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fnmatch(5)            Standards, Environments, and Macros           fnmatch(5)

       fnmatch - file name pattern matching

       The  pattern matching notation described below  is used to specify pat-
       terns for matching strings in the shell. Historically, pattern matching
       notation  is  related  to,  but  slightly  different  from, the regular
       expression notation. For this reason, the description of the rules  for
       this  pattern  matching notation is based on the description of regular
       expression notation described on the  regex(5) manual page.

   Patterns Matching a Single Character
       The following patterns matching a single character match a single char-
       acter:  ordinary  characters,  special  pattern  characters and pattern
       bracket expressions. The pattern bracket expression will also  match  a
       single collating element.

       An  ordinary  character is a pattern that matches itself. It can be any
       character in the supported character set except for NUL, those  special
       shell  characters that require quoting, and the following three special
       pattern characters. Matching is based  on  the  bit  pattern  used  for
       encoding  the character, not on the graphic representation of the char-
       acter. If any character (ordinary, shell special, or  pattern  special)
       is quoted, that pattern will match the character itself. The shell spe-
       cial characters always require quoting.

       When unquoted and outside a bracket  expression,  the  following  three
       characters will have special meaning in the specification of patterns:

       ?        A question-mark is a pattern that will match any character.

       *        An  asterisk is a pattern that will match multiple characters,
                as described in Patterns Matching Multiple Characters, below.

       [        The open bracket will introduce a pattern bracket expression.

       The description of basic regular expression bracket expressions on  the
       regex(5)  manual  page  also applies to the pattern bracket expression,
       except that the exclamation-mark character ( ! ) replaces  the  circum-
       flex  character  (^)  in its role in a non-matching list in the regular
       expression notation. A bracket expression  starting  with  an  unquoted
       circumflex character produces unspecified results.

       The  restriction  on  a  circumflex in a bracket expression is to allow
       implementations that support pattern matching using the  circumflex  as
       the  negation character in addition to the exclamation-mark. A portable
       application must use something like [\^!] to match either character.

       When pattern matching is used where shell quote  removal  is  not  per-
       formed  (such as in the argument to the find -name primary when find is
       being called using one of the  exec functions, or in the pattern  argu-
       ment  to the fnmatch(3C) function, special characters can be escaped to
       remove their special meaning by preceding them with a backslash charac-
       ter.  This escaping backslash will be discarded. The sequence \\ repre-
       sents one literal backslash. All of the  requirements  and  effects  of
       quoting  on ordinary, shell special and special pattern characters will
       apply to escaping in this context.

       Both quoting and escaping are described here because  pattern  matching
       must work in three separate circumstances:

         o  Calling  directly upon the shell, such as in pathname expansion or
            in a case statement. All of the following will match the string or
            file abc:

            tab();  lw(1.013889i)  lw(1.180556i)  lw(1.097222i)  lw(1.097222i)
            lw(1.111111i).  abc"abc"a"b"ca\bca[b]c a["b"]ca[\b]ca["\b"]ca?ca*c

            The following will not:

            tab(); lw(1.833333i) lw(1.833333i) lw(1.833333i).  "a?c"a\*ca\[b]c

         o  Calling a utility or function without going through  a  shell,  as
            described for find(1) and the function fnmatch(3C)

         o  Calling utilities such as find, cpio, tar or pax through the shell
            command line. In this  case,  shell  quote  removal  is  performed
            before the utility sees the argument.  For example, in:

              find /bin -name e\c[\h]o -print

       after  quote  removal,  the  backslashes  are  presented to find and it
       treats them as escape characters. Both precede ordinary characters,  so
       the  c  and h represent themselves and echo would be found on many his-
       torical systems (that have it in /bin). To find a file name  that  con-
       tained shell special characters or pattern characters, both quoting and
       escaping are required, such as:

              pax -r ...  "*a\(\?"

       to extract a filename ending with a(?.

  Conforming applications are required to quote or escape  the  shell  special
  characters  (sometimes called metacharacters).  If used without this protec-
  tion, syntax errors can result or implementation  extensions  can  be  trig-
  gered.  For  example, the KornShell supports a series of extensions based on
  parentheses in patterns; see  ksh(1)

   Patterns Matching Multiple Characters
       The following rules are used to construct  patterns  matching  multiple
       characters from patterns matching a single character:

         o  The  asterisk (*) is a pattern that will match any string, includ-
            ing the null string.

         o  The concatenation of patterns matching a  single  character  is  a
            valid  pattern  that  will  match  the concatenation of the single
            characters or collating elements matched by each of  the  concate-
            nated patterns.

         o  The  concatenation of one or more patterns matching a single char-
            acter with one or more asterisks is a valid pattern. In such  pat-
            terns,  each  asterisk will match a string of zero or more charac-
            ters, matching the greatest possible  number  of  characters  that
            still allows the remainder of the pattern to match the string.

       Since  each asterisk matches zero or more occurrences, the patterns a*b
       and  a**b have identical functionality.


       a[bc]           matches the strings ab and ac.

       a*d             matches the strings ad,  abd  and  abcd,  but  not  the
                       string abc.

       a*d*            matches the strings ad, abcd, abcdef, aaaad and adddd.

       *a*d            matches the strings ad, abcd, efabcd, aaaad and adddd.

   Patterns Used for Filename Expansion
       The rules described so far in Patterns Matching Multiple Characters and
       Patterns Matching a Single Character are  qualified  by  the  following
       rules  that  apply  when pattern matching notation is used for filename

       1.  The slash character in a pathname must  be  explicitly  matched  by
           using  one  or more slashes in the pattern; it cannot be matched by
           the asterisk or question-mark special characters or  by  a  bracket
           expression.   Slashes  in the pattern are identified before bracket
           expressions; thus, a slash cannot be included in a pattern  bracket
           expression  used  for  filename expansion. For example, the pattern
           a[b/c]d will not match such pathnames as abd or a/d.  It will  only
           match a pathname of literally a[b/c]d.

       2.  If  a filename begins with a period (.), the period must be explic-
           itly matched by using a period as the first character of  the  pat-
           tern or immediately following a slash character. The leading period
           will not be matched by:

           o the asterisk or question-mark special characters

           o a bracket expression containing a non-matching list, such as:


           a range expression, such as:


           or a character class expression, such as:


           It is unspecified whether an explicit period in a  bracket  expres-
           sion matching list, such as:


           can match a leading period in a filename.

       3.  Specified patterns are matched against existing filenames and path-
           names,  as appropriate.  Each component  that  contains  a  pattern
           character requires read permission in the directory containing that
           component. Any component, except the last, that does not contain  a
           pattern  character  requires  search permission. For example, given
           the pattern:


           search permission is needed for directories / and foo,  search  and
           read  permissions  are needed for directory bar, and search permis-
           sion is needed for each x* directory.

           If the pattern matches any existing  filenames  or  pathnames,  the
           pattern will be replaced with those filenames and pathnames, sorted
           according to the  collating  sequence  in  effect  in  the  current
           locale.  If  the  pattern contains an invalid bracket expression or
           does not match any existing filenames  or  pathnames,  the  pattern
           string is left unchanged.

       find(1), ksh(1), fnmatch(3C), regex(5)

SunOS 5.10                        28 Mar 1995                       fnmatch(5)