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live_upgrade(5)       Standards, Environments, and Macros      live_upgrade(5)

       live_upgrade - overview of Live Upgrade feature

       The  Live  Upgrade feature of the Solaris operating environment enables
       you to maintain multiple operating system images on a single system. An
       image--called  a boot environment, or BE--represents a set of operating
       system and application software packages. The BEs might contain differ-
       ent operating system and/or application versions.

       On  a  system  with  the  Solaris Live Upgrade software, your currently
       booted OS environment is referred to as your active, or current BE. You
       have  one  active, or current BE; all others are inactive. You can per-
       form any number of modifications to inactive BEs on  the  same  system,
       then  boot  from  one of those BEs. If there is a failure or some unde-
       sired behavior in the newly booted BE, Live Upgrade software  makes  it
       easy for you to fall back to the previously running BE.

       Live  Upgrade  software includes a full suite of commands, listed below
       and described in individual man pages, which implement all of the  Live
       Upgrade  features and functions. The software also includes a Forms and
       Menu Language  Interpreter-based  user  interface  named  lu(1M).  (See
       fmli(1)  for a description of the Forms and Menu Language Interpreter.)
       The FMLI interface implements  a  subset  of  Live  Upgrade  functions.
       Unlike  the  command-line interfaces, output from the FMLI interface is
       not internationalizable.

       The following are some of the tasks you can perform with  Live  Upgrade

         o  You can make one or more copies of the currently running system.

         o  You  can upgrade to a new OS version on a second boot environment,
            then boot from that environment. If you choose, you can then  fall
            back  to  your  original boot environment or boot from yet another

         o  You can install application or OS packages to a boot  environment,
            then boot from that environment.

         o  You  can  install OS patches to a boot environment, then boot from
            that environment.

         o  From a flash archive, you can install an OS to a boot environment,
            then  boot  from that environment. See flar(1M) for information on
            administering flash archives.

         o  You can split and rejoin file systems in a new  BE.  For  example,
            you  can  separate  /usr,  /var,  and /opt from /, putting them on
            their own partitions. Conversely, you could join these  file  sys-
            tems on a single partition under /.

         o  You  can  mount  any or all of the filesystems of a BE that is not
            active, compare the files in any pair of BEs, delete or  rename  a
            BE, and perform other administrative tasks.

       The  Live  Upgrade  software  supports  upgrade  from any valid Solaris
       installation medium, including a CD-ROM, an NFS or UFS directory, or  a
       flash archive. (See flash_archive(4) for a description of the flash ar-
       chive feature.)

       In simplest terms, a BE, for Live Upgrade, consists of the  disk  slice
       containing a root file system and the file system/device (usually disk)
       slice entries specified in vfstab(4). This set of slices is not limited
       to a single disk. This means that you can have multiple BEs on a single
       device, or have a BE spread across slices on multiple devices.

       The minimal requirement for a Live Upgrade BE is the same  as  for  any
       Solaris  boot  environment:  you must have root (/) and usr filesystems
       (which might both reside on /). All filesystems  except  for  /,  /usr,
       /var, and /opt can be shared among multiple BEs, if you choose.

       Each  BE  must  have a unique copy of the file systems that contain the
       OS--/, /usr, /var, and /opt.  For  Live  Upgrade  purposes,  these  are
       referred  to  as non-shareable (sometimes referred to as critical) file
       systems. With other file systems, such as /export or  /home,  you  have
       the  option  of  copying the files to a new BE or, the default, sharing
       them among BEs. These are referred to as shareable file systems.  A  BE
       is  made  up of a unique copy of one or more non-shareable file systems
       and zero or more copies of shareable file systems.

       Live Upgrade commands support an option (-X) that enables  XML  output.
       Characteristics  of  the  XML  are  specified in a DTD shipped with the
       product. XML output enables programmatic parsing  of  portions  of  the
       command output.

       Live  Upgrade  supports  the  notion  of  a BE description, an optional
       attribute of a BE. A BE description can be of any length and format. It
       might be a text string or a binary file. See ludesc(1M) for details.

       Below  is  an  example set of steps that you might follow in the use of
       Live Upgrade software. These steps specify the use of  commands  rather
       than lu(1M), the FMLI interface. Many Live Upgrade functions are acces-
       sible through lu. Except where lu does  not  support  a  function,  the
       choice  between  lu  and  Live  Upgrade  commands  is  a matter of your
       requirements and preferences. The following  example  is  by  no  means
       exhaustive  of  the  possibilities of the use of the Live Upgrade soft-

       1.  You create a new BE, using lucreate(1M). The first time you  create
           a  BE  on  a  given  system, you must designate the current Solaris
           operating environment as a BE (give it a name). You then specify  a
           name  and a set of device (disk) slices you want to use for the new
           BE. The lucreate command copies the contents of the current Solaris
           operating environment (now a BE) to the new BE.

           After  you have created additional BEs, you can use a BE other than
           the current BE as the source for a new BE. Also, you can create  an
           empty BE onto which you can later install a flash archive.

       2.  Using  luupgrade(1M), you upgrade the OS version on your new BE (or
           on yet another BE you created with lucreate). The luupgrade enables
           you  to  upgrade an OS (from any valid Solaris installation medium,
           including a flash archive), add or remove packages (OS or  applica-
           tion), and add or remove patches.

       3.  You  use  luactivate(1M) to make the new BE bootable. The next time
           you reboot your system, you will come up in the new BE.

       4.  Using lucompare(1M), you compare the system files on two  different
           BEs.  This utility gives you a comprehensive list of the files that
           have differences.

       5.  Using lumount(1M), you mount the filesystems of a BE  that  is  not
           active,  enabling  you  to make changes. When you are finished with
           the changes, use luumount(1M) to unmount the BE's file systems.

       6.  Upon booting a new BE, you discover a failure or some  other  unde-
           sirable  behavior. Using the procedure specified in luactivate, you
           can fall back to the previous BE.

       7.  Using ludelete then lucreate, you reassign file systems on the now-
           deleted  BE  to  different  disk slices. You separate /opt and /var
           from / on the new BE. Also, you specify that swap  be  spread  over
           slices on multiple disks.

       The  following  is  a  summary  of  Live Upgrade commands. All commands
       require root privileges.


           FMLI-based interface for creating and administering BEs.


           Designate a BE as the BE to boot from upon the next reboot  of  the


           Cancel a previously scheduled operation.


           Compare the contents of two BEs.


           Create a BE.


           Display the name of the current BE.


           Delete a BE.


           Add or change BE descriptions.


           List the file systems on a specified BE.


           Re-create a BE based on the active BE.

       lumount, luumount

           Mount, unmount file systems of a specified BE.


           Rename a BE.


           For  all  BEs on a system, report on whether a BE is active, active
           upon the next reboot, in the midst of a copy operation, and whether
           a copy operation is scheduled for it.


           Upgrade  an OS and install application software on a BE. Such soft-
           ware includes flash archives, complete  OS  installations,  OS  and
           application packages, and OS patches.


           list of BEs on the system

       lu(1M),   luactivate(1M),  lucancel(1M),  lucompare(1M),  lucreate(1M),
       lucurr(1M),   ludelete(1M),   ludesc(1M),   lufslist(1M),   lumake(1M),
       lumount(1M), lurename(1M), lustatus(1M), luupgrade(1M), lutab(4)

       Correct  operation  of Solaris Live Upgrade requires that a limited set
       of patch revisions  be  installed  for  a  given  OS  version.   Before
       installing  or  running  Live  Upgrade, you are required to install the
       limited set of patch revisions. Make sure you have  the  most  recently
       updated  patch  list by consulting http://sunsolve.sun.com.  Search for
       the infodoc 72099 on the SunSolve web site.

       It is possible for an operating  system  upgrade  to  remove  installed
       patches. Prior to such an upgrade, use analyze_patches, as described in
       luupgrade(1M), to determine which, if any, patches will be removed.

       Live Upgrade supports the release it is distributed on and up to  three
       marketing releases back. For example, if you obtained Live Upgrade with
       Solaris 9 (including a Solaris 9 upgrade), that version of Live Upgrade
       supports Solaris versions 2.6, Solaris 7, and Solaris 8, in addition to
       Solaris 9.  No version of Live Upgrade supports a Solaris version prior
       to Solaris 2.6.

SunOS 5.10                        14 Apr 2004                  live_upgrade(5)