URAL(4) BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual URAL(4)
ural -- Ralink Technology USB IEEE 802.11b/g wireless network device
ural* at uhub? port ?
The ural driver supports USB 2.0 wireless adapters based on the Ralink
The RT2500USB chipset is the first generation of 802.11b/g adapters from
Ralink. It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2570 MAC/BBP and an
RT2526 radio transceiver.
These are the modes the ural driver can operate in:
BSS mode Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when asso-
ciating with an access point, through which all traffic
passes. This mode is the default.
IBSS mode Also known as IEEE ad-hoc mode or peer-to-peer mode. This
is the standardized method of operating without an access
point. Stations associate with a service set. However,
actual connections between stations are peer-to-peer.
Host AP In this mode the driver acts as an access point (base sta-
tion) for other cards.
monitor mode In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without
associating with an access point. This disables the
internal receive filter and enables the card to capture
packets from networks which it wouldn't normally have
access to, or to scan for access points.
The ural driver can be configured to use Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
or Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK). WPA is the current
encryption standard for wireless networks. It is strongly recommended
that WEP not be used as the sole mechanism to secure wireless communica-
tion, due to serious weaknesses in it. The ural driver relies on the
software 802.11 stack for both encryption and decryption of data frames.
The transmit speed is user-selectable or can be adapted automatically by
the driver depending on the number of hardware transmission retries.
The ural driver can be configured at runtime with ifconfig(8) or on boot
The following adapters should work:
ASUS WL-167g v1
Belkin F5D7050 v2000
Compex WLU54G 2A1100
D-Link DWL-G122 (b1)
KCORP LifeStyle KLS-685
Linksys WUSB54G v4
Linksys WUSB54GP v4
Nintendo Wi-Fi USB Connector
Nova Tech NV-902W
Surecom EP-9001-g rev 3A
The following example scans for available networks:
# ifconfig ural0 scan
The following hostname.if(5) example configures ural0 to join network
``mynwid'', using WPA key ``mywpakey'', obtaining an IP address using
The following hostname.if(5) example creates a host-based access point on
inet 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
ural0: device timeout A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmis-
sion did not complete in time. The driver will reset the hardware. This
should not happen.
arp(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4), usb(4), hostname.if(5),
The ural driver first appeared in OpenBSD 3.7.
The ural driver was written by Damien Bergamini
The ural driver supports automatic control of the transmit speed in BSS
mode only. Therefore the use of an ural adapter in Host AP mode is dis-
Host AP mode doesn't support power saving. Clients attempting to use
power saving mode may experience significant packet loss (disabling power
saving on the client will fix this).
BSD February 15, 2014 BSD