unixdev.net


Switch to SpeakEasy.net DSL

The Modular Manual Browser

Home Page
Manual: (OSF1-V5.1-alpha)
Page:
Section:
Apropos / Subsearch:
optional field



Japanese(5)							  Japanese(5)



NAME

  Japanese, japanese - Introduction to Japanese	language support

DESCRIPTION

  There	are two	national standards that	specify	the Japanese character sets
  used for information interchange. The	JIS X0201 standard specifies a
  single-byte character	set that consists of Roman letters and Katakana	char-
  acters.  The JIS X0208 standard specifies a primary set of Japanese ideo-
  graphic characters.  The operating system supports both standards with
  coded	character sets (codesets), locales, device, and	other kinds of system
  files.

  Codesets


  There	are several codesets available to support Japanese. The	following
  list describes both the codesets and the strings that	represent the
  codesets in the names	of locales, codeset converters,	or both:

  DEC Kanji, deckanji
      See deckanji(5) for more information about the DEC Kanji codeset.

  ESC/P	Kanji, escp
      This codeset, which is similar to	ISO 2022-JP, is	handled	by conversion
      to Tru64 UNIX Japanese codesets.

  Fujitsu JEF, JEF
      This Fujitsu codeset is handled by conversion to Tru64 UNIX Japanese
      codesets.	See iconv_JEF(5) for more information.

  Hitachi KEIS,	KEIS
      This Hitachi codeset is handled by conversion to Tru64 UNIX Japanese
      codesets.	See iconv_KEIS(5) for more information.

  IBM Kanji System, ibmkanji
      This IBM mainframe codeset is handled by conversion to Tru64 UNIX
      Japanese codesets. See iconv_ibmkanji(5) for more	information.

  Japanese EUC (Extended UNIX Code), eucJP
      See eucJP(5) for more information	about the Japanese EUC codeset.

  Super	DEC Kanji, sdeckanji
      See sdeckanji(5) for more	information about the Super DEC	Kanji
      codeset.

  Shift	JIS, SJIS
      The Shift	JIS encoding format is identical to the	Microsoft code-page
      (cp932) format used on PC	systems. Therefore, you	can use	codeset	con-
      verters whose names contain SJIS to convert data to and from cp932 for-
      mat.

      See shiftjis(5) for more information about the Shift JIS codeset.

  JIS KANJI (JIS7 or JIS8)
      JIS KANJI	characters can be either JIS7 (representing characters in 7-
      bit bytes) or JIS8 (representing characters in 8-bit bytes). Depending
      on the kana input	value, the string that represents the JIS7 codeset in
      a	codeset	converter name is either jis7, JIS7, or	jiskanji7.

      JIS KANJI	codesets are supported only for	conversion operations as
      indicated	by the following table.	 These codesets	are not	supported by
      locales or for direct input and output.


      _________________________________________________________
      Codeset	  Codeset Conversion   Terminal	Code Conversion
      _________________________________________________________
      jis7	  Y		       Y
      jiskanji7	  Y		       N
      jis8	  N		       Y
      _________________________________________________________

      See jiskanji(5) for more information about JIS KANJI codesets, stty(1)
      for information about terminal code conversion, and iconv_intro(5) for
      information about	codeset	conversion.

  ISO 2022-JP, iso2022JP
      The ISO 2022-JP codeset is supported only	for codeset conversion.	It is
      not supported by locales,	for terminal code conversion, or for direct
      input and	output.

      See ISO-2022-JP(5) for more information about the	ISO 2022-JP codeset.

  Extended ISO 2022-JP,	iso2022JPext
      The ISO 2022-JPext codeset (which	is an extended version of ISO 2022-
      JP) is supported only for	codeset	conversion.  It	is not supported by
      locales, for terminal code conversion, or	for direct input and output.

      See ISO-2022-JP(5) for more information about the	Extended ISO 2022-JP
      codeset.

  UCS formats: UCS-2, UCS-4, and ucs4
      These encoding formats are supported only	through	locales	or codeset
      converters, not for terminal code	conversion or for direct input and
      output.

      See Unicode(5) for more information about	UCS formats.

  UTF-8
      See Unicode(5) for more information about	UTF-8.

  Locales


  The following	list specifies Japanese	locales	for Japan and the codesets
  they support:

       ja_JP.deckanji, for DEC Kanji
       ja_JP.eucJP, for	Japanese EUC
       ja_JP.sdeckanji,	for Super DEC Kanji
       ja_JP.SJIS, for Shift JIS
       ja_JP.UTF-8, for	UTF-8

  The ja_JP.deckanji@ucs4 and ja_JP.SJIS@ucs4 locale variants exist for
  applications that need to convert file data in deckanji and SJIS format to
  UCS-4	process	code to	perform	certain	character-classification operations.
  The ja_JP.UTF-8 locale also uses UCS-4 format	for process code, but
  supports file	code that conforms to the Unicode and ISO 10646	standards.

  You can use the locale command (see locale(1)) to display the	names of
  locales installed on your system. See	i18n_intro(5) for information on set-
  ting locale from the operating system	command	line.

  In the Common	Desktop	Environment (CDE), you also need to set	the session
  language. To do this,	use the	Language menu that is accessed from the
  Options button of the	Login window.

  Japanese-Specific Character Properties


  The Japanese locales (including the @ucs4 variants) define the following
  properties (or classes) for characters:

  ascii	  Characters for which the isascii() function returns a	nonzero
	  (TRUE) value

  english English-language characters as defined by the	System V Multi-
	  National Language Specification (MNLS)

  gaiji	  User-defined and vendor-defined characters (UDCs and VDCs)

  ideogram
	  Ideographic characters as defined by the System V Multi-National
	  Language Specification (MNLS)

  jdigit  Digit	characters as defined by JIS X0208

  jhankana
	  Katakana characters and the voiced, semivoiced, and prolonged	sound
	  marks	as defined by JIS X0201

  jhira	  Hiragana characters as defined by JIS	X0208

  jisx0201
	  All printable	characters as defined by JIS X0201

  jisx0201r
	  All printable, right-hand side characters as defined by JIS X0201

  jisx0208
	  All printable	characters as defined by JIS X0208

  jisx0212
	  All printable	characters as defined by JIS X012

  jkanji  Kanji	characters as defined by JIS X0208 and JIS X0212, the Kanji
	  iteration mark as defined in JIS X 0208, and the Han-numeral zero
	  as defined by	JIS X0208

  jkata	  Katakana characters as defined by JIS	X0201 and JIS X0208; the
	  voiced, semivoiced, and prolonged sound marks	as defined by JIS
	  X0208	and JIS	X0201; the Katakana iteration marks as defined by JIS
	  X0208

  jparen  Kana bracket characters as defined by	JIS X0201 and the parentheses
	  characters as	defined	by JIS X0208

  jspace  The space character as defined by JIS	X0208

  line	  Line-drawing characters as defined by	JIS X0208

  number  Numbers as defined by	the System V Multi-National Language Specifi-
	  cation (MNLS)

  paren	  Parentheses and other	paired symbols as defined by JIS X0201 and
	  JIS X0208

  phonogram
	  Phonograms as	defined	by the System V	Multi-National Language
	  Specification	(MNLS)

  special Special characters as	defined	by the System V	Multi-National
	  Language Specification (MNLS)

  udc	  User-defined characters

  vdc	  Vendor-defined characters

  These	properties supplement the ones specified by the	XSH standard.  Refer
  to locale(4),	wctype(3), and iswctype(3) for general information about how
  characters are assigned properties in	locales	and how	applications test
  characters for supplemental properties.

  Keyboards, Servers, and Input	Methods


  The operating	system supports	the following Japanese keyboards:

  LK201-AJ
      A	Japanese version of the	LK201 keyboard.

  LK401-AJ
      A	Japanese version of the	LK401 keyboard.

  LK401-JJ
      A	Japanese version of the	LK401 keyboard.	 This model provides JIS lay-
      out and special keys for Japanese	input methods.

  LK401-BJ
      A	Japanese version of the	LK401 keyboard.	 This model provides ANSI
      layout and special keys for Japanese input methods.

  LK421-AJ
      A	Japanese version of the	LK421 keyboard.	 This model does not have
      special keys for Japanese	input methods.

  LK421-JJ
      A	Japanese version of the	LK421 keyboard.	 This model provides UNIX
      layout and special keys for Japanese input methods.

  LK97W-AJ
      A	Japanese version of the	LK97W keyboard.	 This model has	special	keys
      for Japanese input methods.

  PCXAJA-JJ
      A	Japanese version of the	PC keyboard.  This model has special keys for
      Japanese input methods.

  For the Motif	environment, the operating system provides the dxjim input
  server to support Japanese input methods. For	a CDE session, this input
  server is started automatically if your session language is set to Japanese
  at login time. Refer to the dxjim(1X)	reference page for more	information
  about	this input server and how to start it from the command line.

  There	are two	main mechanisms	for entering Japanese characters:

    +  Kana input, for entering	Kana characters

       The Kana	input mechanism	is provided by the firmware of Japanese	video
       terminals (see the Japanese Terminals section).

    +  Input methods, for entering two-byte Kanji characters, Kana charac-
       ters, letters, and symbols defined in JIS X0208.	Input methods allow
       characters to be	entered	and converted to other characters. The four
       input methods are as follows:


       Romaji-to-Kanji
       Kana-to-Kanji
       Internal	Code
       JIS Ku-ten Code



  In the Motif environment, you	must load a Japanese key mapping table (key-
  map) that is appropriate for your keyboard. See keyboard(5) for information
  on loading a keymap.

  All the Japanese keyboards and keymaps support locking-shift mode switch-
  ing.	In other words,	you can	enter English characters in the	Mode Switch
  Off state and	Kana characters	in the Mode Switch On state. The keys used to
  toggle the input mode	differ according to whether you	are using a Japanese
  VT terminal or, in the Motif environment, the	keymap that has	been loaded.

    +  For Japanese VT terminals, press	the Compose key

    +  In the Motif environment:

	 -- For	LK201-J* keymaps, hold down the	Compose	key and	press the
	    Space bar

	 -- For	other Japanese keymaps,	press the Compose, or Comp, key	if
	    there is one. Otherwise, press the right Ctrl key.

	    These keys are defaults and	can be changed by the user.

  Japanese Terminals


  The operating	system supports	the VT282-J, VT382-J, and VT383-J terminals
  for Japanese.

  Running Motif	Applications


  X or Motif applications require non-ASCII fonts to display Japanese charac-
  ters.	This means that	the font path must be set appropriately	before start-
  ing an application that displays Japanese characters.	An application can
  find Japanese	fonts in either	of the following directories:

    +  /usr/i18n/lib/X11/fonts/decwin/75dpi, for low resolution	display

    +  /usr/i18n/lib/X11/fonts/decwin/100dpi, for high resolution display

  For applications running under CDE, Japanese screen fonts are	found as long
  as they are installed	on the system or made available	through	a remote font
  server. In other environments, you may need to use the following command to
  check	the font path before running a Japanese	application:

       % xset q

  If one of the	directories in the preceding list is not in the	font path,
  the following	example	shows how to add the directory.	You can	substitute
  100dp	for 75dpi if you want high resolution display.

       % xset +fp /usr/i18n/lib/X11/decwin/75dpi/
       % xset fp rehash





  Printers


  The operating	system supports	the following Japanese printers. The associ-
  ated print filter is noted in	parentheses following the printer name.

    +  Japanese	dot-matrix printers


       LA84-J (la84of)
       LA86-J (la86of)
       LA90-J (la90of)
       LA280-J (la280of)

    +  Japanese	graphic	line printers


       LA380-J (la380of)

    +  Japanese	laser printers


       LN03-J (ln03jaof)
       LN05-J (ln05jaof)

    +  Japanese	PostScript printers


       LN82R (ln82rof)



  PostScript fonts for Japanese	printers are printer resident. To print
  Japanese text	on generic PostScript printers,	you can	customize a print
  filter to convert Japanese bitmap fonts to PostScript	font encoding. Refer
  to wwpsof(8) for more	information.

  See i18n_printing(5) for a general discussion	of printer support options.

SEE ALSO

  Commands: asort(1), locale(1), lp(1),	lpr(1),	dxjim(1X), xset(1X), lpd(8),
  lprsetup(8)

  Files: printcap(4)

  Others: code_page(5),	deckanji(5), eucJP(5), i18n_intro(5),
  i18n_printing(5), iconv_ibmkanji(5), iconv_intro(5), iconv_JEF(5),
  iconv_KEIS(5), iso2022jp(5), jiskanji(5), keyboard(5), l10n_intro(5),
  sdeckanji(5),	shiftjis(5), Unicode(5)