Japanese, japanese - Introduction to Japanese language support
There are two national standards that specify the Japanese character sets
used for information interchange. The JIS X0201 standard specifies a
single-byte character set that consists of Roman letters and Katakana char-
acters. The JIS X0208 standard specifies a primary set of Japanese ideo-
graphic characters. The operating system supports both standards with
coded character sets (codesets), locales, device, and other kinds of system
There are several codesets available to support Japanese. The following
list describes both the codesets and the strings that represent the
codesets in the names of locales, codeset converters, or both:
DEC Kanji, deckanji
See deckanji(5) for more information about the DEC Kanji codeset.
ESC/P Kanji, escp
This codeset, which is similar to ISO 2022-JP, is handled by conversion
to Tru64 UNIX Japanese codesets.
Fujitsu JEF, JEF
This Fujitsu codeset is handled by conversion to Tru64 UNIX Japanese
codesets. See iconv_JEF(5) for more information.
Hitachi KEIS, KEIS
This Hitachi codeset is handled by conversion to Tru64 UNIX Japanese
codesets. See iconv_KEIS(5) for more information.
IBM Kanji System, ibmkanji
This IBM mainframe codeset is handled by conversion to Tru64 UNIX
Japanese codesets. See iconv_ibmkanji(5) for more information.
Japanese EUC (Extended UNIX Code), eucJP
See eucJP(5) for more information about the Japanese EUC codeset.
Super DEC Kanji, sdeckanji
See sdeckanji(5) for more information about the Super DEC Kanji
Shift JIS, SJIS
The Shift JIS encoding format is identical to the Microsoft code-page
(cp932) format used on PC systems. Therefore, you can use codeset con-
verters whose names contain SJIS to convert data to and from cp932 for-
See shiftjis(5) for more information about the Shift JIS codeset.
JIS KANJI (JIS7 or JIS8)
JIS KANJI characters can be either JIS7 (representing characters in 7-
bit bytes) or JIS8 (representing characters in 8-bit bytes). Depending
on the kana input value, the string that represents the JIS7 codeset in
a codeset converter name is either jis7, JIS7, or jiskanji7.
JIS KANJI codesets are supported only for conversion operations as
indicated by the following table. These codesets are not supported by
locales or for direct input and output.
Codeset Codeset Conversion Terminal Code Conversion
jis7 Y Y
jiskanji7 Y N
jis8 N Y
See jiskanji(5) for more information about JIS KANJI codesets, stty(1)
for information about terminal code conversion, and iconv_intro(5) for
information about codeset conversion.
ISO 2022-JP, iso2022JP
The ISO 2022-JP codeset is supported only for codeset conversion. It is
not supported by locales, for terminal code conversion, or for direct
input and output.
See ISO-2022-JP(5) for more information about the ISO 2022-JP codeset.
Extended ISO 2022-JP, iso2022JPext
The ISO 2022-JPext codeset (which is an extended version of ISO 2022-
JP) is supported only for codeset conversion. It is not supported by
locales, for terminal code conversion, or for direct input and output.
See ISO-2022-JP(5) for more information about the Extended ISO 2022-JP
UCS formats: UCS-2, UCS-4, and ucs4
These encoding formats are supported only through locales or codeset
converters, not for terminal code conversion or for direct input and
See Unicode(5) for more information about UCS formats.
See Unicode(5) for more information about UTF-8.
The following list specifies Japanese locales for Japan and the codesets
ja_JP.deckanji, for DEC Kanji
ja_JP.eucJP, for Japanese EUC
ja_JP.sdeckanji, for Super DEC Kanji
ja_JP.SJIS, for Shift JIS
ja_JP.UTF-8, for UTF-8
The ja_JP.deckanji@ucs4 and ja_JP.SJIS@ucs4 locale variants exist for
applications that need to convert file data in deckanji and SJIS format to
UCS-4 process code to perform certain character-classification operations.
The ja_JP.UTF-8 locale also uses UCS-4 format for process code, but
supports file code that conforms to the Unicode and ISO 10646 standards.
You can use the locale command (see locale(1)) to display the names of
locales installed on your system. See i18n_intro(5) for information on set-
ting locale from the operating system command line.
In the Common Desktop Environment (CDE), you also need to set the session
language. To do this, use the Language menu that is accessed from the
Options button of the Login window.
Japanese-Specific Character Properties
The Japanese locales (including the @ucs4 variants) define the following
properties (or classes) for characters:
ascii Characters for which the isascii() function returns a nonzero
english English-language characters as defined by the System V Multi-
National Language Specification (MNLS)
gaiji User-defined and vendor-defined characters (UDCs and VDCs)
Ideographic characters as defined by the System V Multi-National
Language Specification (MNLS)
jdigit Digit characters as defined by JIS X0208
Katakana characters and the voiced, semivoiced, and prolonged sound
marks as defined by JIS X0201
jhira Hiragana characters as defined by JIS X0208
All printable characters as defined by JIS X0201
All printable, right-hand side characters as defined by JIS X0201
All printable characters as defined by JIS X0208
All printable characters as defined by JIS X012
jkanji Kanji characters as defined by JIS X0208 and JIS X0212, the Kanji
iteration mark as defined in JIS X 0208, and the Han-numeral zero
as defined by JIS X0208
jkata Katakana characters as defined by JIS X0201 and JIS X0208; the
voiced, semivoiced, and prolonged sound marks as defined by JIS
X0208 and JIS X0201; the Katakana iteration marks as defined by JIS
jparen Kana bracket characters as defined by JIS X0201 and the parentheses
characters as defined by JIS X0208
jspace The space character as defined by JIS X0208
line Line-drawing characters as defined by JIS X0208
number Numbers as defined by the System V Multi-National Language Specifi-
paren Parentheses and other paired symbols as defined by JIS X0201 and
Phonograms as defined by the System V Multi-National Language
special Special characters as defined by the System V Multi-National
Language Specification (MNLS)
udc User-defined characters
vdc Vendor-defined characters
These properties supplement the ones specified by the XSH standard. Refer
to locale(4), wctype(3), and iswctype(3) for general information about how
characters are assigned properties in locales and how applications test
characters for supplemental properties.
Keyboards, Servers, and Input Methods
The operating system supports the following Japanese keyboards:
A Japanese version of the LK201 keyboard.
A Japanese version of the LK401 keyboard.
A Japanese version of the LK401 keyboard. This model provides JIS lay-
out and special keys for Japanese input methods.
A Japanese version of the LK401 keyboard. This model provides ANSI
layout and special keys for Japanese input methods.
A Japanese version of the LK421 keyboard. This model does not have
special keys for Japanese input methods.
A Japanese version of the LK421 keyboard. This model provides UNIX
layout and special keys for Japanese input methods.
A Japanese version of the LK97W keyboard. This model has special keys
for Japanese input methods.
A Japanese version of the PC keyboard. This model has special keys for
Japanese input methods.
For the Motif environment, the operating system provides the dxjim input
server to support Japanese input methods. For a CDE session, this input
server is started automatically if your session language is set to Japanese
at login time. Refer to the dxjim(1X) reference page for more information
about this input server and how to start it from the command line.
There are two main mechanisms for entering Japanese characters:
+ Kana input, for entering Kana characters
The Kana input mechanism is provided by the firmware of Japanese video
terminals (see the Japanese Terminals section).
+ Input methods, for entering two-byte Kanji characters, Kana charac-
ters, letters, and symbols defined in JIS X0208. Input methods allow
characters to be entered and converted to other characters. The four
input methods are as follows:
JIS Ku-ten Code
In the Motif environment, you must load a Japanese key mapping table (key-
map) that is appropriate for your keyboard. See keyboard(5) for information
on loading a keymap.
All the Japanese keyboards and keymaps support locking-shift mode switch-
ing. In other words, you can enter English characters in the Mode Switch
Off state and Kana characters in the Mode Switch On state. The keys used to
toggle the input mode differ according to whether you are using a Japanese
VT terminal or, in the Motif environment, the keymap that has been loaded.
+ For Japanese VT terminals, press the Compose key
+ In the Motif environment:
-- For LK201-J* keymaps, hold down the Compose key and press the
-- For other Japanese keymaps, press the Compose, or Comp, key if
there is one. Otherwise, press the right Ctrl key.
These keys are defaults and can be changed by the user.
The operating system supports the VT282-J, VT382-J, and VT383-J terminals
Running Motif Applications
X or Motif applications require non-ASCII fonts to display Japanese charac-
ters. This means that the font path must be set appropriately before start-
ing an application that displays Japanese characters. An application can
find Japanese fonts in either of the following directories:
+ /usr/i18n/lib/X11/fonts/decwin/75dpi, for low resolution display
+ /usr/i18n/lib/X11/fonts/decwin/100dpi, for high resolution display
For applications running under CDE, Japanese screen fonts are found as long
as they are installed on the system or made available through a remote font
server. In other environments, you may need to use the following command to
check the font path before running a Japanese application:
% xset q
If one of the directories in the preceding list is not in the font path,
the following example shows how to add the directory. You can substitute
100dp for 75dpi if you want high resolution display.
% xset +fp /usr/i18n/lib/X11/decwin/75dpi/
% xset fp rehash
The operating system supports the following Japanese printers. The associ-
ated print filter is noted in parentheses following the printer name.
+ Japanese dot-matrix printers
+ Japanese graphic line printers
+ Japanese laser printers
+ Japanese PostScript printers
PostScript fonts for Japanese printers are printer resident. To print
Japanese text on generic PostScript printers, you can customize a print
filter to convert Japanese bitmap fonts to PostScript font encoding. Refer
to wwpsof(8) for more information.
See i18n_printing(5) for a general discussion of printer support options.
Commands: asort(1), locale(1), lp(1), lpr(1), dxjim(1X), xset(1X), lpd(8),
Others: code_page(5), deckanji(5), eucJP(5), i18n_intro(5),
i18n_printing(5), iconv_ibmkanji(5), iconv_intro(5), iconv_JEF(5),
iconv_KEIS(5), iso2022jp(5), jiskanji(5), keyboard(5), l10n_intro(5),
sdeckanji(5), shiftjis(5), Unicode(5)