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A.OUT(5)                      File Formats Manual                     A.OUT(5)

       a.out - assembler and link editor output

       #include <&lt;a.out.h>&gt;

       A.out  is  the  output  file of the assembler as(1) and the link editor
       ld(1).  Both programs make a.out executable if there were no errors and
       no  unresolved external references.  Layout information as given in the
       include file for the PDP11 is:

       The file has four sections: a header, the program and data text,  relo-
       cation  information,  and a symbol table (in that order).  The last two
       may be empty if the program was loaded with the `-s' option of ld or if
       the symbols and relocation have been removed by strip(1).

       In  the  header  the  sizes of each section are given in bytes, but are
       even.  The size of the header is not  included  in  any  of  the  other

       When  an  a.out  file  is loaded into core for execution, three logical
       segments are set up: the text segment, the data  segment  (with  unini-
       tialized data, which starts off as all 0, following initialized), and a
       stack.  The text segment begins at 0 in the core image; the  header  is
       not loaded.  If the magic number in the header is 0407(8), it indicates
       that the text segment is not to be write-protected and shared,  so  the
       data  segment  is immediately contiguous with the text segment.  If the
       magic number is 0410, the data segment begins at the  first  0  mod  8K
       byte  boundary  following the text segment, and the text segment is not
       writable by the program; if other  processes  are  executing  the  same
       file,  they  will  share the text segment.  If the magic number is 411,
       the text segment is again pure, write-protected, and shared, and  more-
       over  instruction  and data space are separated; the text and data seg-
       ment both begin at location 0.  If the magic number is 0405,  the  text
       segment  is overlaid on an existing (0411 or 0405) text segment and the
       existing data segment is preserved.

       The stack will occupy the highest possible locations in the core image:
       from  0177776(8)  and  growing  downwards.   The stack is automatically
       extended as required.  The data segment is only extended  as  requested
       by brk(2).

       The  start  of the text segment in the file is 020(8); the start of the
       data segment is 020+St (the size of the text) the start of the  reloca-
       tion  information  is  020+St+Sd;  the  start  of  the  symbol table is
       020+2(St+Sd) if the relocation information  is  present,  020+St+Sd  if

       The  layout  of a symbol table entry and the principal flag values that
       distinguish symbol types are given in the  include  file.   Other  flag
       values  may  occur  if  an  assembly  language  program defines machine

       If a symbol's type is undefined external, and the value field  is  non-
       zero,  the symbol is interpreted by the loader ld as the name of a com-
       mon region whose size is indicated by the value of the symbol.

       The value of a word in the text or data portions which is not a  refer-
       ence  to  an undefined external symbol is exactly that value which will
       appear in core when the file is executed.  If a word  in  the  text  or
       data  portion  involves a reference to an undefined external symbol, as
       indicated by the relocation information for that word, then  the  value
       of  the  word  as  stored  in the file is an offset from the associated
       external symbol.  When the file is processed by the link editor and the
       external  symbol becomes defined, the value of the symbol will be added
       into the word in the file.

       If relocation information is present, it amounts to one word  per  word
       of  program  text or initialized data.  There is no relocation informa-
       tion if the `relocation info stripped' flag in the header is on.

       Bits 3-1 of a relocation word indicate the segment referred to  by  the
       text or data word associated with the relocation word:

       000    absolute number
       002    reference to text segment
       004    reference to initialized data
       006    reference to uninitialized data (bss)
       010    reference to undefined external symbol

       Bit  0  of  the  relocation word indicates, if 1, that the reference is
       relative to the pc (e.g. `clr x'); if 0, that the reference is  to  the
       actual symbol (e.g., `clr *$x').

       The remainder of the relocation word (bits 15-4) contains a symbol num-
       ber in the case of external references, and is unused  otherwise.   The
       first symbol is numbered 0, the second 1, etc.

       as(1), ld(1), nm(1)