unixdev.net


Switch to SpeakEasy.net DSL

The Modular Manual Browser

Home Page
Manual: (OSF1-V5.1-alpha)
Page:
Section:
Apropos / Subsearch:
optional field



hier(5)								      hier(5)



NAME

  hier - Standard file system hierarchy

DESCRIPTION

  A Tru64 UNIX operating system	has a standard file system hierarchy.  So
  does the X11 Window System. The operating system has a unique	root direc-
  tory,	the identity of	which is compiled into the operating system kernel
  and is activated when	the operating system is	bootstrapped. The X11 Window
  System is a file system within the operating system hierarchy.

  The root file	system is the file system that contains	the root directory.
  Although the default root file system	is compiled into the kernel, you can
  use other file systems as the	root after the system is bootstrapped. For
  example, you could use the mount command to mount a file system on the root
  directory mount point, making	that file system the root file system until
  the machine is bootstrapped again.

  The standard file system hierarchy for Tru64 UNIX systems allows both	the
  components of	the system and developers of products for it to	install	and
  run their software in	a consistent environment. For example, third-party
  software developers can place	their products within the standard directory
  structure (in	the /opt, /usr/opt, and	/var/opt directories), and can then
  expect their products	will install successfully on systems that have main-
  tained the standard hierarchy.

  The three components to the standard file system hierarchy for Tru64 UNIX
  systems are the directory hierarchy for the operating	system,	the X11	Win-
  dow System, and Context Dependent Symbolic Links (CDSLs). The	following
  sections show	these components.

  Developers of	products for Tru64 UNIX	should use the structures shown	in
  order	to ensure their	products can be	installed on, and are portable to,
  other	Tru64 UNIX systems.

  Administrators of Tru64 UNIX systems should preserve the CDSLs for the sys-
  tem because the CDSLs	must be	intact to perform update installations of
  Tru64	UNIX systems or	incorporate the	system into a clustered	environment.
  See symlink(2) for more information about symbolic links and CDSLs.

  The following	table shows the	standard base system hierarchy.

  __________________________________________________________________________
  Base System Hierarchy	  Description of Directory or File
  __________________________________________________________________________
  /

			  The root directory for the root file system of the
			  operating system
  /cluster/

			  Directory for	a cluster of which this	system could
			  be a member
    members/

			  Root directory for cluster member0, this system,
			  whether or not it is in a cluster
  /dev/			  Block	and character device special files
  /devices/		  Directory for	device special files (new method)
  /etc/

			  System configuration files and databases; nonexe-
			  cutable files
    nls/		  National language support databases
  /lost+found/		  Files	located	by fsck

  /opt/

			  Optional for layered products, such as applica-
			  tions	and device drivers
  /sbin/

			  Commands essential to	boot the system	(most of
			  these	commands depend	on shared libraries or the
			  loader and have other	versions in /usr/bin or
			  /usr/sbin)
    init.d/		  System state rc files
    rc0.d/		  The rc files executed	for system-state 0
    rc2.d/		  The rc files executed	for system-state 2
    rc3.d/		  The rc files executed	for system-state 3
  /subsys/

			  Dynamically configured kernel	modules	required in
			  single-user mode
  /sys/

			  Links	to those files in /usr/sys/ that are
			  source-code based
    BINARY/		  System executable modules (.mod files	)
  /tmp/

			  System-generated temporary files, usually not
			  preserved across a system reboot
  /usr/			  Most user utilities and applications
    bin/		  Common utilities and applications
    ccs/

			  C compilation	system;	tools and libraries used to
			  generate C programs
      bin/

			  Development binaries such as cc, ld, and make
      lib/		  Development libraries	and back ends
    cluster/		  Directories for cluster members
    include/

			  Program header (include) files; not all subdirec-
			  tories are listed in this appendix
      mach/		  Mach-specific	C include files
      machine/		  Machine-specific C include files
      net/		  Miscellaneous	network	C include files
      netinet/		  C include files for Internet standard	protocols
      netns/		  C include files for XNS standard protocols
      nfs/		  C include files for Network File System
      protocols/	  C include files for Berkeley service protocols
      rpc/		  C include files for remote procedure calls
      servers/		  C include files for servers
      sys/		  System C include files (kernel data structures)
      tli/		  C include files for Transport	Layer Interface
      ufs/		  C include files for UNIX File	System
    examples/		  Subdirectories of programming	examples
    lbin/		  Back-end executable files
      spell/		  Spell	back-end
      uucp/		  UNIX-to-UNIX Copy (UUCP) programs
    lib/

			  Links	to libraries located elsewhere
			  (/usr/ccs/lib), (/usr/libin),	(/usr/share/lib),
			  (/X11/lib); included for compatibility
    opt/

			  Optional layered products, such as applications
			  and device drivers
    sbin/

			  System administration	utilities and system utili-
			  ties
    share/		  Architecture-independent ASCII text files
      dict/		  Word lists
      lib/		  Various libraries
	me/

			  Macros for use with the me macro package
	ms/

			  Macros for use with the ms macro package
	tabset/

			  Tab description files	for a variety of terminals;
			  used in /etc/termcap
	terminfo/	  Terminal information database
	tmac/		  Text-processing macros
      man/		  Online reference pages
	man1/		  Source for user command reference pages
	man2/		  Source for system call reference pages
	man3/		  Source for library routine reference pages
	man4/		  Source for file format reference pages
	man5/		  Source for miscellaneous reference pages
	man7/		  Source for device reference pages
	man8/		  Source for administrator command reference pages
	cat1-cat8

			  Formatted versions of	files in man1 -	man8
    shlib/

			  Binary-loadable shared libraries; shared versions
			  of libraries in /usr/ccs/lib
    sys/		  System configuration files
      BINARY

			  Object files and links to the	.mod files in
			  /sys/BINARY/
      conf/		  Kernel configuration control files
      include/		  Header files
  /var/

			  Multipurpose log, temporary, varying,	and spool
			  files. [An alternate location	for this directory
			  is /usr/var.]
    cluster/		  Directory for	cluster	members
    adm/		  Common administrative	files and databases
      crash/		  For saving kernel crash dumps
      cron/		  Files	used by	cron
      sendmail/

			  Configuration	and database files for sendmail
      syslog/		  Files	generated by syslog
    opt/

			  Optional layered products, such as applications
			  and device drivers
    run/		  Files	created	when daemons are running
    spool/

			  Miscellaneous	printer	and mail-system	spooling
			  directories
      lpd/		  Line printer spooling	directories
      mail/		  Incoming mail	messages
      mqueue/		  Undelivered mail queue
      uucp/		  UUCP spool directory
    subsys/		  Loadable kernel modules required in multiuser	mode
    tmp/

			  Application-generated	temporary files	that are
			  kept between system reboots
  /vmunix

			  Pure kernel executable (the operating	system
			  loaded into memory at	boot time)
  __________________________________________________________________________

  The following	table shows the	standard X11 window system hierarchy.

  ___________________________________________________________________________
			   Description of Directory or File

  X11 Window System
  Hierarchy
  ___________________________________________________________________________
  /usr/			   Most	user utilities and applications
    bin/		   Common utilities and	applications
      X11/		   X applications
	demos/		   Miscellaneous demo programs
    examples/		   Example programs
      dxpaint/		   Sample Paint	image
      motif/		   Motif example programs
    include/		   Header files
      DPS/		   Files for DPS
      DXm/		   Files for libDXm
      Mrm/		   Files for libMrm
      uil/		   UIL header files
      X11/		   X C header files
	bitmaps/	   X bitmaps
			   Header files	for use	with X extensions

	extensions/
	Xaw/		   Files for libXaw
	Xserver/	   Header files	used for loadable X server libraries
      Xm/		   Header files	for libXm
    lib/		   Static archive X libraries
      cda/		   CDA style guides
      emacs/		   Emacs directory base
      X11/		   Display and font resources


	app-defaults/

			   System-wide resource	files for X client applica-
			   tions
	bitmaps/	   Program-specific bitmaps
	appdata/	   Generic program-specific data
	config/		   Imake configuration files
	DPS/		   Display Postscript files
	fonts/		   Font	files
			   100 dpi fonts from X	Consortium

	  100dpi/
	  75dpi/	   75 dpi fonts	from X Consortium
			   DECwindows fonts

	  decwin/
			   100 dpi fonts

	    100dpi/
			   75 dpi fonts

	    75dpi/
	  misc/		   Fonts from X	Consortium
			   Speedo scalable fonts

	  Speedo/
	  Type1/	   Type1 scalable fonts
			   Adobe Type1 scalable	fonts

	  Type1Adobe/
			   Adobe font metrics

	    afm/
	  user

			   Fonts from layered products and local installa-
			   tions
			   100 dpi fonts

	    100dpi/
			   75 dpi fonts

	    75dpi/
			   Other fonts

	    misc/
	fs/		   Fontserver config and error log files
	help/

			   Help	files for X client applications; subdirec-
			   tories as applicable
	keymaps/	   Keymaps for various keyboards
	twm/

			   Default configuration for twm window	manager
	uid/

			   User	Interface Definitions for X client applica-
			   tions
			   Scripts for analyzing x11perf output

	x11perfcomp/
	xdm/

			   X Display Manager configuration and resource
			   files, and error log
    shlib/		   Shareable libraries
      X11/		   Shareable libraries loaded by X server
  ___________________________________________________________________________

  The following	example	is a list of Context Dependent Symbolic	Links (CDSLs)
  on a base system. It was produced by running the following command line.
  Note that the	CDSL list generated on your system may differ from that
  presented in this example, depending on the version of the operating system
  you are running and the layered products (such as cluster software) that
  are installed.

       # find /	-type l	-ls | grep '{memb}' | awk '{ print $11,	$12,
       $13 }' |	tee /usr/tmp/steel_cdsl.list.

       /cluster/members/member ->> {memb}
       /etc/cfginfo ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/cfginfo
       /etc/autopush.conf ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/autopush.conf
       /etc/binlog.conf	->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/binlog.conf
       /etc/rc.config ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/rc.config
       /etc/strsetup.conf ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/strsetup.conf
       /etc/syslog.conf	->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/syslog.conf
       /etc/gated.conf ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/gated.conf
       /etc/ifaccess.conf ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/ifaccess.conf
       /etc/inet.local ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/inet.local
       /etc/inetd.conf.local ->>	../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/inetd.conf.local
       /etc/ntp.conf ->>	../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/ntp.conf
       /etc/ogated.conf	->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/ogated.conf
       /etc/ppp	->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/ppp
       /etc/remote ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/remote
       /etc/routes ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/routes
       /etc/slhosts ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/slhosts
       /etc/snmpd.conf ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/snmpd.conf
       /etc/dhcptab ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/dhcptab
       /etc/latautopush.conf ->>	../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/latautopush.conf
       /etc/dfsl.dat ->>	../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/dfsl.dat
       /etc/atm	->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/atm
       /etc/atm.conf ->>	../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/atm.conf
       /etc/dfsl.bak ->>	../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/dfsl.bak
       /etc/gateways ->>	../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/gateways
       /etc/ntp.keys ->>	../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/ntp.keys
       /etc/sm ->> /cluster/members/{memb}//etc/sm
       /etc/sm.bak ->> /cluster/members/{memb}//etc/sm.bak
       /etc/state ->> /cluster/members/{memb}//etc/state
       /sbin/init.d/autosysconfig ->> ../../cluster/members/{memb}
			       /sbin/init.d/autosysconfig
       /dev ->> cluster/members/{memb}/dev
       /tmp ->> cluster/members/{memb}/tmp
       /usr/cluster/members/member ->> {memb}
       /usr/lib/X11/Xserver.conf ->> ../../var/cluster/members/{memb}
			       /X11/Xserver.conf
       /var/cluster/members/member ->> {memb}
       /var/adm/smlogs ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/smlogs
       /var/adm/binary.errlog ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/binary.errlog
       /var/adm/crash ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/crash
       /var/adm/cron ->>	../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/cron
       /var/adm/lastlog	->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/lastlog
       /var/adm/lmf ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/lmf
       /var/adm/messages ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/messages
       /var/adm/sendmail/protocols.map ->> ../../cluster/members/{memb}
			       /adm/sendmail/protocols.map
       /var/adm/sendmail/sendmail.st ->>	../../cluster/members/{memb}
			       /adm/sendmail/sendmail.st
       /var/adm/syslog ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/syslog
       /var/adm/syslog.dated ->>	../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/syslog.dated
       /var/adm/utmp ->>	../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/utmp
       /var/adm/wtmp ->>	../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/wtmp
       /var/adm/lpd ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/lpd
       /var/tmp	->> ./cluster/members/{memb}/tmp
       /var/evm/adm/logfiles ->>	../../cluster/members/{memb}/evm/adm/logfiles
       /var/evm/evmlog ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/evm/evmlog
       /var/evm/sockets	->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/evm/sockets
       /var/run	->> ./cluster/members/{memb}/run
       /var/spool/cron ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/spool/cron
       /var/spool/locks	->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/spool/locks
       /var/spool/lpd ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/spool/lpd
       /var/spool/uucp ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/spool/uucp
       /var/spool/uucppublic ->>	../cluster/members/{memb}/spool/uucppublic
       /var/agentx ->> ./cluster/members/{memb}/agentx
       /var/rwho ->> ./cluster/members/{memb}/rwho
       /var/dt ->> cluster/members/{memb}/dt
       /var/advfs/daemon/logs ->> ../../cluster/members/{memb}/advfs/daemon/logs
       /var/advfs/daemon/socket	->> ../../cluster/members/{memb}
			       /advfs/daemon/socket
       /var/advfs/gui ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/advfs/gui
       /var/rsvp ->> ./cluster/members/{memb}/rsvp
       /var/yp/binding ->> ../cluster/members/{memb}/yp/binding
       /var/im ->> ./cluster/members/{memb}/im
       /var/lsmsa ->> /var/cluster/members/{memb}/lsmsa
       /.local.. ->> cluster/members/{memb}

  The /usr/sbin/cdslinvchk utility provides a method of	checking and verify-
  ing CDSLs on a system.








SEE ALSO

  Commands: ls(1), apropos(1), whatis(1), whereis(1), finger(1), which(1),
  find(1), grep(1), fsck(8), mount(8), cdslinvchk(8)

  Functions:symlink(2)