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URTWN(4)                 BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual                 URTWN(4)

     urtwn -- Realtek RTL8188CU/RTL8192CU USB IEEE 802.11b/g/n wireless net-
     work device

     urtwn* at uhub? port ?

     The urtwn driver supports USB 2.0 wireless network devices based on Real-
     tek RTL8188CUS, RTL8188CE-VAU, RTL8188RU and RTL8192CU chipsets.

     The RTL8188CUS is a highly integrated 802.11n adapter that combines a
     MAC, a 1T1R capable baseband and an RF in a single chip.  It operates in
     the 2GHz spectrum only.  The RTL8188RU is a high-power variant of the
     RTL8188CUS.  The RTL8188CE-VAU is a PCI Express Mini Card adapter that
     attaches to the USB interface.

     The RTL8192CU is a highly integrated multiple-in, multiple-out (MIMO)
     802.11n adapter that combines a MAC, a 2T2R capable baseband and an RF in
     a single chip.  It operates in the 2GHz spectrum only.

     These are the modes the urtwn driver can operate in:

     BSS mode       Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when asso-
                    ciating with an access point, through which all traffic
                    passes.  This mode is the default.

     monitor mode   In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without
                    associating with an access point.  This disables the
                    internal receive filter and enables the card to capture
                    packets from networks which it wouldn't normally have
                    access to, or to scan for access points.

     The urtwn driver can be configured to use Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
     or Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK).  WPA is the current
     encryption standard for wireless networks.  It is strongly recommended
     that WEP not be used as the sole mechanism to secure wireless communica-
     tion, due to serious weaknesses in it.

     The urtwn driver can be configured at runtime with ifconfig(8) or on boot
     with hostname.if(5).

     The driver needs at least version 1.1p0 of the following firmware files,
     which are loaded when an interface is attached:


     A prepackaged version of the firmware can be installed using

     The following adapters should work:

           Airlink101 AWLL5088
           Alfa AWUS036NHR
           Aus. Linx AL-9604R1S
           B-Link BL-LW05-5R
           Belkin F7D1102 Surf Wireless Micro
           D-Link DWA-121
           D-Link DWA-131 rev B
           D-Link DWA-133
           D-Link DWA-135
           Digitus DN-7042
           Edimax EW-7811Un
           EDUP EP-N8508
           Full River FR-W100NUL
           Hercules Wireless N USB Pico HWNUp-150
           IO-DATA WN-G150UM
           ISY IWL4000 USB Wireless Micro Adapter
           Netgear WNA1000A
           Patriot PCUSBW1150
           Planex GW-USEco300
           Planex GW-USNano2
           Planex GW-USValue-EZ
           Planex GW-USWExtreme
           POWCHIP POW-N18
           Prolink WN2201
           Sitecom WL-365
           Solwise NET-WL-UMD-606N
           TRENDnet TEW-648UBM

     The following example scans for available networks:

           # ifconfig urtwn0 scan

     The following hostname.if(5) example configures urtwn0 to join network
     ``mynwid'', using WPA key ``mywpakey'', obtaining an IP address using

           nwid mynwid
           wpakey mywpakey

     urtwn0: error N, could not read firmware ...  For some reason, the driver
     was unable to read the microcode file from the filesystem.  The file
     might be missing or corrupted.

     urtwn0: device timeout  A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmis-
     sion did not complete in time.  The driver will reset the hardware.  This
     should not happen.

     arp(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4), usb(4), hostname.if(5),

     The urtwn driver first appeared in OpenBSD 4.9.

     The urtwn driver was written by Damien Bergamini

     The urtwn driver does not support any of the 802.11n capabilities offered
     by the adapters.  Additional work is required in ieee80211(9) before
     those features can be supported.

BSD                              June 23, 2014                             BSD