sign_posn
           An integer set to a value indicating  the  positioning
           of the negative_sign for a negative formatted monetary
           quantity.

     The following table shows the  result  of  various  combina-
     tions:

                                                      p_sep_by_space
                                                 2          1          0
         p_cs_precedes= 1   p_sign_posn= 0    ($1.25)    ($1.25)    ($1.25)
                            p_sign_posn= 1    +$1.25     +$1.25     +$1.25
                            p_sign_posn= 2    $1.25+     $1.25+     $1.25+
                            p_sign_posn= 3    +$1.25     +$1.25     +$1.25
                            p_sign_posn= 4    $+1.25     $+1.25     $+1.25
         p_cs_precedes= 0   p_sign_posn= 0    (1.25 $)   (1.25 $)   (1.25$)
                            p_sign_posn= 1    +1.25 $    +1.25 $    +1.25$
                            p_sign_posn= 2    1.25$ +    1.25 $+    1.25$+
                            p_sign_posn= 3    1.25+ $    1.25 +$    1.25+$
                            p_sign_posn= 4    1.25$ +    1.25 $+    1.25$+


     The monetary formatting definitions  for  the  POSIX  locale
     follow;  the  code listing depicting the localedef(1) input,
     the table representing the same information with  the  addi-
     tion  of  localeconv(3C)  and  nl_langinfo(3C)  formats. All
     values are unspecified in the POSIX locale.

     LC_MONETARY
     # This is the POSIX locale definition for
     # the LC_MONETARY category.
     #

     int_curr_symbol               ""
     currency_symbol               ""
     mon_decimal_point             ""
     mon_thousands_sep             ""
     mon_grouping                  -1
     positive_sign                 ""
     negative_sign                 ""
     int_frac_digits               -1
     p_cs_precedes                 -1
     p_sep_by_space                -1
     n_cs_precedes                 -1
     n_sep_by_space                -1
     p_sign_posn                   -1
     n_sign_posn                   -1




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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



     # END LC_MONETARY

     The entry n/a indicates that the value is not  available  in
     the POSIX locale.

  LC_NUMERIC
     The  LC_NUMERIC category defines the rules and symbols  that
     will  be  used  to  format non-monetary numeric information.
     This information is  available  through  the  localeconv(3C)
     function.

     The following items are defined  in  this  category  of  the
     locale.  The  item  names are the keywords recognized by the
     localedef utility when defining  a  locale.  They  are  also
     similar  to  the member names of the lconv structure defined
     in <locale.h>. The localeconv() function returns  {CHAR_MAX}
     for  unspecified integer items and the empty string ("") for
     unspecified or size zero string items.

     In a locale definition file the operands  are  strings.  For
     some  keywords,  the strings only can contain integers. Key-
     words that are not provided, string values set to the  empty
     string  (""), or integer keywords set to -1, will be used to
     indicate that the value is not available in the locale.  The
     following keywords are recognized:

     decimal_point
           The operand is a string containing the symbol that  is
           used  as  the  decimal  delimiter (radix character) in
           numeric, non-monetary formatted quantities. This  key-
           word  cannot be omitted and cannot be set to the empty
           string.   In  contexts  where  standards   limit   the
           decimal_point to a single byte, the result of specify-
           ing a multi-byte operand is unspecified.

     thousands_sep
           The operand is a string containing the symbol that  is
           used  as  a separator for groups of digits to the left
           of the decimal delimiter in numeric, non-monetary for-
           matted  monetary  quantities.  In contexts where stan-
           dards limit the thousands_sep to a  single  byte,  the
           result  of specifying a multi-byte operand is unspeci-
           fied.

     grouping
           Define the size of each group of digits  in  formatted
           non-monetary quantities.  The operand is a sequence of
           integers separated by semicolons. Each integer  speci-
           fies the number of digits in each group, with the ini-
           tial integer defining the size of  the  group  immedi-
           ately preceding the decimal delimiter, and the follow-
           ing integers defining the  preceding  groups.  If  the



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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



           last  integer is not -1, then the size of the previous
           group  (if  any)  will  be  repeatedly  used  for  the
           remainder  of  the  digits. If the last integer is -1,
           then no further grouping will be performed.  The  non-
           monetary  numeric formatting definitions for the POSIX
           locale  follow;  the  code   listing   depicting   the
           localedef  input,  the  table  representing  the  same
           information with the addition of localeconv values and
           nl_langinfo constants.

     LC_NUMERIC
     # This is the POSIX locale definition for
     # the LC_NUMERIC category.
     #
     decimal_point              "<period>"
     thousands_sep              ""
     grouping                   -1
     #
     END LC_NUMERIC

                     POSIX locale    langinfo     localeconv()    localedef
         Item           Value        Constant        Value          Value
     decimal_point       "."         RADIXCHAR        "."             .
     thousands_sep       n/a          THOUSEP          ""            ""
     grouping            n/a             -             ""            -1


     The entry n/a indicates that the value is not  available  in
     the POSIX locale.

  LC_TIME
     The  LC_TIME category  defines  the  interpretation  of  the
     field  descriptors  supported  by   date(1)  and affects the
     behavior of the  strftime(3C),  wcsftime(3C),  strptime(3C),
     and  nl_langinfo(3C)  functions.  Because the interfaces for
     C-language access  and  locale  definition  differ  signifi-
     cantly,  they  are  described separately. For locale defini-
     tion, the following mandatory keywords are recognized:

     abday Define the abbreviated weekday names, corresponding to
           the  %a  field descriptor (conversion specification in
           the strftime(), wcsftime(), and strptime() functions).
           The  operand  consists  of  seven  semicolon-separated
           strings, each surrounded by double-quotes.  The  first
           string  is the abbreviated name of the day correspond-
           ing to Sunday, the second the abbreviated name of  the
           day corresponding to Monday, and so on.

     day   Define the full weekday names, corresponding to the %A
           field   descriptor.  The  operand  consists  of  seven
           semicolon-separated   strings,  each   surrounded   by
           double-quotes.  The  first  string is the full name of



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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



           the day corresponding to Sunday, the second  the  full
           name of the day corresponding to Monday, and so on.

     abmon Define the abbreviated month names,  corresponding  to
           the  %b  field  descriptor.  The  operand  consists of
           twelve semicolon-separated strings, each surrounded by
           double-quotes.  The  first  string  is the abbreviated
           name of the first month of  the  year  (January),  the
           second  the  abbreviated name of the second month, and
           so on.

     mon   Define the full month names, corresponding to  the  %B
           field  descriptor.  The  operand  consists  of  twelve
           semicolon-separated  strings,   each   surrounded   by
           double-quotes.  The  first  string is the full name of
           the first month of the year (January), the second  the
           full name of the second month, and so on.

     d_t_fmt
           Define the appropriate date and  time  representation,
           corresponding  to the %c field descriptor. The operand
           consists of a string, and can contain any  combination
           of  characters and field descriptors. In addition, the
           string can contain the escape sequences  \\,  \a,  \b,
           \f, \n, \r, \t, \v.

     date_fmt
           Define the appropriate date and  time  representation,
           corresponding  to the %C field descriptor. The operand
           consists of a string, and can contain any  combination
           of  characters and field descriptors. In addition, the
           string can contain the escape sequences  \\,  \a,  \b,
           \f, \n, \r, \t, \v.

     d_fmt Define   the    appropriate    date    representation,
           corresponding  to the %x field descriptor. The operand
           consists of a string, and can contain any  combination
           of  characters and field descriptors. In addition, the
           string can contain the escape sequences  \\,  \a,  \b,
           \f, \n, \r, \t, \v.

     t_fmt Define   the    appropriate    time    representation,
           corresponding  to the %X field descriptor. The operand
           consists of a string, and can contain any  combination
           of  characters and field descriptors. In addition, the
           string can contain the escape sequences  \\,  \a,  \b,
           \f, \n, \r, \t, \v.

     am_pm Define the  appropriate  representation  of  the  ante
           meridiem  and  post meridiem strings, corresponding to
           the %p field descriptor. The operand consists  of  two
           strings,  separated by a semicolon, each surrounded by



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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



           double-quotes. The first string  represents  the  ante
           meridiem  designation,  the last string the post meri-
           diem designation.

     t_fmt_ampm
           Define the appropriate time representation in the  12-
           hour  clock format with am_pm, corresponding to the %r
           field descriptor. The operand consists of a string and
           can  contain  any  combination of characters and field
           descriptors. If the string is empty, the 12-hour  for-
           mat is not supported in the locale.

     era   Define how years are counted and  displayed  for  each
           era  in  a  locale. The operand consists of semicolon-
           separated strings. Each string is an  era  description
           segment with the format:

           direction:offset:start_date:end_date:era_name:era_format

           according  to  the definitions below.  There can be as
           many era description  segments  as  are  necessary  to
           describe the different eras.

           The start of an era might not be  the  earliest  point
           For  example, the Christian era B.C. starts on the day
           before January 1, A.D. 1, and increases  with  earlier
           time.

           direction
                 Either a + or a -  character.  The  +  character
                 indicates  that  years closer to the  start_date
                 have lower numbers  than  those  closer  to  the
                 end_date.  The  - character indicates that years
                 closer to the  start_date  have  higher  numbers
                 than those closer to the end_date.

           offset
                 The number of the year closest to the start_date
                 in  the  era,  corresponding  to the %Eg and %Ey
                 field descriptors.

           start_date
                 A date in the form yyyy/mm/dd, where  yyyy,  mm,
                 and  dd  are  the  year,  month  and day numbers
                 respectively of the  start  of  the  era.  Years
                 prior  to  A.D.  1  are  represented as negative
                 numbers.

           end_date
                 The ending date of the era, in the  same  format
                 as  the  start_date,  or  one of the two special
                 values -* or +*. The value -* indicates that the



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Standards, Environments, and Macros                     locale(5)



                 ending  date is the beginning of time. The value
                 +* indicates that the ending date is the end  of
                 time.

           era_name
                 A string  representing  the  name  of  the  era,
                 corresponding to the %EC field descriptor.

           era_format
                 A string for formatting the  year  in  the  era,
                 corresponding  to the %EG and %EY field descrip-
                 tors.


     era_d_fmt
           Define the format of the date in alternative era nota-
           tion, corresponding to the %Ex field descriptor.

     era_t_fmt
           Define the locale's appropriate alternative time  for-
           mat, corresponding to the %EX field descriptor.

     era_d_t_fmt
           Define the locale's appropriate alternative  date  and
           time  format,  corresponding to the %Ec field descrip-
           tor.

     alt_digits
           Define alternative symbols for  digits,  corresponding
           to  the %O field descriptor modifier. The operand con-
           sists of semicolon-separated strings, each  surrounded
           by  double-quotes. The first string is the alternative
           symbol corresponding with zero, the second string  the
           symbol  corresponding  with  one, and so on. Up to 100
           alternative symbol strings can be  specified.  The  %O
           modifier  indicates  that  the string corresponding to
           the value specified by means of the  field  descriptor
           will be used instead of the value.

  LC_TIME C-language Access
     The following information can be accessed. These  correspond
     to  constants  defined in <langinfo.h> and used as arguments
     to the nl_langinfo(3C) function.

     ABDAY_x
           The abbreviated weekday names (for example Sun), where
           x is a number from 1 to 7.

     DAY_x The full weekday names (for example Sunday),  where  x
           is a number from 1 to 7.

     ABMON_x



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           The abbreviated month names (for example Jan), where x
           is a number from 1 to 12.

     MON_x The full month names (for example January), where x is
           a number from 1 to 12.

     D_T_FMT
           The appropriate date and time representation.

     D_FMT The appropriate date representation.

     T_FMT The appropriate time representation.

     AM_STR
           The appropriate ante-meridiem affix.

     PM_STR
           The appropriate post-meridiem affix.

     T_FMT_AMPM
           The appropriate time  representation  in  the  12-hour
           clock format with  AM_STR and  PM_STR.

     ERA   The era description segments, which describe how years
           are  counted  and  displayed for each era in a locale.
           Each era description segment has the format:


     direction:offset:start_date:end_date:era_name:era_format

     according to the definitions below. There will  be  as  many
     era  description  segments  as are necessary to describe the
     different eras. Era description segments  are  separated  by
     semicolons.

          The start of an era might not be the earliest point For
          example,  the  Christian  era  B.C.  starts  on the day
          before January 1, A.D. 1, and  increases  with  earlier
          time.

          direction
                Either a + or a  -  character.  The  +  character
                indicates  that  years  closer to the  start_date
                have lower  numbers  than  those  closer  to  the
                end_date.  The  -  character indicates that years
                closer to the  start_date   have  higher  numbers
                than those closer to the end_date.

          offset
                The number of the year closest to the  start_date
                in the era.




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          start_date
                A date in the form yyyy/mm/dd,  where  yyyy,  mm,
                and  dd  are  the  year,  month  and  day numbers
                respectively of the start of the era. Years prior
                to AD 1 are represented as negative numbers.

          end_date
                The ending date of the era, in the same format as
                the  start_date, or one of the two special values
                -* or +*. The value -* indicates that the  ending
                date is the beginning of time. The value +* indi-
                cates that the ending date is the end of time.

          era_name
                The era,  corresponding  to  the  %EC  conversion
                specification.

          era_format
                The format of the year in the era,  corresponding
                to the %EY and %EY conversion specifications.


     ERA_D_FMT
           The era date format.

     ERA_T_FMT
           The  locale's  appropriate  alternative  time  format,
           corresponding to the %EX field descriptor.

     ERA_D_T_FMT
           The locale's appropriate  alternative  date  and  time
           format, corresponding to the %Ec field descriptor.

     ALT_DIGITS
           The alternative symbols for digits,  corresponding  to
           the  %O  conversion  specification modifier. The value
           consists of semicolon-separated symbols. The first  is
           the  alternative  symbol  corresponding  to  zero, the
           second is the symbol corresponding to one, and so  on.
           Up  to  100  alternative symbols may be specified. The
           following table displays  the  correspondence  between
           the  items  described above and the conversion specif-
           iers  used   by    date(1)   and   the   strftime(3C),
           wcsftime(3C), and strptime(3C) functions.











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           _______________________________________________________________
          |     localedef      |      langinfo      |      Conversion    |
          | Keyword            | Constant           |      Specifier     |
          | abday              | ABDAY_x            |          %a        |
          | day                | DAY_x              |          %A        |
          | abmon              | ABMON_x            |          %b        |
          | mon                | MON                |          %B        |
          | d_t_fmt            | D_T_FMT            |          %c        |
          | date_fmt           | DATE_FMT           |          %C        |
          | d_fmt              | D_FMT              |          %x        |
          | t_fmt              | T_FMT              |          %X        |
          | am_pm              | AM_STR             |          %p        |
          | am_pm              | PM_STR             |          %p        |
          | t_fmt_ampm         | T_FMT_AMPM         |          %r        |
          | era                | ERA                |      %EC, %Eg,     |
          |                    |                    |     %EG, %Ey, %EY  |
          | era_d_fmt          | ERA_D_FMT          |         %Ex        |
          | era_t_fmt          | ERA_T_FMT          |         %EX        |
          | era_d_t_fmt        | ERA_D_T_FMT        |         %Ec        |
          | alt_digits         | ALT_DIGITS         |          %O        |
          |____________________|____________________|____________________|


  LC_TIME General Information
     Although certain of  the  field  descriptors  in  the  POSIX
     locale  (such  as the name of the month) are shown with ini-
     tial capital letters, this need not be  the  case  in  other
     locales.  Programs using these fields may need to adjust the
     capitalization if the output is going  to  be  used  at  the
     beginning of a sentence.

     The  LC_TIME descriptions of  abday,  day,  mon,  and  abmon
     imply  a  Gregorian  style  calendar  (7-day weeks, 12-month
     years, leap years, and so forth).  Formatting  time  strings
     for  other  types  of calendars is outside the scope of this
     document set.

     As  specified  under   date   in   Locale   Definition   and
     strftime(3C),  the  field  descriptors  corresponding to the
     optional keywords consist of a modifier followed by a tradi-
     tional  field descriptor (for instance %Ex). If the optional
     keywords are not supported  by  the  implementation  or  are
     unspecified  for the current locale, these field descriptors
     are  treated  as  the  traditional  field  descriptor.   For
     instance, assume the following keywords:

     alt_digits         "0th";"1st";"2nd";"3rd";"4th";"5th";\

                        "6th";"7th";"8th";"9th";"10th"

     d_fmt              "The %Od day of %B in %Y"




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     On 7/4/1776, the %x field descriptor would  result  in  "The
     4th  day  of July in 1776" while 7/14/1789 would come out as
     "The 14 day of July in 1789" It can be noted that the  above
     example  is  for illustrative purposes only; the %O modifier
     is primarily intended to provide for Kanji or  Hindi  digits
     in date formats.

  LC_MESSAGES
     The  LC_MESSAGES category defines the format and values  for
     affirmative and negative responses.

     The following keywords are recognized as part of the  locale
     definition   file.   The  nl_langinfo(3C)  function  accepts
     upper-case versions of the first four keywords.

     yesexpr
           The operand consists of an extended regular expression
           (see  regex(5)) that describes the acceptable affirma-
           tive response to a question expecting  an  affirmative
           or negative response.

     noexpr
           The operand consists of an extended regular expression
           that  describes  the acceptable negative response to a
           question  expecting   an   affirmative   or   negative
           response.

     yesstr
           The operand consists of a fixed string (not a  regular
           expression)  that  can  be  used by an application for
           composition of a  message  that  lists  an  acceptable
           affirmative response, such as in a prompt.

     nostr The operand consists of a fixed  string  that  can  be
           used  by  an  application for composition of a message
           that lists an acceptable negative response. The format
           and  values  for affirmative and negative responses of
           the POSIX locale follow; the  code  listing  depicting
           the  localedef  input, the table representing the same
           information with the addition  of  nl_langinfo()  con-
           stants.

     LC_MESSAGES
     # This is the POSIX locale definition for
     # the LC_MESSAGES category.
     #
     yesexpr "<circumflex><left-square-bracket><y><Y><right-square-bracket>"
     #
     noexpr  "<circumflex><left-square-bracket><n><N><right-square-bracket>"
     #
     yesstr             "yes"
     nostr              "no"



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     END LC_MESSAGES

     _______________________________________________________________
    | localedef Keyword  |  langinfo Constant |  POSIX Locale Value|
    | yesexpr            | YESEXPR            |  "^[yY]"           |
    | noexpr             | NOEXPR             |  "^[nN]"           |
    | yesstr             | YESSTR             |  "yes"             |
    | nostr              | NOSTR              |  "no"              |
    |____________________|____________________|____________________|


SEE ALSO
     date(1), locale(1), localedef(1), sort(1),  tr(1),  uniq(1),
     localeconv(3C), nl_langinfo(3C), setlocale(3C), strcoll(3C),
     strftime(3C),   strptime(3C),   strxfrm(3C),    wcscoll(3C),
     wcsftime(3C),  wcsxfrm(3C), wctype(3C), attributes(5), char-
     map(5), extensions(5), regex(5)






































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