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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

      terminfo - printer, terminal, and modem capability database


    List of Section Headings in DESCRIPTION
	   Terminfo Source Format
	   Source File Syntax
	   Minimum Guaranteed Limits
	   Formal Grammar
	   Defined Capabilities
	   Sample Entry
	   Types of Capabilities in the Sample Entry
	   Device Capabilities
	   Insert/Delete Line
	   Printer Capabilities
	   Capabilities that Cause Movement
	   Alternate Character Sets
	   Dot-Matrix Graphics
	   Effect of Changing Printing Resolution
	   Selecting a Terminal
	   Application Usage

      The requirements in this manpage are in effect only for
      implementations that claim Enhanced Curses compliance.

 Terminfo Source Format
      The terminfo database contains a description of the capabilities of a
      variety of devices, such as terminals and printers.  Devices are
      described by specifying a set of capabilities, by quantifying certain
      aspects of the device, and by specifying character sequences that
      effect particular results.

      This manpage specifies the format of terminfo source files.

      X/Open-compliant implementations must provide a facility that accepts
      source files in the format specified in this manpage as a means of
      entering information into the terminfo database.	The facility for
      installing this information into the database is implementation-
      specific.	 A valid terminfo entry describing a given model of terminal
      can be added to terminfo on any X/Open-compliant implementation to
      permit use of the same terminal model.

      The "Source File Syntax" section describes the syntax of terminfo
      source files.  A grammar and lexical conventions appear in the "Formal
      Grammar" section below.  A list of all terminal capabilities defined
      by X/Open appears in the "Defined Capabilities" section below.  An
      example follows in the "Sample Entry" section below.  The "Device
      Capabilities" section describes the specification of devices in

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

      general, such as video terminals.	 The "Printer Capabilities" section
      describes the specification of printers.

      The terminfo database is often used by screen-oriented applications
      such as vi and Curses programs, as well as by some utilities such as
      ls and more.  This usage allows them to work with a variety of devices
      without changes to the programs.

 Source File Syntax
      Source files can use the ISO 8859-1 codeset.  The behavior when the
      source file is in another codeset is unspecified.	 Traditional
      practice has been to translate information from other codesets into
      the source file syntax.

      terminfo source files consist of one or more device descriptions.
      Each description defines a mnemonic name for the terminal model.	Each
      description consists of a header (beginning in column 1) and one or
      more lines that list the features for that particular device.  Every
      line in a terminfo source file must end in a comma.  Every line in a
      terminfo source file except the header must be indented with one or
      more white spaces (either spaces or tabs).

      Entries in terminfo source files consist of a number of comma-
      separated fields.	 White space after each comma is ignored.  Embedded
      commas must be escaped by using a backslash.  The following example
      shows the format of a terminfo source file:

	   alias1 | alias2 | ... | aliasn | longname,
	   whitespaceam, lines #24,

      The first line, commonly referred to as the header line, must begin in
      column one and must contain at least two aliases separated by vertical
      bars.  The last field in the header line must be the long name of the
      device and it may contain any string.

      Alias names must be unique in the terminfo database and they must
      conform to file naming conventions established by implementation-
      specific terminfo compilation utilities.	Implementations will
      recognize alias names consisting only of characters from the portable
      file name character set except that implementations need not accept a
      first character of minus (-).  For example, a typical restriction is
      that they cannot contain white space or slashes.	There may be further
      constraints imposed on source file values by the implementation-
      specific terminfo compilation utilities.

      Each capability in terminfo is of one of the following types:

	   +  Boolean capabilities show that a device has or does not have a
	      particular feature.

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

	   +  Numeric capabilities quantify particular features of a device.

	   +  String capabilities provide sequences that can be used to
	      perform particular operations on devices.

      Capability names adhere to an informal length limit of five
      characters.  Whenever possible, capability names are chosen to be the
      same as or similar to those specified by the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard.
      Semantics are also intended to match those of the ANSI standard.

      All string capabilities may have padding specified, with the exception
      of those used for input.	Input capabilities, listed under the Strings
      section in the following tables, have names beginning with key_.
      These capabilities are defined in <&lt&lt&lt;term.h>&gt&gt&gt;.

 Minimum Guaranteed Limits
      All X/Open-compliant implementations support at least the following
      limits for the terminfo source file:

	   Source File Characteristic			     Minimum Guaranteed Value
	   Length of a line				     1023 bytes
	   Length of a terminal alias			     14 bytes
	   Length of a terminal model name		     128 bytes
	   Width of a single field			     128 bytes
	   Length of a string value			     1000 bytes
	   Length of a string representing a numeric value   99 digits
	   Magnitude of a numeric value			     0 up to and including 32767

      An implementation may support higher limits than those specified

 Formal Grammar
      The grammar and lexical conventions in this section together describe
      the syntax for terminfo terminal descriptions within a terminfo source
      file.  A terminal description that satisfies the requirements of this
      section will be accepted by all implementations.	(The notation "(n)"
      refers to a note following the description.)

      descriptions : START_OF_HEADER_LINE(1) rest_of_header_line feature_lines
		| descriptions START_OF_HEADER_LINE rest_of_header_line
		| feature_lines

      rest_of_header_line : PIPE LONGNAME COMMA NEWLINE

      feature_lines : start_feature_line rest_of_feature_line
		| feature_lines start_feature_line rest_of_feature_line

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)


      start_feature_line : START_FEATURE_LINE_BOOLEAN(2)

      rest_of_feature_line : features COMMA NEWLINE

      features : COMMA feature
		| features COMMA feature

      aliases : PIPE ALIAS
		| aliases PIPE ALIAS

      feature : BOOLEAN

	   (1)	An ALIAS that begins in column one.  This is handled by the
		lexical analyzer.

	   (2)	A BOOLEAN feature that begins after column one but is the
		first feature on the feature line.  This is handled by the
		lexical analyzer.

	   (3)	A NUMERIC feature that begins after column one but is the
		first feature on the feature line.  This is handled by the
		lexical analyzer.

	   (4)	A STRING feature that begins after column one but is the
		first feature on the feature line.  This is handled by the
		lexical analyzer.

      The lexical conventions for terminfo descriptions are as follows:

	    1.	White space consists of the <space> and <tab> characters.

	    2.	An ALIAS may contain any graph characters other than comma
		(,), slash (/), and bar (|).  (Graph characters are those
		characters for which isgraph() returns nonzero; see

	    3.	A LONGNAME may contain any print characters other than comma
		(,) and bar (|).  (Print characters are those characters for
		which isprint() returns nonzero; see ctype(3C).)

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

	    4.	A BOOLEAN feature may contain any print characters other
		than comma (,), equals (=), and pound sign (#).

	    5.	A NUMERIC feature consists of:

		a.   A name which may contain any print character other than
		     comma (,), equals (=), and pound sign (#).

		b.   The pound sign (#) character.

		c.   A positive integer which conforms to the C language
		     convention for integer constants.

	    6.	A STRING feature consists of:

		a.   A name which may contain any print character other than
		     comma (,), equals (=), and pound sign (#).

		b.   The equals (=) character.

		c.   A string which may contain any print characters other
		     than comma (,).

	    7.	White space immediately following a comma (,) is ignored.

	    8.	Comments consist of the beginning of a line, optional white
		space, a required pound sign (#), and a terminating end of

	    9.	A header line must begin in column one.

	   10.	A feature line must not begin in column one.

	   11.	Blank lines are ignored.

 Defined Capabilities
      X/Open defines the capabilities listed in the following table.  All
      X/Open-compliant implementations must accept each of these
      capabilities in an entry in a terminfo source file.  Implementations
      use this information to determine how properly to operate the current
      terminal.	 In addition, implementations return any of the current
      terminal's capabilities when the application calls the query functions
      listed in tgetent() (in the cases where the following table lists a
      Termcap code) and tigetflag() (see tgetent(3X) and tigetflag(3X)).

      The table of capabilities has the following columns:

      Variable	     Names for use by the Curses functions that operate on
		     the terminfo database.  These names are reserved and
		     the application must not define them.

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

      Capname	     The short name for a capability specified in the
		     terminfo source file.  It is used for updating the
		     source file and by the tput command (see tput(1)).

      Termcap	     Codes provided for compatibility with older
		     applications.  These codes are TO BE WITHDRAWN.
		     Because of this, not all Capnames have Termcap codes.

      Description    A short summary of the capability.

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

			    Cap-    Term-
 Variable		    name    cap	    Description
 auto_left_margin	    bw	    bw	    cub1 wraps from column 0 to last column
 auto_right_margin	    am	    am	    Terminal has automatic margins
 back_color_erase	    bce	    ut	    Screen erased with background color
 can_change		    ccc	    cc	    Terminal can re-define existing color
 ceol_standout_glitch	    xhp	    xs	    Standout not erased by overwriting (hp)
 col_addr_glitch	    xhpa    YA	    Only positive motion for hpa/mhpa caps
 cpi_changes_res	    cpix    YF	    Changing character pitch changes resolution
 cr_cancels_micro_mode	    crxm    YB	    Using cr turns off micro mode
 dest_tabs_magic_smso	    xt	    xt	    Destructive tabs, magic smso char (t1061)
 eat_newline_glitch	    xenl    xn	    Newline ignored after 80 columns (Concept)
 erase_overstrike	    eo	    eo	    Can erase overstrikes with a blank
 generic_type		    gn	    gn	    Generic line type (e.g., dialup, switch)
 get_mouse		    getm    Gm	    Curses should get button events
 hard_copy		    hc	    hc	    Hardcopy terminal
 hard_cursor		    chts    HC	    Cursor is hard to see
 has_meta_key		    km	    km	    Has a meta key (shift, sets parity bit)
 has_print_wheel	    daisy   YC	    Printer needs operator to change
					    character set
 has_status_line	    hs	    hs	    Has extra "status line"
 hue_lightness_saturation   hls	    hl	    Terminal uses only HLS color
					    notation (Tektronix)
 insert_null_glitch	    in	    in	    Insert mode distinguishes nulls
 lpi_changes_res	    lpix    YG	    Changing line pitch changes resolution
 memory_above		    da	    da	    Display may be retained above the screen
 memory_below		    db	    db	    Display may be retained below the screen
 move_insert_mode	    mir	    mi	    Safe to move while in insert mode
 move_standout_mode	    msgr    ms	    Safe to move in standout modes
 needs_xon_xoff		    nxon    nx	    Padding won't work, XON/XOFF required
 no_esc_ctlc		    xsb	    xb	    Beehive (f1=escape, f2=ctrl C)
 no_pad_char		    npc	    NP	    Pad character doesn't exist
 non_dest_scroll_region	    ndscr   ND	    Scrolling region is nondestructive
 non_rev_rmcup		    nrrmc   NR	    smcup does not reverse rmcup
 over_strike		    os	    os	    Terminal overstrikes on hard-copy terminal
 prtr_silent		    mc5i    5i	    Printer won't echo on screen
 row_addr_glitch	    xvpa    YD	    Only positive motion for vpa/mvpa caps
 semi_auto_right_margin	    sam	    YE	    Printing in last column causes cr
 status_line_esc_ok	    eslok   es	    Escape can be used on the status line
 tilde_glitch		    hz	    hz	    Hazeltine; can't print tilde (~)
 transparent_underline	    ul	    ul	    Underline character overstrikes
 xon_xoff		    xon	    xo	    Terminal uses XON/XOFF handshaking

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

			Cap-	 Term-
 Variable		name	 cap	 Description
 bit_image_entwining	bitwin	 Yo	 Number of passes for each bit-map row
 bit_image_type		bitype	 Yp	 Type of bit image device
 buffer_capacity	bufsz	 Ya	 Number of bytes buffered before printing
 buttons		btns	 BT	 Number of buttons on the mouse
 columns		cols	 co	 Number of columns in a line
 dot_horz_spacing	spinh	 Yc	 Spacing of dots horizontally in dots per inch
 dot_vert_spacing	spinv	 Yb	 Spacing of pins vertically in pins per inch
 init_tabs		it	 it	 Tabs initially every # spaces
 label_height		lh	 lh	 Number of rows in each label
 label_width		lw	 lw	 Number of columns in each label
 lines			lines	 li	 Number of lines on a screen or a page
 lines_of_memory	lm	 lm	 Lines of memory if greater than lines; 0 means
 max_attributes		ma	 ma	 Maximum combined video attributes terminal can
 magic_cookie_glitch	xmc	 sg	 Number of blank characters left by smso or rmso
 max_colors		colors	 Co	 Maximum number of colors on the screen
 max_micro_address	maddr	 Yd	 Maximum value in micro_..._address
 max_micro_jump		mjump	 Ye	 Maximum value in parm_..._micro
 max_pairs		pairs	 pa	 Maximum number of color-pairs on the screen
 maximum_windows	wnum	 MW	 Maximum number of definable windows
 micro_col_size		mcs	 Yf	 Character step size when in micro mode
 micro_line_size	mls	 Yg	 Line step size when in micro mode
 no_color_video		ncv	 NC	 Video attributes that can't be used with colors
 num_labels		nlab	 Nl	 Number of labels on screen (start at 1)
 number_of_pins		npins	 Yh	 Number of pins in print-head
 output_res_char	orc	 Yi	 Horizontal resolution in units per character
 output_res_line	orl	 Yj	 Vertical resolution in units per line
 output_res_horz_inch	orhi	 Yk	 Horizontal resolution in units per inch
 output_res_vert_inch	orvi	 Yl	 Vertical resolution in units per inch
 padding_baud_rate	pb	 pb	 Lowest baud rate where padding needed
 print_rate		cps	 Ym	 Print rate in characters per second
 virtual_terminal	vt	 vt	 Virtual terminal number
 wide_char_size		widcs	 Yn	 Character step size when in double-wide mode
 width_status_line	wsl	 ws	 Number of columns in status line

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

			     Cap-      Term-
 Variable		     name      cap     Description
 acs_chars		     acsc      ac      Graphic charset pairs aAbBcC
 alt_scancode_esc	     scesa     S8      Alternate escape for scancode emulation
					       (default is for VT100)
 back_tab		     cbt       bt      Back tab
 bell			     bel       bl      Audible signal (bell)
 bit_image_carriage_return   bicr      Yv      Move to beginning of same row
 bit_image_newline	     binel     Zz      Move to next row of the bit image
 bit_image_repeat	     birep     Xy      Repeat bit-image cell #1 #2 times
 carriage_return	     cr	       cr      Carriage return
 change_char_pitch	     cpi       ZA      Change number of characters per inch
 change_line_pitch	     lpi       ZB      Change number of lines per inch
 change_res_horz	     chr       ZC      Change horizontal resolution
 change_res_vert	     cvr       ZD      Change vertical resolution
 change_scroll_region	     csr       cs      Change to lines #1 through #2 (VT100)
 char_padding		     rmp       rP      Like ip but when in replace mode
 char_set_names		     csnm      Zy      Returns a list of character set names
 clear_all_tabs		     tbc       ct      Clear all tab stops
 clear_margins		     mgc       MC      Clear all margins (top, bottom,
					       and sides)
 clear_screen		     clear     cl      Clear screen and home cursor
 clr_bol		     el1       cb      Clear to beginning of line, inclusive
 clr_eol		     el	       ce      Clear to end of line
 clr_eos		     ed	       cd      Clear to end of display
 code_set_init		     csin      ci      Init sequence for multiple codesets
 color_names		     colornm   Yw      Give name for color #1
 column_address		     hpa       ch      Set horizontal position to absolute #1
 command_character	     cmdch     CC      Terminal settable cmd character
					       in prototype
 create_window		     cwin      CW      Define win #1 to go from #2,#3 to #4,#5
 cursor_address		     cup       cm      Move to row #1 col #2
 cursor_down		     cud1      do      Down one line
 cursor_home		     home      ho      Home cursor (if no cup)
 cursor_invisible	     civis     vi      Make cursor invisible
 cursor_left		     cub1      le      Move left one space.
 cursor_mem_address	     mrcup     CM      Memory relative cursor addressing
 cursor_normal		     cnorm     ve      Make cursor appear normal
					       (undo vs/vi)
 cursor_right		     cuf1      nd      Non-destructive space (cursor or
					       carriage right)
 cursor_to_ll		     ll	       ll      Last line, first column (if no cup)
 cursor_up		     cuu1      up      Upline (cursor up)
 cursor_visible		     cvvis     vs      Make cursor very visible
 define_bit_image_region     defbi     Yx      Define rectangular bit-image region
 define_char		     defc      ZE      Define a character in a character set
 delete_character	     dch1      dc      Delete character
 delete_line		     dl1       dl      Delete line
 device_type		     devt      dv      Indicate language/codeset support

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

 dial_phone		     dial      DI      Dial phone number #1
 dis_status_line	     dsl       ds      Disable status line
 display_clock		     dclk      DK      Display time-of-day clock
 display_pc_char	     dispc     S1      Display PC character
 down_half_line		     hd	       hd      Half-line down (forward 1/2 linefeed)
 ena_acs		     enacs     eA      Enable alternate character set
 end_bit_image_region	     endbi     Yy      End a bit-image region
 enter_alt_charset_mode	     smacs     as      Start alternate character set
 enter_am_mode		     smam      SA      Turn on automatic margins
 enter_blink_mode	     blink     mb      Turn on blinking
 enter_bold_mode	     bold      md      Turn on bold (extra bright) mode
 enter_ca_mode		     smcup     ti      String to begin programs that use cup
 enter_delete_mode	     smdc      dm      Delete mode (enter)
 enter_dim_mode		     dim       mh      Turn on half-bright mode
 enter_doublewide_mode	     swidm     ZF      Enable double wide printing
 enter_draft_quality	     sdrfq     ZG      Set draft quality print
 enter_horizontal_hl_mode    ehhlm	       Turn on horizontal highlight mode
 enter_insert_mode	     smir      im      Insert mode (enter)
 enter_italics_mode	     sitm      ZH      Enable italics
 enter_left_hl_mode	     elhlm	       Turn on left highlight mode
 enter_leftward_mode	     slm       ZI      Enable leftward carriage motion
 enter_low_hl_mode	     elohlm	       Turn on low highlight mode
 enter_micro_mode	     smicm     ZJ      Enable micro motion capabilities
 enter_near_letter_quality   snlq      ZK      Set near-letter quality print
 enter_normal_quality	     snrmq     ZL      Set normal quality print
 enter_pc_charset_mode	     smpch     S2      Enter PC character display mode
 enter_protected_mode	     prot      mp      Turn on protected mode
 enter_reverse_mode	     rev       mr      Turn on reverse video mode
 enter_right_hl_mode	     erhlm	       Turn on right highlight mode
 enter_scancode_mode	     smsc      S4      Enter PC scancode mode
 enter_secure_mode	     invis     mk      Turn on blank mode (characters invisible)
 enter_shadow_mode	     sshm      ZM      Enable shadow printing
 enter_standout_mode	     smso      so      Begin standout mode
 enter_subscript_mode	     ssubm     ZN      Enable subscript printing
 enter_superscript_mode	     ssupm     ZO      Enable superscript printing
 enter_top_hl_mode	     ethlm	       Turn on top highlight mode
 enter_underline_mode	     smul      us      Start underscore mode
 enter_upward_mode	     sum       ZP      Enable upward carriage motion
 enter_vertical_hl_mode	     evhlm	       Turn on vertical highlight mode
 enter_xon_mode		     smxon     SX      Turn on XON/XOFF handshaking
 erase_chars		     ech       ec      Erase #1 characters
 exit_alt_charset_mode	     rmacs     ae      End alternate character set
 exit_am_mode		     rmam      RA      Turn off automatic margins
 exit_attribute_mode	     sgr0      me      Turn off all attributes
 exit_ca_mode		     rmcup     te      String to end programs that use cup
 exit_delete_mode	     rmdc      ed      End delete mode
 exit_doublewide_mode	     rwidm     ZQ      Disable double wide printing
 exit_insert_mode	     rmir      ei      End insert mode
 exit_italics_mode	     ritm      ZR      Disable italics
 exit_leftward_mode	     rlm       ZS      Enable rightward (normal)
					       carriage motion

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

 exit_micro_mode	     rmicm     ZT      Disable micro motion capabilities
 exit_pc_charset_mode	     rmpch     S3      Disable PC character display mode
 exit_scancode_mode	     rmsc      S5      Disable PC scancode mode
 exit_shadow_mode	     rshm      ZU      Disable shadow printing
 exit_standout_mode	     rmso      se      End standout mode
 exit_subscript_mode	     rsubm     ZV      Disable subscript printing
 exit_superscript_mode	     rsupm     ZW      Disable superscript printing
 exit_underline_mode	     rmul      ue      End underscore mode
 exit_upward_mode	     rum       ZX      Enable downward (normal)
					       carriage motion
 exit_xon_mode		     rmxon     RX      Turn off XON/XOFF handshaking
 fixed_pause		     pause     PA      Pause for 2-3 seconds
 flash_hook		     hook      fh      Flash the switch hook
 flash_screen		     flash     vb      Visible bell (may move cursor)
 form_feed		     ff	       ff      Hardcopy terminal page eject
 from_status_line	     fsl       fs      Return from status line
 goto_window		     wingo     WG      Go to window #1
 hangup			     hup       HU      Hang-up phone
 init_1string		     is1       i1      Terminal or printer initialization string
 init_2string		     is2       is      Terminal or printer initialization string
 init_3string		     is3       i3      Terminal or printer initialization string
 init_file		     if	       if      Name of initialization file
 init_prog		     iprog     iP      Path name of program for initialization
 initialize_color	     initc     IC      Set color #1 to RGB #2, #3, #4
 initialize_pair	     initp     Ip      Set color-pair #1 to fg #2, bg #3
 insert_character	     ich1      ic      Insert character
 insert_line		     il1       al      Add new blank line
 insert_padding		     ip	       ip      Insert pad after character inserted

      The "key_" strings are sent by specific keys.  The "key_" descriptions
      include the macro, defined in <&lt&lt&lt;curses.h>&gt&gt&gt;, for the code returned by
      getch() when the key is pressed (see getch(3X)).

			  Cap-	     Term-
 Variable		  name	     cap     Description
 key_a1			  ka1	     K1	     Upper left of keypad
 key_a3			  ka3	     K3	     Upper right of keypad
 key_b2			  kb2	     K2	     Center of keypad
 key_backspace		  kbs	     kb	     Sent by backspace key
 key_beg		  kbeg	     @1	     Sent by beg(inning) key
 key_btab		  kcbt	     kB	     Sent by back-tab key
 key_c1			  kc1	     K4	     Lower left of keypad
 key_c3			  kc3	     K5	     Lower right of keypad
 key_cancel		  kcan	     @2	     Sent by cancel key
 key_catab		  ktbc	     ka	     Sent by clear-all-tabs key
 key_clear		  kclr	     kC	     Sent by clear-screen or erase key
 key_close		  kclo	     @3	     Sent by close key
 key_command		  kcmd	     @4	     Sent by cmd (command) key
 key_copy		  kcpy	     @5	     Sent by copy key

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

 key_create		  kcrt	     @6	     Sent by create key
 key_ctab		  kctab	     kt	     Sent by clear-tab key
 key_dc			  kdch1	     kD	     Sent by delete-character key
 key_dl			  kdl1	     kL	     Sent by delete-line key
 key_down		  kcud1	     kd	     Sent by terminal down-arrow key
 key_eic		  krmir	     kM	     Sent by rmir or smir in insert mode
 key_end		  kend	     @7	     Sent by end key
 key_enter		  kent	     @8	     Sent by enter/send key
 key_eol		  kel	     kE	     Sent by clear-to-end-of-line key
 key_eos		  ked	     kS	     Sent by clear-to-end-of-screen key
 key_exit		  kext	     @9	     Sent by exit key
 key_f0			  kf0	     k0	     Sent by function key f0
 key_f1			  kf1	     k1	     Sent by function key f1
  .			   .	      .	      .
  .			   .	      .	      .	  Similarly for f2 through f61
  .			   .	      .	      .
 key_f62		  kf62	     Fq	     Sent by function key f62
 key_f63		  kf63	     Fr	     Sent by function key f63
 key_find		  kfnd	     @0	     Sent by find key
 key_help		  khlp	     %1	     Sent by help key
 key_home		  khome	     kh	     Sent by home key
 key_ic			  kich1	     kI	     Sent by ins-char/enter ins-mode key
 key_il			  kil1	     kA	     Sent by insert-line key
 key_left		  kcub1	     kl	     Sent by terminal left-arrow key
 key_ll			  kll	     kH	     Sent by home-down key
 key_mark		  kmrk	     %2	     Sent by mark key
 key_message		  kmsg	     %3	     Sent by message key
 key_mouse		  kmous	     Km	     0631, mouse event has occurred
 key_move		  kmov	     %4	     Sent by move key
 key_next		  knxt	     %5	     Sent by next-object key
 key_npage		  knp	     kN	     Sent by next-page key
 key_open		  kopn	     %6	     Sent by open key
 key_options		  kopt	     %7	     Sent by options key
 key_ppage		  kpp	     kP	     Sent by previous-page key
 key_previous		  kprv	     %8	     Sent by previous-object key
 key_print		  kprt	     %9	     Sent by print or copy key
 key_redo		  krdo	     %0	     Sent by redo key
 key_reference		  kref	     &1	     Sent by ref(erence) key
 key_refresh		  krfr	     &2	     Sent by refresh key
 key_replace		  krpl	     &3	     Sent by replace key
 key_restart		  krst	     &4	     Sent by restart key
 key_resume		  kres	     &5	     Sent by resume key
 key_right		  kcuf1	     kr	     Sent by terminal right-arrow key
 key_save		  ksav	     &6	     Sent by save key
 key_sbeg		  kBEG	     &9	     Sent by shifted beginning key
 key_scancel		  kCAN	     &0	     Sent by shifted cancel key
 key_scommand		  kCMD	     *1	     Sent by shifted command key
 key_scopy		  kCPY	     *2	     Sent by shifted copy key
 key_screate		  kCRT	     *3	     Sent by shifted create key
 key_sdc		  kDC	     *4	     Sent by shifted delete-char key
 key_sdl		  kDL	     *5	     Sent by shifted delete-line key

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

 key_select		  kslt	     *6	     Sent by select key
 key_send		  kEND	     *7	     Sent by shifted end key
 key_seol		  kEOL	     *8	     Sent by shifted clear-line key
 key_sexit		  kEXT	     *9	     Sent by shifted exit key
 key_sf			  kind	     kF	     Sent by scroll-forward/down key
 key_sfind		  kFND	     *0	     Sent by shifted find key
 key_shelp		  kHLP	     #1	     Sent by shifted help key
 key_shome		  kHOM	     #2	     Sent by shifted home key
 key_sic		  kIC	     #3	     Sent by shifted input key
 key_sleft		  kLFT	     #4	     Sent by shifted left-arrow key
 key_smessage		  kMSG	     %a	     Sent by shifted message key
 key_smove		  kMOV	     %b	     Sent by shifted move key
 key_snext		  kNXT	     %c	     Sent by shifted next key
 key_soptions		  kOPT	     %d	     Sent by shifted options key
 key_sprevious		  kPRV	     %e	     Sent by shifted prev key
 key_sprint		  kPRT	     %f	     Sent by shifted print key
 key_sr			  kri	     kR	     Sent by scroll-backward/up key
 key_sredo		  kRDO	     %g	     Sent by shifted redo key
 key_sreplace		  kRPL	     %h	     Sent by shifted replace key
 key_sright		  kRIT	     %i	     Sent by shifted right-arrow key
 key_srsume		  kRES	     %j	     Sent by shifted resume key
 key_ssave		  kSAV	     !1	     Sent by shifted save key
 key_ssuspend		  kSPD	     !2	     Sent by shifted suspend key
 key_stab		  khts	     kT	     Sent by set-tab key
 key_sundo		  kUND	     !3	     Sent by shifted undo key
 key_suspend		  kspd	     &7	     Sent by suspend key
 key_undo		  kund	     &8	     Sent by undo key
 key_up			  kcuu1	     ku	     Sent by terminal up-arrow key
 keypad_local		  rmkx	     ke	     Out of "keypad-transmit" mode
 keypad_xmit		  smkx	     ks	     Put terminal in "keypad-transmit" mode
 lab_f0			  lf0	     l0	     Labels on function key f0 if not f0
 lab_f1			  lf1	     l1	     Labels on function key f1 if not f1
 lab_f2			  lf2	     l2	     Labels on function key f2 if not f2
 lab_f3			  lf3	     l3	     Labels on function key f3 if not f3
 lab_f4			  lf4	     l4	     Labels on function key f4 if not f4
 lab_f5			  lf5	     l5	     Labels on function key f5 if not f5
 lab_f6			  lf6	     l6	     Labels on function key f6 if not f6
 lab_f7			  lf7	     l7	     Labels on function key f7 if not f7
 lab_f8			  lf8	     l8	     Labels on function key f8 if not f8
 lab_f9			  lf9	     l9	     Labels on function key f9 if not f9
 lab_f10		  lf10	     la	     Labels on function key f10 if not f10
 label_format		  fln	     Lf	     Label format
 label_off		  rmln	     LF	     Turn off soft labels
 label_on		  smln	     LO	     Turn on soft labels
 memory_lock		  meml	     ml	     Lock memory above cursor
 memory_unlock		  memu	     mu	     Turn memory lock off
 meta_off		  rmm	     mo	     Turn off "meta mode"
 meta_on		  smm	     mm	     Turn on "meta mode" (8th bit)
 micro_column_address	  mhpa	     ZY	     Like column_address for micro adjustment
 micro_down		  mcud1	     ZZ	     Like cursor_down for micro adjustment
 micro_left		  mcub1	     Za	     Like cursor_left for micro adjustment

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

 micro_right		  mcuf1	     Zb	     Like cursor_right for micro adjustment
 micro_row_address	  mvpa	     Zc	     Like row_address for micro adjustment
 micro_up		  mcuu1	     Zd	     Like cursor_up for micro adjustment
 mouse_info		  minfo	     Mi	     Mouse status information
 newline		  nel	     nw	     Newline (behaves like cr followed by lf)
 order_of_pins		  porder     Ze	     Matches software bits to print-head pins
 orig_colors		  oc	     oc	     Set all color(-pair)s to the original ones
 orig_pair		  op	     op	     Set default color-pair to the original one
 pad_char		  pad	     pc	     Pad character (rather than null)
 parm_dch		  dch	     DC	     Delete #1 chars
 parm_delete_line	  dl	     DL	     Delete #1 lines
 parm_down_cursor	  cud	     DO	     Move down #1 lines.
 parm_down_micro	  mcud	     Zf	     Like parm_down_cursor for micro adjust.
 parm_ich		  ich	     IC	     Insert #1 blank chars
 parm_index		  indn	     SF	     Scroll forward #1 lines.
 parm_insert_line	  il	     AL	     Add #1 new blank lines
 parm_left_cursor	  cub	     LE	     Move cursor left #1 spaces
 parm_left_micro	  mcub	     Zg	     Like parm_left_cursor for micro adjust.
 parm_right_cursor	  cuf	     RI	     Move right #1 spaces.
 parm_right_micro	  mcuf	     Zh	     Like parm_right_cursor for micro adjust.
 parm_rindex		  rin	     SR	     Scroll backward #1 lines.
 parm_up_cursor		  cuu	     UP	     Move cursor up #1 lines.
 parm_up_micro		  mcuu	     Zi	     Like parm_up_cursor for micro adjust.
 pc_term_options	  pctrm	     S6	     PC terminal options
 pkey_key		  pfkey	     pk	     Prog funct key #1 to type string #2
 pkey_local		  pfloc	     pl	     Prog funct key #1 to execute string #2
 pkey_plab		  pfxl	     xl	     Prog key #1 to xmit string #2 and show string #3
 pkey_xmit		  pfx	     px	     Prog funct key #1 to xmit string #2
 plab_norm		  pln	     pn	     Prog label #1 to show string #2
 print_screen		  mc0	     ps	     Print contents of the screen
 prtr_non		  mc5p	     pO	     Turn on the printer for #1 bytes
 prtr_off		  mc4	     pf	     Turn off the printer
 prtr_on		  mc5	     po	     Turn on the printer
 pulse			  pulse	     PU	     Select pulse dialing
 quick_dial		  qdial	     QD	     Dial phone number #1, without progress detection
 remove_clock		  rmclk	     RC	     Remove time-of-day clock
 repeat_char		  rep	     rp	     Repeat char #1 #2 times
 req_for_input		  rfi	     RF	     Send next input char (for ptys)
 req_mouse_pos		  reqmp	     RQ	     Request mouse position report
 reset_1string		  rs1	     r1	     Reset terminal completely to sane modes
 reset_2string		  rs2	     r2	     Reset terminal completely to sane modes
 reset_3string		  rs3	     r3	     Reset terminal completely to sane modes
 reset_file		  rf	     rf	     Name of file containing reset string
 restore_cursor		  rc	     rc	     Restore cursor to position of last sc
 row_address		  vpa	     cv	     Set vertical position to absolute #1
 save_cursor		  sc	     sc	     Save cursor position
 scancode_escape	  scesc	     S7	     Escape for scancode emulation
 scroll_forward		  ind	     sf	     Scroll text up
 scroll_reverse		  ri	     sr	     Scroll text down
 select_char_set	  scs	     Zj	     Select character set
 set0_des_seq		  s0ds	     s0	     Shift into codeset 0 (EUC set 0, ASCII)

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

 set1_des_seq		  s1ds	     s1	     Shift into codeset 1
 set2_des_seq		  s2ds	     s2	     Shift into codeset 2
 set3_des_seq		  s3ds	     s3	     Shift into codeset 3
 set_a_attributes	  sgr1		     Define second set of video attributes #1-#6
 set_a_background	  setab	     AB	     Set background color to #1 using ANSI escape
 set_a_foreground	  setaf	     AF	     Set foreground color to #1 using ANSI escape
 set_attributes		  sgr	     sa	     Define first set of video attributes #1-#9
 set_background		  setb	     Sb	     Set background color to #1
 set_bottom_margin	  smgb	     Zk	     Set bottom margin at current line
 set_bottom_margin_parm	  smgbp	     Zl	     Set bottom margin at line #1 or #2
					     lines from bottom
 set_clock		  sclk	     SC	     Set clock to hours (#1), minutes (#2), seconds (#3)
 set_color_band		  setcolor   Yz	     Change to ribbon color #1
 set_color_pair		  scp	     sp	     Set current color pair to #1
 set_foreground		  setf	     Sf	     Set foreground color to #1
 set_left_margin	  smgl	     ML	     Set left margin at current column
 set_left_margin_parm	  smglp	     Zm	     Set left (right) margin at column #1 (#2)
 set_lr_margin		  smglr	     ML	     Sets both left and right margins
 set_page_length	  slines     YZ	     Set page length to #1 lines
 set_pglen_inch		  slength    YI	     Set page length to #1 hundredth of an inch
 set_right_margin	  smgr	     MR	     Set right margin at current column
 set_right_margin_parm	  smgrp	     Zn	     Set right margin at column #1
 set_tab		  hts	     st	     Set a tab in all rows, current column
 set_tb_margin		  smgtb	     MT	     Sets both top and bottom margins
 set_top_margin		  smgt	     Zo	     Set top margin at current line
 set_top_margin_parm	  smgtp	     Zp	     Set top (bottom) margin at line #1 (#2)
 set_window		  wind	     wi	     Current window is lines #1-#2 cols #3-#4
 start_bit_image	  sbim	     Zq	     Start printing bit image graphics
 start_char_set_def	  scsd	     Zr	     Start definition of a character set
 stop_bit_image		  rbim	     Zs	     End printing bit image graphics
 stop_char_set_def	  rcsd	     Zt	     End definition of a character set
 subscript_characters	  subcs	     Zu	     List of "subscript-able" characters
 superscript_characters	  supcs	     Zv	     List of "superscript-able" characters
 tab			  ht	     ta	     Tab to next 8-space hardware tab stop
 these_cause_cr		  docr	     Zw	     Printing any of these chars causes cr
 to_status_line		  tsl	     ts	     Go to status line, col #1
 tone			  tone	     TO	     Select touch tone dialing
 user0			  u0	     u0	     User string 0
 user1			  u1	     u1	     User string 1
 user2			  u2	     u2	     User string 2
 user3			  u3	     u3	     User string 3
 user4			  u4	     u4	     User string 4
 user5			  u5	     u5	     User string 5
 user6			  u6	     u6	     User string 6
 user7			  u7	     u7	     User string 7
 user8			  u8	     u8	     User string 8
 user9			  u9	     u9	     User string 9
 underline_char		  uc	     uc	     Underscore one char and move past it
 up_half_line		  hu	     hu	     Half-line up (reverse 1/2 linefeed)
 wait_tone		  wait	     WA	     Wait for dial tone
 xoff_character		  xoffc	     XF	     XOFF character

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

 xon_character		  xonc	     XN	     XON character
 zero_motion		  zerom	     Zx	     No motion for the subsequent character

 Sample Entry
      The following entry describes the AT&T 610 terminal.  (The pfxl and
      sgr values have been split for printing; they would actually be
      entered as single lines.)

      610|610bct|ATT610|att610|AT&&amp&amp&amp;T610;80column;98key keyboard,
	      am, eslok, hs, mir, msgr, xenl, xon,
	      cols#80, it#8, lh#2, lines#24, lw#8, nlab#8, wsl#80,
	      bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z,
	      civis=\E[?25l, clear=\E[H\E[J, cnorm=\E[?25h\E[?12l,
	      cr=\r, csr=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dr, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\b,
	      cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B, cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C,
	      cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH, cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A,
	      cvvis=\E[?12;25h, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P, dim=\E[2m,
	      dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K, el1=\E[1K,
	      flash=\E[?5h$<&lt&lt&lt;200>&gt&gt&gt;\E[?5l, fsl=\E8, home=\E[H, ht=\t,
	      ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=\ED, .ind=\ED$<&lt&lt&lt;9>&gt&gt&gt;,
	      is1=\E[8;0 | \E[?3;4;5;13;15l\E[13;20l\E[?7h\E[12h\E(B\E)0,
	      is2=\E[0m^O, is3=\E(B\E)0, kLFT=\E[\s@, kRIT=\E[\sA,
	      kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kclr=\E[2J, kcub1=\E[D, kcud1=\E[B,
	      kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, kfP=\EOc, kfP0=\ENp,
	      kfP1=\ENq, kfP2=\ENr, kfP3=\ENs, kfP4=\ENt, kfI=\EOd,
	      kfB=\EOe, kf4=\EOf, kf(CW=\EOg, kf6=\EOh, kf7=\EOi,
	      kf8=\EOj, kf9=\ENo, khome=\E[H, kind=\E[S, kri=\E[T,
	      ll=\E[24H, mc4=\E[?4i, mc5=\E[?5i, nel=\EE,
	      pln=\E[%p1%d;0;0;0q%p2%:-16.16s, rc=\E8, rev=\E[7m,
	      ri=\EM, rmacs=^O, rmir=\E[4l, rmln=\E[2p, rmso=\E[m,
	      rmul=\E[m, rs2=\Ec\E[?3l, sc=\E7,
	      sgr0=\E[m^O, smacs=^N, smir=\E[4h, smln=\E[p,
	      smso=\E[7m, smul=\E[4m, tsl=\E7\E[25;%i%p1%dx,

 Types of Capabilities in the Sample Entry
      The sample entry shows the formats for the three types of terminfo
      capabilities: boolean, numeric, and string.  All capabilities
      specified in the terminfo source file must be followed by commas,
      including the last capability in the source file.	 In terminfo source
      files, capabilities are referenced by their capability names (as shown
      in the Capname column of the previous tables).

    Boolean Capabilities
      A boolean capability is true if its Capname is present in the entry,

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

      and false if its Capname is not present in the entry.

      The "@" character following a Capname is used to explicitly declare
      that a boolean capability is false, in situations described in the
      "Similar Terminals" subsection of the "Insert/Delete Line" section

    Numeric Capabilities
      Numeric capabilities are followed by the character "#" and then a
      positive integer value.  The example assigns the value 80 to the cols
      numeric capability by coding:


      Values for numeric capabilities may be specified in decimal, octal or
      hexadecimal, using normal C-language conventions.

    String Capabilities
      String-valued capabilities such as el (clear to end of line sequence)
      are listed by the Capname, an "=", and a string ended by the next
      occurrence of a comma.

      A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere in such a capability,
      preceded by "$" and enclosed in angle brackets, as in el=\EK$<&lt&lt&lt;3>&gt&gt&gt;.	 The
      Curses implementation achieves delays by outputting to the terminal an
      appropriate number of system-defined padding characters.	The tputs()
      function provides delays when used to send such a capability to the

      The delay can be any of the following: a number; a number followed by
      an asterisk, such as 5*; a number followed by a slash, such as 5/; or
      a number followed by both, such as 5*/.

	   *  Shows that the required delay is proportional to the number of
	      lines affected by the operation, and the amount given is the
	      delay required per affected unit.	 (In the case of insert
	      characters, the factor is still the number of lines affected.
	      This is always 1 unless the device has in and the software
	      uses it.) When a "*" is specified, it is sometimes useful to
	      give a delay of the form 3.5 to specify a delay per unit to
	      tenths of milliseconds.  (Only one decimal place is allowed.)

	   /  Indicates that the delay is mandatory and padding characters
	      are transmitted regardless of the setting of xon.	 If "/" is
	      not specified or if a device has xon defined, the delay
	      information is advisory and is only used for cost estimates or
	      when the device is in raw mode.  However, any delay specified
	      for bel or flash is treated as mandatory.

      The following notation is valid in terminfo source files for
      specifying special characters:

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

	   Notation   Represents Character
	   ^x	      Control-x (for any appropriate x)
	   \a	      Alert
	   \b	      Backspace
	   \E or \e   An ESCAPE character
	   \f	      Form feed
	   \l	      Linefeed
	   \n	      Newline
	   \r	      Carriage return
	   \s	      Space
	   \t	      Tab
	   \^	      Caret (^)
	   \\	      Backslash (\)
	   \,	      Comma (,)
	   \:	      Colon (:)
	   \0	      Null
	   \nnn	      Any character, specified as three octal digits

      (See the "X/Open System Interface Definitions, Issue 4, Version 2"
      specification, "General Terminal Interface".)

    Commented-Out Capabilities
      Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.	To do this,
      put a period before the capability name.	For example, see the second
      ind in the example in the "Sample Entry" section above.  Note that
      capabilities are defined in a left-to-right order and, therefore, a
      prior definition will override a later definition.

 Device Capabilities
    Basic Capabilities
      The number of columns on each line for the device is given by the cols
      numeric capability.  If the device has a screen, then the number of
      lines on the screen is given by the lines capability.  If the device
      wraps around to the beginning of the next line when it reaches the
      right margin, then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal
      can clear its screen, leaving the cursor in the home position, then
      this is given by the clear string capability.  If the terminal
      overstrikes (rather than clearing a position when a character is
      struck over) then it should have the os capability.  If the device is
      a printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, specify both hc and os.
      If there is a way to move the cursor to the left edge of the current
      row, specify this as cr.	(Normally this will be carriage return,
      control-M.) If there is a way to produce an audible signal (such as a
      bell or a beep), specify it as bel.  If, like most devices, the device
      uses the XON/XOFF flow-control protocol, specify xon.

      If there is a way to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
      backspace), that capability should be given as cub1.  Similarly,
      sequences to move to the right, up, and down should be given as cuf1,

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

      cuu1, and cud1, respectively.  These local cursor motions must not
      alter the text they pass over; for example, you would not normally use
      "cuf1=\s" because the space would erase the character moved over.

      A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded
      in terminfo are undefined at the left and top edges of a screen
      terminal.	 Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left
      edge, unless bw is specified, and should never attempt to go up
      locally off the top.  To scroll text up, a program goes to the bottom
      left corner of the screen and sends the ind (index) string.  To scroll
      text down, a program goes to the top left corner of the screen and
      sends the ri (reverse index) string.  The strings ind and ri are
      undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

      Parameterized versions of the scrolling sequences are indn and rin.
      These versions have the same semantics as ind and ri, except that they
      take one argument and scroll the number of lines specified by that
      argument.	 They are also undefined except at the appropriate edge of
      the screen.

      The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge of
      the screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily apply to
      a cuf1 from the last column.  Backward motion from the left edge of
      the screen is possible only when bw is specified.	 In this case, cub1
      will move to the right edge of the previous row.	If bw is not given,
      the effect is undefined.	This is useful for drawing a box around the
      edge of the screen, for example.	If the device has switch-selectable
      automatic margins, am should be specified in the terminfo source file.
      In this case, initialization strings should turn on this option, if
      possible.	 If the device has a command that moves to the first column
      of the next line, that command can be given as nel (newline).  It does
      not matter if the command clears the remainder of the current line, so
      if the device has no cr and lf it may still be possible to craft a
      working nel out of one or both of them.

      These capabilities suffice to describe hardcopy and screen terminals.
      Thus the AT&T 5320 hardcopy terminal is described as follows:

	   5320|att5320|AT&&amp&amp&amp;T 5320 hardcopy terminal,
		   am, hc, os,
		   bel=^G, cr=\r, cub1=\b, cnd1=\n,
		   dch1=\E[P, dl1=\E[M,

      while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

	   adm3|lsi adm3,
		   am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H,
		   cud1=^J, ind=^J, lines#24,

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

    Parameterized Strings
      Cursor addressing and other strings requiring arguments are described
      by a argumentized string capability with escapes in a form (%x)
      comparable to printf() (see printf(1)).  For example, to address the
      cursor, the cup capability is given, using two arguments:	 the row and
      column to address to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and
      refer to the physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen
      memory.) If the terminal has memory relative cursor addressing, that
      can be indicated by mrcup.

      The argument mechanism uses a stack and special "%" codes to
      manipulate the stack in the manner of Reverse Polish Notation
      (postfix).  Typically a sequence pushes one of the arguments onto the
      stack and then prints it in some format.	Often more complex
      operations are necessary.	 Operations are in postfix form with the
      operands in the usual order.  That is, to subtract 5 from the first
      argument, one would use %p1%{5}%-.

      The "%" encodings have the following meanings:

	   %%		  Outputs "%".

			  As in printf(); flags are [-+#] and space.

	   %c		  Print pop() gives %c.

	   %p[1-9]	  Push the ith argument.

	   %P[a-z]	  Set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop().

	   %g[a-z]	  Get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it.

	   %P[A-Z]	  Set static variable [a-z] to pop().

	   %g[A-Z]	  Get static variable [a-z] and push it.

	   %'c'		  Push char constant c.

	   %{nn}	  Push decimal constant nn.

	   %l		  Push strlen(pop()).

	   %+ %- %* %/ %m Arithmetic (%m is mod):  push(pop integer2 op pop
			  integer1) where integer1 represents the top of the

	   %&&amp&amp&amp; %| %^	  Bit operations:  push(pop integer2 op pop

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

	   %= %>&gt&gt&gt; %<&lt&lt&lt;	  Logical operations:  push(pop integer2 op pop

	   %A %O	  Logical operations:  and, or

	   %! %~	  Unary operations:  push(op pop())

	   %i		  (For ANSI terminals) add 1 to the first argument
			  (if one argument present), or first two arguments
			  (if more than one argument present).

	   %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
			  If-then-else; %e elsepart is optional; else-if's
			  are possible as in Algol 68:

			  %? c
			      1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e
			  b5 %;

			  ci are conditions; bi are bodies.

      If the "-" flag is used with "%[doxXs]", then a colon must be placed
      between the "%" and the "-" to differentiate the flag from the binary
      "%-" operator.  For example: "%:-16.16s".

      Consider the Hewlett-Packard 2645, which, to get to row 3 and column
      12, needs to be sent \E&&amp&amp&amp;a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that
      the order of the rows and columns is inverted here, and that the row
      and column are zero-padded as two digits.	 Thus, its cup capability


      The Micro-Term ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded
      by a ^T, with the row and column simply encoded in binary:


      Devices that use "%c" need to be able to backspace the cursor (cub1),
      and to move the cursor up one line on the screen (cuu1).	This is
      necessary because it is not always safe to transmit \n, ^D, and \r, as
      the system may change or discard them.  (The library functions dealing
      with terminfo set tty modes so that tabs are never expanded, so \t is
      safe to send.  This turns out to be essential for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

      A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset by
      a blank character, thus:


      After sending "\E=", this pushes the first argument, pushes the ASCII
      decimal value for a space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

      stack in place of the two previous values), and outputs that value as
      a character.  Then the same is done for the second argument.  More
      complex arithmetic is possible using the stack.

    Cursor Motions
      If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left
      corner of screen) then this can be given as home; similarly a fast way
      of getting to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll; this may
      involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a program
      should never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make no
      assumption about the effect of moving up from the home position.	Note
      that the home position is the same as addressing to (0,0):  to the top
      left corner of the screen, not of memory.	 (Thus, the \EH sequence on
      Hewlett-Packard terminals cannot be used for home without losing some
      of the other features on the terminal.)

      If the device has row or column absolute-cursor addressing, these can
      be given as single argument capabilities hpa (horizontal position
      absolute) and vpa (vertical position absolute).  Sometimes these are
      shorter than the more general two-argument sequence (as with the
      Hewlett-Packard 2645) and can be used in preference to cup. If there
      are argumentised local motions (such as "move n spaces to the right"),
      these can be given as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single argument
      indicating how many spaces to move.  These are primarily useful if the
      device does not have cup, such as the Tektronix 4025.

      If the device needs to be in a special mode when running a program
      that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode
      can be given as smcup and rmcup.	This arises, for example, from
      terminals, such as the Concept, with more than one page of memory.  If
      the device has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen
      relative cursor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed
      into the device for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also
      used for the Tektronix 4025, where smcup sets the command character to
      be the one used by terminfo.  If the rmcup sequence will not restore
      the screen after an smcup sequence is output (to the state prior to
      outputting smcup), specify nrrmc.

    Area Clears
      If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the
      line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as el.	 If
      the terminal can clear from the beginning of the line to the current
      position inclusive, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be
      given as el1.  If the terminal can clear from the current position to
      the end of the display, then this should be given as ed.	ed is only
      defined from the first column of a line.	(Thus, it can be simulated
      by a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not

 Insert/Delete Line
      If the terminal can open a new blank line before the line where the

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

      cursor is, this should be given as il1; this is done only from the
      first position of a line.	 The cursor must then appear on the newly
      blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line which the cursor is
      on, then this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the first
      position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 which
      take a single argument and insert or delete that many lines can be
      given as il and dl.

      If the terminal has a settable destructive scrolling region (like the
      VT100) the command to set this can be described with the csr
      capability, which takes two arguments:  the top and bottom lines of
      the scrolling region.  The cursor position is, alas, undefined after
      using this command.  It is possible to get the effect of insert or
      delete line using this command - the sc and rc (save and restore
      cursor) commands are also useful.	 Inserting lines at the top or
      bottom of the screen can also be done using ri or ind on many
      terminals without a true insert/delete line, and is often faster even
      on terminals with those features.

      To determine whether a terminal has destructive scrolling regions or
      nondestructive scrolling regions, create a scrolling region in the
      middle of the screen, place data on the bottom line of the scrolling
      region, move the cursor to the top line of the scrolling region, and
      do a reverse index (ri) followed by a delete line (dl1) or index
      (ind).  If the data that was originally on the bottom line of the
      scrolling region was restored into the scrolling region by the dl1 or
      ind, then the terminal has nondestructive scrolling regions.
      Otherwise, it has destructive scrolling regions.	Do not specify csr
      if the terminal has nondestructive scrolling regions, unless ind, ri,
      indn, rin, dl, and dl1 all simulate destructive scrolling.

      If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory,
      which all commands affect, it should be given as the argumentized
      string wind.  The four arguments are the starting and ending lines in
      memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

      If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da
      capability should be given; if display memory can be retained below,
      then db should be given.	These indicate that deleting a line or
      scrolling a full screen may bring nonblank lines up from below or that
      scrolling back with ri may bring down nonblank lines.

    Insert/Delete Character
      There are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals with respect to
      insert/delete character operations which can be described using
      terminfo.	 The most common insert/delete character operations affect
      only the characters on the current line and shift characters off the
      end of the line rigidly.	Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and
      the Perkin-Elmer Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped
      blanks on the screen, shifting upon an insert or delete only to an
      untyped blank on the screen which is either eliminated, or expanded to

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

      two untyped blanks.  You can determine the kind of terminal you have
      by clearing the screen and then typing text separated by cursor
      motions.	Type "abc    def" using local cursor motions (not spaces)
      between the abc and the def.  Then position the cursor before the abc
      and put the terminal in insert mode.  If typing characters causes the
      rest of the line to shift rigidly and characters to fall off the end,
      then your terminal does not distinguish between blanks and untyped
      positions.  If the abc shifts over to the def which then move together
      around the end of the current line and onto the next as you insert,
      you have the second type of terminal, and should give the capability
      in, which stands for "insert null".  While these are two logically
      separate attributes (one line versus multiline insert mode, and
      special treatment of untyped spaces) we have seen no terminals whose
      insert mode cannot be described with the single attribute.

      terminfo can describe both terminals that have an insert mode and
      terminals which send a simple sequence to open a blank position on the
      current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into insert mode.
      Give as rmir the sequence to leave insert mode.  Now give as ich1 any
      sequence needed to be sent just before sending the character to be
      inserted.	 Most terminals with a true insert mode will not give ich1;
      terminals that send a sequence to open a screen position should give
      it here.	(If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually
      preferable to ich1.  Do not give both unless the terminal requires
      both to be used in combination.) If post-insert padding is needed,
      give this as a number of milliseconds padding in ip (a string option).
      Any other sequence which may need to be sent after an insert of a
      single character may also be given in ip.	 If your terminal needs both
      to be placed into an "insert mode" and a special code to precede each
      inserted character, then both smir/rmir and ich1 can be given, and
      both will be used.  The ich capability, with one argument, n, will
      insert n blanks.

      If padding is necessary between characters typed while not in insert
      mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

      It is occasionally necessary to move around while in insert mode to
      delete characters on the same line (for example, if there is a tab
      after the insertion position).  If your terminal allows motion while
      in insert mode you can give the capability mir to speed up inserting
      in this case.  Omitting mir will affect only speed.  Some terminals
      (notably Datamedia) must not have mir because of the way their insert
      mode works.

      Finally, you can specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch with
      one argument, n, to delete n characters, and delete mode by giving
      smdc and rmdc to enter and exit delete mode (any mode the terminal
      needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

      A command to erase n characters (equivalent to outputting n blanks
      without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one argument.

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

    Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
      Your device may have one or more kinds of display attributes that
      allow you to highlight selected characters when they appear on the
      screen.  The following display modes (shown with the names by which
      they are set) may be available:

	   +  A blinking screen (blink)

	   +  Bold or extra-bright characters (bold)

	   +  Dim or half-bright characters (dim)

	   +  Blanking or invisible text (invis)

	   +  Protected text (prot)

	   +  A reverse-video screen (rev)

	   +  An alternate character set (smacs to enter this mode and rmacs
	      to exit it).  (If a command is necessary before you can enter
	      alternate character set mode, give the sequence in enacs or
	      "enable alternate-character-set" mode.) Turning on any of
	      these modes singly may turn off other modes.

      sgr0 should be used to turn off all video enhancement capabilities.
      It should always be specified because it represents the only way to
      turn off some capabilities, such as dim or blink.

      Choose one display method as standout mode and use it to highlight
      error messages and other text to which you want to draw attention.
      Choose a form of display that provides strong contrast but that is
      easy on the eyes.	 (We recommend reverse-video plus half-bright or
      reverse-video alone.) The sequences to enter and exit standout mode
      are given as smso and rmso, respectively.	 If the code to change into
      or out of standout mode leaves one or even two blank spaces on the
      screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then xmc should be given
      to tell how many spaces are left.

      Sequences to begin underlining and end underlining can be specified as
      smul and rmul, respectively.  If the device has a sequence to
      underline the current character and to move the cursor one space to
      the right (such as the Micro-Term MIME), this sequence can be
      specified as uc.

      Terminals with the "magic cookie" glitch (xmc) deposit special
      "cookies" when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the
      display algorithm rather than having extra bits for each character.
      Some terminals, such as the Hewlett-Packard 2621, automatically leave
      standout mode when they move to a new line or the cursor is addressed.
      Programs using standout mode should exit standout mode before moving
      the cursor or sending a newline, unless the msgr capability, asserting

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      that it is safe to move in standout mode, is present.

      If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
      quietly (a bell replacement), then this can be given as flash; it must
      not move the cursor.  A good flash can be done by changing the screen
      into reverse video, pad for 200 ms, then return the screen to normal

      If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is not
      on the bottom line (to make, for example, a nonblinking underline into
      an easier to find block or blinking underline) give this sequence as
      cvvis.  The boolean chts should also be given.  If there is a way to
      make the cursor completely invisible, give that as civis.	 The
      capability cnorm should be given, which undoes the effects of either
      of these modes.

      If your terminal generates underlined characters by using the
      underline character (with no special sequences needed) even though it
      does not otherwise overstrike characters, then specify the capability
      ul.  For devices on which a character overstriking another leaves both
      characters on the screen, specify the capability os.  If overstrikes
      are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by specifying

      If there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of modes, this
      should be given as sgr (set attributes), taking nine arguments.  Each
      argument is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute is on
      or off.  The nine arguments are, in order:  standout, underline,
      reverse, blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate character set.
      Not all modes need to be supported by sgr; only those for which
      corresponding separate attribute commands exist should be supported.
      For example, let's assume that the terminal in question needs the
      following escape sequences to turn on various modes.

	   Argument   Attribute	   Escape Sequence
		      none	   \E[0m
	      p1      standout	   \E[0;4;7m
	      p2      underline	   \E[0;3m
	      p3      reverse	   \E[0;4m
	      p4      blink	   \E[0;5m
	      p5      dim	   \E[0;7m
	      p6      bold	   \E[0;3;4m
	      p7      invis	   \E[0;8m
	      p8      protect	   not available
	      p9      altcharset   ^O (off) ^N (on)

      Note that each escape sequence requires a 0 to turn off other modes
      before turning on its own mode.  Also note that, as suggested above,

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      standout is set up to be the combination of reverse and dim.  Also,
      because this terminal has no bold mode, bold is set up as the
      combination of reverse and underline.  In addition, to allow
      combinations, such as underline+blink, the sequence to use would be
      \E[0;3;5m.  The terminal doesn't have protect mode, either, but that
      cannot be simulated in any way, so p8 is ignored.	 The altcharset mode
      is different in that it is either ^O or ^N, depending on whether it is
      off or on.  If all modes were to be turned on, the sequence would be:


      Now look at when different sequences are output.	For example, ;3 is
      output when either p2 or p6 is true, that is, if either underline or
      bold modes are turned on.	 Writing out the above sequences, along with
      their dependencies, gives the following:

	   Sequence	When to Output	   terminfo Translation
	   \E[0	      always		   \E[0
	   ;3	      if p2 or p6	   %?%p2%p6%|%t;3%;
	   ;4	      if p1 or p3 or p6	   %?%p1%p3%|%p6%|%t;4%;
	   ;5	      if p4		   %?%p4%t;5%;
	   ;7	      if p1 or p5	   %?%p1%p5%|%t;7%;
	   ;8	      if p7		   %?%p7%t;8%;
	   m	      always		   m
	   ^N or ^O   if p9, ^N; else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

      Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


      Remember that sgr and sgr0 must always be specified.

      If the device has a keypad that transmits sequences when the keys are
      pressed, this information can also be specified.	Note that it is not
      possible to handle devices where the keypad only works in local (this
      applies, for example, to the unshifted Hewlett-Packard 2621 keys).  If
      the keypad can be set to transmit or not transmit, specify these
      sequences as smkx and rmkx.  Otherwise the keypad is assumed to always

      The sequences sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down
      arrow, and home keys can be given as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1 and
      khome, respectively.  If there are function keys such as f0, f1, ...,
      f63, the sequences they send can be specified as kf0, kf1, ..., kf63.
      If the first 11 keys have labels other than the default f0 through
      f10, the labels can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

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      The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be given:	 kll
      (home down), kbs (backspace), ktbc (clear all tabs), kctab (clear the
      tab stop in this column), kclr (clear screen or erase key), kdch1
      (delete character), kdl1 (delete line), krmir (exit insert mode), kel
      (clear to end of line), ked (clear to end of screen), kich1 (insert
      character or enter insert mode), kil1 (insert line), knp (next page),
      kpp (previous page), kind (scroll forward/down), kri (scroll
      backward/up), khts (set a tab stop in this column).  In addition, if
      the keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the four arrow keys,
      the other five keys can be given as ka1, ka3, kb2, kc1, and kc3.
      These keys are useful when the effects of a 3 by 3 directional pad are
      needed.  Further keys are defined above in the capabilities list.

      Strings to program function keys can be specified as pfkey, pfloc, and
      pfx.  A string to program screen labels should be specified as pln.
      Each of these strings takes two arguments: a function key identifier
      and a string to program it with.	pfkey causes pressing the given key
      to be the same as the user typing the given string; pfloc causes the
      string to be executed by the terminal in local mode; and pfx causes
      the string to be transmitted to the computer.  The capabilities nlab,
      lw and lh define the number of programmable screen labels and their
      width and height.	 If there are commands to turn the labels on and
      off, give them in smln and rmln.	smln is normally output after one or
      more pln sequences to make sure that the change becomes visible.

    Tabs and Initialization
      If the device has hardware tabs, the command to advance to the next
      tab stop can be given as ht (usually control-I).	A "backtab" command
      that moves leftward to the next tab stop can be given as cbt.  By
      convention, if tty modes show that tabs are being expanded by the
      computer rather than being sent to the device, programs should not use
      ht or cbt (even if they are present) because the user might not have
      the tab stops properly set.  If the device has hardware tabs that are
      initially set every n spaces when the device is powered up, the
      numeric argument it is given, showing the number of spaces the tabs
      are set to.  This is normally used by tput init to determine whether
      to set the mode for hardware tab expansion and whether to set the tab
      stops.  If the device has tab stops that can be saved in nonvolatile
      memory, the terminfo description can assume that they are properly
      set.  If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be
      given as tbc (clear all tab stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the
      current column of every row).

      Other capabilities include:  is1, is2, and is3, initialization strings
      for the device; iprog, the path name of a program to be run to
      initialize the device; and if, the name of a file containing long
      initialization strings.  These strings are expected to set the device
      into modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.	They
      must be sent to the device each time the user logs in and be output in
      the following order:  run the program iprog; output is1; output is2;
      set the margins using mgc, smgl and smgr; set the tabs using tbc and

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      hts; print the file if; and finally output is3.  This is usually done
      using the init option of tput.

      Most initialization is done with is2.  Special device modes can be set
      up without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences in is2
      and special cases in is1 and is3.	 Sequences that do a reset from a
      totally unknown state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf, and rs3, analogous
      to is1, is2, is3, and if.	 (The method using files, if and rf, is used
      for a few terminals; however, the recommended method is to use the
      initialization and reset strings.) These strings are output by tput
      reset, which is used when the terminal gets into a wedged state.
      Commands are normally placed in rs1, rs2, rs3, and rf only if they
      produce annoying effects on the screen and are not necessary when
      logging in.  For example, the command to set a terminal into 80-column
      mode would normally be part of is2, but on some terminals it causes an
      annoying glitch on the screen and is not normally needed because the
      terminal is usually already in 80-column mode.

      If a more complex sequence is needed to set the tabs than can be
      described by using tbc and hts, the sequence can be placed in is2 or

      Any margin can be cleared with mgc.  (For instructions on how to
      specify commands to set and clear margins, see the "Margins"
      subsection of the "Capabilities That Cause Movement" section below.

      Certain capabilities control padding in the tty driver.  These are
      primarily needed by hard-copy terminals, and are used by tput init to
      set tty modes appropriately (see tput(1)).  Delays embedded in the
      capabilities cr, ind, cub1, ff, and tab can be used to set the
      appropriate delay bits to be set in the tty driver.  If pb (padding
      baud rate) is given, these values can be ignored at baud rates below
      the value of pb.

    Status Lines
      If the terminal has an extra "status line" that is not normally used
      by software, this fact can be indicated.	If the status line is viewed
      as an extra line below the bottom line, into which one can cursor-
      address normally (such as the Heathkit H19's 25th line, or the 24th
      line of a VT100 which is set to a 23-line scrolling region), the
      capability hs should be given.  Special strings that go to a given
      column of the status line and return from the status line can be given
      as tsl and fsl.  (fsl must leave the cursor position in the same place
      it was before tsl.  If necessary, the sc and rc strings can be
      included in tsl and fsl to get this effect.) The capability tsl takes
      one argument, which is the column number of the status line the cursor
      is to be moved to.

      If escape sequences and other special commands, such as tab, work
      while in the status line, the flag eslok can be given.  A string which

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      turns off the status line (or otherwise erases its contents) should be
      given as dsl.  If the terminal has commands to save and restore the
      position of the cursor, give them as sc and rc.  The status line is
      normally assumed to be the same width as the rest of the screen (that
      is, cols).  If the status line is a different width (possibly because
      the terminal does not allow an entire line to be loaded) the width, in
      columns, can be indicated with the numeric argument wsl.

    Line Graphics
      If the device has a line drawing alternate character set, the mapping
      of glyph to character would be given in acsc.  The definition of this
      string is based on the alternate character set used in the Digital
      VT100 terminal, extended slightly with some characters from the AT&T
      4410v1 terminal.

	   Glyph Name		     Character
	   arrow pointing right		 +
	   arrow pointing left		 ,
	   arrow pointing down		 .
	   solid square block		 0
	   lantern symbol		 I
	   arrow pointing up		 -
	   diamond			 `
	   checker board (stipple)	 a
	   degree symbol		 f
	   plus/minus			 g
	   board of squares		 h
	   lower right corner		 j
	   upper right corner		 k
	   upper left corner		 l
	   lower left corner		 m
	   plus				 n
	   scan line 1			 o
	   horizontal line		 q
	   scan line 9			 s
	   left tee (-)			 t
	   right tee (-|)		 u
	   bottom tee (|)		 v
	   top tee (|)			 w
	   vertical line		 x
	   bullet			 ~

      The best way to describe a new device's line graphics set is to add a
      third column to the above table with the characters for the new device
      that produce the appropriate glyph when the device is in alternate-
      character-set mode.  For example:

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				 VT100+	    Character Used
	   Glyph Name		Character   on New Device
	   upper left corner	    l		  R
	   lower left corner	    m		  F
	   upper right corner	    k		  T
	   lower right corner	    j		  G
	   horizontal line	    q		  ,
	   vertical line	    x		  .

      Now write down the characters left to right; for example:


      In addition, terminfo lets you define multiple character sets (see the
      "Alternate Character Sets" section below.

    Color Manipulation
      Most color terminals belong to one of two classes of terminal:

	   +  Tektronix-style

	      The Tektronix method uses a set of N predefined colors
	      (usually 8) from which an application can select "current"
	      foreground and background colors.	 Thus a terminal can support
	      up to N colors mixed into N*N color-pairs to be displayed on
	      the screen at the same time.

	   +  Hewlett-Packard-style

	      In the HP method, the application cannot define the foreground
	      independently of the background, or vice-versa.  Instead, the
	      application must define an entire color-pair at once.  Up to M
	      color-pairs, made from 2*M different colors, can be defined
	      this way.

      The numeric variables colors and pairs define the number of colors and
      color-pairs that can be displayed on the screen at the same time.	 If
      a terminal can change the definition of a color (for example, the
      Tektronix 4100 and 4200 series terminals), this should be specified
      with ccc (can change color).  To change the definition of a color
      (Tektronix 4200 method), use initc (initialize color).  It requires
      four arguments:  color number (ranging from 0 to colors-1) and three
      RGB (red, green, and blue) values or three HLS colors (Hue, Lightness,
      Saturation).  Ranges of RGB and HLS values are terminal-dependent.

      Tektronix 4100 series terminals only use HLS color notation.  For such
      terminals (or dual-mode terminals to be operated in HLS mode) one must
      define a boolean variable hls; that would instruct the init_color()
      function (see can_change_color(3X)) to convert its RGB arguments to

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      HLS before sending them to the terminal.	The last three arguments to
      the initc string would then be HLS values.

      If a terminal can change the definitions of colors, but uses a color
      notation different from RGB and HLS, a mapping to either RGB or HLS
      must be developed.

      If the terminal supports ANSI escape sequences to set background and
      foreground, they should be coded as setab and setaf, respectively.  If
      the terminal supports other escape sequences to set background and
      foreground, they should be coded as setb and setf, respectively.	The
      vidputs() function (see vidattr(3X)) and the refresh functions use
      setab and setaf if they are defined.  Each of these capabilities
      requires one argument:  the number of the color.	By convention, the
      first eight colors (0-7) map to, in order: black, red, green, yellow,
      blue, magenta, cyan, white.  However, color re-mapping may occur or
      the underlying hardware may not support these colors.  Mappings for
      any additional colors supported by the device (that is, to numbers
      greater than 7) are at the discretion of the terminfo entry writer.

      To initialize a color-pair (HP method), use initp (initialize pair).
      It requires seven arguments:  the number of a color-pair (range=0 to
      pairs-1), and six RGB values:  three for the foreground followed by
      three for the background.	 (Each of these groups of three should be in
      the order RGB.) When initc or initp are used, RGB or HLS arguments
      should be in the order "red, green, blue" or "hue, lightness,
      saturation"), respectively.  To make a color-pair current, use scp
      (set color-pair).	 It takes one argument, the number of a color-pair.

      Some terminals (for example, most color terminal emulators for PCs)
      erase areas of the screen with current background color.	In such
      cases, bce (background color erase) should be defined.  The variable
      op (original pair) contains a sequence for setting the foreground and
      the background colors to what they were at the terminal start-up time.
      Similarly, oc (original colors) contains a control sequence for
      setting all colors (for the Tektronix method) or color-pairs (for the
      HP method) to the values they had at the terminal start-up time.

      Some color terminals substitute color for video attributes.  Such
      video attributes should not be combined with colors.  Information
      about these video attributes should be packed into the ncv (no color
      video) variable.	There is a one-to-one correspondence between the
      nine least significant bits of that variable and the video attributes.
      The following table depicts this correspondence.

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			     Bit      Decimal	 Characteristic
	     Attribute	   Position    Value	    That Sets
	   WA_STANDOUT	       0	   1	sgr, parameter 1
	   WA_UNDERLINE	       1	   2	sgr, parameter 2
	   WA_REVERSE	       2	   4	sgr, parameter 3
	   WA_BLINK	       3	   8	sgr, parameter 4
	   WA_DIM	       4	  16	sgr, parameter 5
	   WA_BOLD	       5	  32	sgr, parameter 6
	   WA_INVIS	       6	  64	sgr, parameter 7
	   WA_PROTECT	       7	 128	sgr, parameter 8
	   WA_ALTCHARSET       8	 256	sgr, parameter 9
	   WA_HORIZONTAL       9	 512	sgr1, parameter 1
	   WA_LEFT	      10	1024	sgr1, parameter 2
	   WA_LOW	      11	2048	sgr1, parameter 3
	   WA_RIGHT	      12	4096	sgr1, parameter 4
	   WA_TOP	      13	8192	sgr1, parameter 5
	   WA_VERTICAL	      14       16384	sgr1, parameter 6

      When a particular video attribute should not be used with colors, set
      the corresponding ncv bit to 1; otherwise set it to 0.  To determine
      the information to pack into the ncv variable, add the decimal values
      corresponding to those attributes that cannot coexist with colors.
      For example, if the terminal uses colors to simulate reverse video
      (bit number 2 and decimal value 4) and bold (bit number 5 and decimal
      value 32), the resulting value for ncv will be 36 (4 + 32).

      If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
      then this can be given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
      string is used.  If the terminal does not have a pad character,
      specify npc.

      If the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be indicated
      with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line down).  This is primarily
      useful for superscripts and subscripts on hardcopy terminals.  If a
      hardcopy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give this as
      ff (usually control-L).

      If there is a command to repeat a given character a given number of
      times (to save time transmitting a large number of identical
      characters) this can be indicated with the argumentized string rep.
      The first argument is the character to be repeated and the second is
      the number of times to repeat it.	 Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10)
      is the same as xxxxxxxxxx.

      If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the
      Tektronix 4025, this can be indicated with cmdch.	 A prototype command
      character is chosen which is used in all capabilities.  This character
      is given in the cmdch capability to identify it.	The following

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

      convention is supported on some systems: If the environment variable
      CC exists, all occurrences of the prototype character are replaced
      with the character in CC.

      Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific kind of known
      terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and network, should include
      the gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they do
      not know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not apply
      to virtual terminal descriptions for which the escape sequences are
      known.) If the terminal is one of those supported by the virtual
      terminal protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.  A line-
      turn-around sequence to be transmitted before doing reads should be
      specified in rfi.

      If the device uses XON/XOFF handshaking for flow control, give xon.
      Padding information should still be included so that functions can
      make better decisions about costs, but actual pad characters will not
      be transmitted.  Sequences to turn on and off XON/XOFF handshaking may
      be given in smxon and rmxon.  If the characters used for handshaking
      are not ^S and ^Q, they may be specified with xonc and xoffc.

      If the terminal has a "meta key" which acts as a shift key, setting
      the 8th bit of any character transmitted, this fact can be indicated
      with km.	Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th bit is parity
      and it will usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this "meta
      mode" on and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

      If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen
      at once, the number of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.	A
      value of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but
      that there is still more memory than fits on the screen.

      Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to the
      terminal can be given as:

	   mc0	Print the contents of the screen.
	   mc4	Turn off the printer.
	   mc5	Turn on the printer.

      When the printer is on, all text sent to the terminal will be sent to
      the printer.  A variation, mc5p, takes one argument, and leaves the
      printer on for as many characters as the value of the argument, then
      turns the printer off.  The argument should not exceed 255.  If the
      text is not displayed on the terminal screen when the printer is on,
      specify mc5i (silent printer).  All text, including mc4, is
      transparently passed to the printer while an mc5p is in effect.

    Special Cases
      The working model used by terminfo fits most terminals reasonably
      well.  However, some terminals do not completely match that model,
      requiring special support by terminfo.  These are not meant to be

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      construed as deficiencies in the terminals; they are just differences
      between the working model and the actual hardware.  They may be
      unusual devices or, for some reason, do not have all the features of
      the terminfo model implemented.

      Terminals that cannot display tilde (~) characters, such as certain
      Hazeltine terminals, should indicate hz.

      Terminals that ignore a linefeed immediately after an am wrap, such as
      the Concept 100, should indicate xenl.  Those terminals whose cursor
      remains on the right-most column until another character has been
      received, rather than wrapping immediately upon receiving the right-
      most character, such as the VT100, should also indicate xenl.

      If el is required to get rid of standout (instead of writing normal
      text on top of it), xhp should be given.

      Those Teleray terminals whose tabs turn all characters moved over to
      blanks, should indicate xt (destructive tabs).  This capability is
      also taken to mean that it is not possible to position the cursor on
      top of a "magic cookie".	Therefore, to erase standout mode, it is
      necessary, instead, to use delete and insert line.

      For Beehive Superbee terminals that do not transmit the escape or
      control-C characters, specify xsb, indicating that the f1 key is to be
      used for escape and the f2 key for control-C.

    Similar Terminals
      If there are two similar terminals, one can be defined as being just
      like the other with certain exceptions.  The string capability use can
      be given with the name of the similar terminal.  The capabilities
      given before use override those in the terminal type invoked by use.
      A capability can be canceled by placing capability-name@ prior to the
      appearance of the string capability use.	For example, the entry:

	   att4424-2|Teletype 4424 in display function group ii,
		   rev@, sgr@, smul@, use=att4424,

      defines an AT&T 04424 terminal that does not have the rev, sgr, and
      smul capabilities, and hence cannot do highlighting.  This is useful
      for different modes for a terminal, or for different user preferences.
      More than one use capability may be given.

 Printer Capabilities
      The terminfo database lets you define capabilities of printers as well
      as terminals.  Capabilities available for printers are included in the
      lists in the "Defined Capabilities" section above.

    Rounding Values
      Because argumentized string capabilities work only with integer
      values, terminfo designers should create strings that expect numeric

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

      values that have been rounded.  Application designers should note this
      and should always round values to the nearest integer before using
      them with a argumentized string capability.

    Printer Resolution
      A printer's resolution is defined to be the smallest spacing of
      characters it can achieve.  In general, the horizontal and vertical
      resolutions are independent.  Thus the vertical resolution of a
      printer can be determined by measuring the smallest achievable
      distance between consecutive printing baselines, while the horizontal
      resolution can be determined by measuring the smallest achievable
      distance between the leftmost edges of consecutive printed, identical,

      All printers are assumed to be capable of printing with a uniform
      horizontal and vertical resolution.  The view of printing that
      terminfo currently presents is one of printing inside a uniform
      matrix:  All characters are printed at fixed positions relative to
      each "cell" in the matrix; furthermore, each cell has the same size
      given by the smallest horizontal and vertical step sizes dictated by
      the resolution.  (The cell size can be changed as will be seen later.)

      Many printers are capable of "proportional printing", where the
      horizontal spacing depends on the size of the character last printed.
      terminfo does not make use of this capability, although it does
      provide enough capability definitions to allow an application to
      simulate proportional printing.

      A printer must not only be able to print characters as close together
      as the horizontal and vertical resolutions suggest, but also of
      "moving" to a position an integral multiple of the smallest distance
      away from a previous position.  Thus printed characters can be spaced
      apart a distance that is an integral multiple of the smallest
      distance, up to the length or width of a single page.

      Some printers can have different resolutions depending on different
      "modes".	In "normal mode", the existing terminfo capabilities are
      assumed to work on columns and lines, just like a video terminal.
      Thus the old lines capability would give the length of a page in
      lines, and the cols capability would give the width of a page in
      columns.	In "micro mode," many terminfo capabilities work on
      increments of lines and columns.	With some printers the micro mode
      may be concomitant with normal mode, so that all the capabilities work
      at the same time.

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

    Specifying Printer Resolution
      The printing resolution of a printer is given in several ways.  Each
      specifies the resolution as the number of smallest steps per distance:

	   Characteristic Number of Smallest Steps
	   orhi	  Steps per inch horizontally
	   orvi	  Steps per inch vertically
	   orc	  Steps per column
	   orl	  Steps per line

      When printing in normal mode, each character printed causes movement
      to the next column, except in special cases described later; the
      distance moved is the same as the per-column resolution.	Some
      printers cause an automatic movement to the next line when a character
      is printed in the rightmost position; the distance moved vertically is
      the same as the per-line resolution.  When printing in micro mode,
      these distances can be different, and may be zero for some printers.

	   Automatic Motion after Printing
	   Normal Mode:
	   orc	 Steps moved horizontally
	   orl	 Steps moved vertically
	   Micro Mode:
	   mcs	 Steps moved horizontally
	   mls	 Steps moved vertically

      Some printers are capable of printing wide characters.  The distance
      moved when a wide character is printed in normal mode may be different
      from when a regular width character is printed.  The distance moved
      when a wide character is printed in micro mode may also be different
      from when a regular character is printed in micro mode, but the
      differences are assumed to be related:  If the distance moved for a
      regular character is the same whether in normal mode or micro mode
      (mcs=orc), then the distance moved for a wide character is also the
      same whether in normal mode or micro mode.  This doesn't mean the
      normal character distance is necessarily the same as the wide
      character distance, just that the distances don't change with a change
      in normal to micro mode.	However, if the distance moved for a regular
      character is different in micro mode from the distance moved in normal
      mode (mcs<orc), the micro mode distance is assumed to be the same for
      a wide character printed in micro mode, as the table below shows.

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	   Automatic Motion after Printing Wide Character
	   Normal Mode or Micro Mode (mcs = orc):
	   widcs   Steps moved horizontally
	   Micro Mode (mcs < orc):
	   mcs	   Steps moved horizontally

      There may be control sequences to change the number of columns per
      inch (the character pitch) and to change the number of lines per inch
      (the line pitch).	 If these are used, the resolution of the printer
      changes, but the type of change depends on the printer:

	   Changing the Character/Line Pitches
	   cpi	  Change character pitch
	   cpix	  If set, cpi changes orhi; otherwise, changes orc

	   lpi	  Change line pitch
	   lpix	  If set, lpi changes orvi; otherwise, changes orl

	   chr	  Change steps per column
	   cvr	  Change steps per line

      The cpi and lpi string capabilities are each used with a single
      argument, the pitch in columns (or characters) and lines per inch,
      respectively.  The chr and cvr string capabilities are each used with
      a single argument, the number of steps per column and line,

      Using any of the control sequences in these strings will imply a
      change in some of the values of orc, orhi, orl, and orvi.	 Also, the
      distance moved when a wide character is printed, widcs, changes in
      relation to orc. The distance moved when a character is printed in
      micro mode, mcs, changes similarly, with one exception:  if the
      distance is 0 or 1, then no change is assumed.

      Programs that use cpi, lpi, chr, or cvr should recalculate the printer
      resolution (and should recalculate other values.	See the "Effect of
      Changing Printing Resolution" section below.

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	   Effects of Changing the Character/Line Pitches
		     Before			   After
	   Using cpi with cpix clear:

	   orhi'			orhi
	   orc'				orc = orhi / Vcpi
	   Using cpi with cpix set:

	   orhi'			orhi = orc * Vcpi
	   orc'				orc
	   Using lpi with lpix clear:

	   orvi'			orvi
	   orl'				orl = orvi / Vlpi
	   Using lpi with lpix set:

	   orvi'			orvi = orl * Vlp
	   orl'				orl
	   Using chr:

	   orhi'			orhi
	   orc'				Vchr
	   Using cvr:

	   orvi'			orvi
	   orl'				Vcvr
	   Using cpi or chr:

	   widcs'			widcs = widcs' * orc / orc'
	   mcs'				mcs = mcs' * orc / orc'

      Vchr, Vcpi, Vcvr, and Vlpi are the arguments used with chr, cpi, cvr,
      and lpi, respectively.  The prime marks (') indicate the old values.

 Capabilities That Cause Movement
      In the following descriptions, "movement" refers to the motion of the
      "current position".  With video terminals this would be the cursor;
      with some printers, this is the carriage position.  Other printers
      have different equivalents.  In general, the current position is where
      a character would be displayed if printed.

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      terminfo has string capabilities for control sequences that cause
      movement a number of full columns or lines.  It also has equivalent
      string capabilities for control sequences that cause movement a number
      of smallest steps.

	   String Capabilities for Motion
	   mcub1   Move 1 step left
	   mcuf1   Move 1 step right
	   mcuu1   Move 1 step up
	   mcud1   Move 1 step down

	   mcub	   Move N steps left
	   mcuf	   Move N steps right
	   mcuu	   Move N steps up
	   mcud	   Move N steps down

	   mhpa	   Move N steps from the left
	   mvpa	   Move N steps from the top

      The latter six strings are each used with a single argument, N.

      Sometimes the motion is limited to less than the width or length of a
      page.  Also, some printers don't accept absolute motion to the left of
      the current position.  terminfo has capabilities for specifying these

	   Limits to Motion
	   mjump   Limit on use of mcub1, mcuf1, mcuu1, mcud1
	   maddr   Limit on use of mhpa, mvpa

	   xhpa	   If set, hpa and mhpa can't move left
	   xvpa	   If set, vpa and mvpa can't move up

      If a printer needs to be in a "micro mode" for the motion capabilities
      described above to work, there are string capabilities defined to
      contain the control sequence to enter and exit this mode.	 A boolean
      is available for those printers where using a carriage return causes
      an automatic return to normal mode.

	   Entering/Exiting Micro Mode
	   smicm   Enter micro mode
	   rmicm   Exit micro mode

	   crxm	   Using cr exits micro mode

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      The movement made when a character is printed in the rightmost
      position varies among printers.  Some make no movement, some move to
      the beginning of the next line, others move to the beginning of the
      same line.  terminfo has boolean capabilities for describing all three

	   What Happens After Character Printed in Rightmost Position
	   sam	 Automatic move to beginning of same line

      Some printers can be put in a mode where the normal direction of
      motion is reversed.  This mode can be especially useful when there are
      no capabilities for leftward or upward motion, because those
      capabilities can be built from the motion reversal capability and the
      rightward or downward motion capabilities.  It is best to leave it up
      to an application to build the leftward or upward capabilities,
      though, and not enter them in the terminfo database.  This allows
      several reverse motions to be strung together without intervening
      wasted steps that leave and reenter reverse mode.

	   Entering/Exiting Reverse Modes
	   slm	   Reverse sense of horizontal motions
	   rlm	   Restore sense of horizontal motions
	   sum	   Reverse sense of vertical motions
	   rum	   Restore sense of vertical motions

	   While sense of horizontal motion is reversed:
	   mcub1   Move 1 step right
	   mcuf1   Move 1 step left
	   mcub	   Move N steps right
	   mcuf	   Move N steps left
	   cub1	   Move 1 column right
	   cuf1	   Move 1 column left
	   cub	   Move N columns right
	   cuf	   Move N columns left

	   While sense of vertical motion is reversed:
	   mcuu1   Move 1 step down
	   mcud1   Move 1 step up
	   mcuu	   Move N steps down
	   mcud	   Move N steps up
	   cuu1	   Move 1 line down
	   cud1	   Move 1 line up
	   cuu	   Move N lines down
	   cud	   Move N lines up

      The reverse motion modes should not affect the mvpa and mhpa absolute
      motion capabilities.  The reverse vertical motion mode should,

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      however, also reverse the action of the line "wrapping" that occurs
      when a character is printed in the right-most position.  Thus printers
      that have the standard terminfo capability am defined should
      experience motion to the beginning of the previous line when a
      character is printed in the rightmost position in reverse vertical
      motion mode.

      The action when any other motion capabilities are used in reverse
      motion modes is not defined; thus, programs must exit reverse motion
      modes before using other motion capabilities.

      Two miscellaneous capabilities complete the list of motion
      capabilities.  One of these is needed for printers that move the
      current position to the beginning of a line when certain control
      characters, such as linefeed or formfeed, are used.  The other is used
      for the capability of suspending the motion that normally occurs after
      printing a character.

	   Miscellaneous Motion Strings
	   docr	   List of control characters causing cr
	   zerom   Prevent auto motion after printing next single character

      terminfo provides two strings for setting margins on terminals:  one
      for the left and one for the right margin.  Printers, however, have
      two additional margins, for the top and bottom margins of each page.
      Furthermore, some printers require not using motion strings to move
      the current position to a margin and then fixing the margin there, but
      require the specification of where a margin should be regardless of
      the current position.  Therefore terminfo offers six additional
      strings for defining margins with printers.

	   Setting Margins
	   smgl	   Set left margin at current column
	   smgr	   Set right margin at current column
	   smgb	   Set bottom margin at current line
	   smgt	   Set top margin at current line

	   smgbp   Set bottom margin at line N
	   smglp   Set left margin at column N
	   smgrp   Set right margin at column N
	   smgtp   Set top margin at line N

      The last four strings are used with one or more arguments that give
      the position of the margin or margins to set.  If both of smglp and
      smgrp are set, each is used with a single argument, N, that gives the
      column number of the left and right margin, respectively.	 If both of

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      smgtp and smgbp are set, each is used to set the top and bottom
      margin, respectively:  smgtp is used with a single argument, N, the
      line number of the top margin; however, smgbp is used with two
      arguments, N and M, that give the line number of the bottom margin,
      the first counting from the top of the page and the second counting
      from the bottom.	This accommodates the two styles of specifying the
      bottom margin in different manufacturers' printers.  When coding a
      terminfo entry for a printer that has a settable bottom margin, only
      the first or second argument should be used, depending on the printer.
      When writing an application that uses smgbp to set the bottom margin,
      both arguments must be given.

      If only one of smglp and smgrp is set, then it is used with two
      arguments, the column number of the left and right margins, in that
      order.  Likewise, if only one of smgtp and smgbp is set, then it is
      used with two arguments that give the top and bottom margins, in that
      order, counting from the top of the page.	 Thus when coding a terminfo
      entry for a printer that requires setting both left and right or top
      and bottom margins simultaneously, only one of smglp and smgrp or
      smgtp and smgbp should be defined; the other should be left blank.
      When writing an application that uses these string capabilities, the
      pairs should be first checked to see if each in the pair is set or
      only one is set, and should then be used accordingly.

      In counting lines or columns, line zero is the top line and column
      zero is the left-most column.  A zero value for the second argument
      with smgbp means the bottom line of the page.

      All margins can be cleared with mgc.

    Shadows, Italics, Wide Characters, Superscripts, Subscripts
      Five sets of strings describe the capabilities printers have of
      enhancing printed text.

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

	   Enhanced Printing
	   sshm	   Enter shadow-printing mode
	   rshm	   Exit shadow-printing mode

	   sitm	   Enter italicizing mode
	   ritm	   Exit italicizing mode

	   swidm   Enter wide character mode
	   rwidm   Exit wide character mode

	   ssupm   Enter superscript mode
	   rsupm   Exit superscript mode
	   supcs   List of characters available as superscripts

	   ssubm   Enter subscript mode
	   rsubm   Exit subscript mode
	   subcs   List of characters available as subscripts

      If a printer requires the sshm control sequence before every character
      to be shadow-printed, the rshm string is left blank.  Thus programs
      that find a control sequence in sshm but none in rshm should use the
      sshm control sequence before every character to be shadow-printed;
      otherwise, the sshm control sequence should be used once before the
      set of characters to be shadow-printed, followed by rshm.	 The same is
      also true of each of the sitm-ritm, swidm-rwidm, ssupm-rsupm, and
      ssubm-rsubm pairs.

      terminfo also has a capability for printing emboldened text (bold).
      While shadow printing and emboldened printing are similar in that they
      "darken" the text, many printers produce these two types of print in
      slightly different ways.	Generally, emboldened printing is done by
      overstriking the same character one or more times.  Shadow printing
      likewise usually involves overstriking, but with a slight movement up
      and/or to the side so that the character is "fatter".

      It is assumed that enhanced printing modes are independent modes, so
      that it would be possible, for instance, to shadow print italicized

      As mentioned earlier, the amount of motion automatically made after
      printing a wide character should be given in widcs.

      If only a subset of the printable ASCII characters can be printed as
      superscripts or subscripts, they should be listed in supcs or subcs
      strings, respectively.  If the ssupm or ssubm strings contain control
      sequences, but the corresponding supcs or subcs strings are empty, it
      is assumed that all printable ASCII characters are available as
      superscripts or subscripts.

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

      Automatic motion made after printing a superscript or subscript is
      assumed to be the same as for regular characters.	 Thus, for example,
      printing any of the following three examples results in equivalent

	   Bi	  B	  i
		   i	 B
      Note that the existing msgr boolean capability describes whether
      motion control sequences can be used while in "standout mode".  This
      capability is extended to cover the enhanced printing modes added
      here.  msgr should be set for those printers that accept any motion
      control sequences without affecting shadow, italicized, widened,
      superscript, or subscript printing.  Conversely, if msgr is not set, a
      program should end these modes before attempting any motion.

 Alternate Character Sets
      In addition to allowing you to define line graphics (described in the
      "Line Graphics" subsection of the "Insert/Delete Character" section
      above), terminfo lets you define alternate character sets.  The
      following capabilities cover printers and terminals with multiple
      selectable or definable character sets:

	   Alternate Character Sets
	   scs	   Select character set N
	   scsd	   Start definition of character set N, M characters
	   defc	   Define character A, B dots wide, descender D
	   rcsd	   End definition of character set N
	   csnm	   List of character set names
	   daisy   Printer has manually changed print-wheels

      The scs, rcsd, and csnm strings are used with a single argument, N, a
      number from 0 to 63 that identifies the character set.  The scsd
      string is also used with the argument N and another, M, that gives the
      number of characters in the set.	The defc string is used with three
      arguments:  A gives the ASCII code representation for the character, B
      gives the width of the character in dots, and D is zero or one
      depending on whether the character is a "descender" or not.  The defc
      string is also followed by a string of "image-data" bytes that
      describe how the character looks (see below).

      Character set 0 is the default character set present after the printer
      has been initialized.  Not every printer has 64 character sets, of
      course; using scs with an argument that doesn't select an available
      character set should cause a null pointer to be returned by tparm()
      (see tigetflag(3X)).

      If a character set has to be defined before it can be used, the scsd
      control sequence is to be used before defining the character set, and
      the rcsd is to be used after.  They should also cause a NULL pointer

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

      to be returned by tparm() when used with an argument N that doesn't
      apply.  If a character set still has to be selected after being
      defined, the scs control sequence should follow the rcsd control
      sequence.	 By examining the results of using each of the scs, scsd,
      and rcsd strings with a character set number in a call to tparm(), a
      program can determine which of the three are needed.

      Between use of the scsd and rcsd strings, the defc string should be
      used to define each character.  To print any character on printers
      covered by terminfo, the ASCII code is sent to the printer.  This is
      true for characters in an alternate set as well as "normal"
      characters.  Thus the definition of a character includes the ASCII
      code that represents it.	In addition, the width of the character in
      dots is given, along with an indication of whether the character
      should descend below the print line (such as the lower case letter "g"
      in most character sets).	The width of the character in dots also
      indicates the number of image-data bytes that will follow the defc
      string.  These image-data bytes indicate where in a dot-matrix pattern
      ink should be applied to "draw" the character; the number of these
      bytes and their form are defined in the "Dot-Matrix Graphics" section

      It's easiest for the creator of terminfo entries to refer to each
      character set by number; however, these numbers will be meaningless to
      the application developer.  The csnm string alleviates this problem by
      providing names for each number.

      When used with a character set number in a call to tparm(), the csnm
      string will produce the equivalent name.	These names should be used
      as a reference only.  No naming convention is implied, although anyone
      who creates a terminfo entry for a printer should use names consistent
      with the names found in user documents for the printer.  Application
      developers should allow a user to specify a character set by number
      (leaving it up to the user to examine the csnm string to determine the
      correct number), or by name, where the application examines the csnm
      string to determine the corresponding character set number.

      These capabilities are likely to be used only with dot-matrix
      printers.	 If they are not available, the strings should not be
      defined.	For printers that have manually changed print-wheels or font
      cartridges, the boolean daisy is set.

 Dot-Matrix Graphics
      Dot-matrix printers typically have the capability of reproducing
      raster graphics images.  Three numeric capabilities and three string
      capabilities help a program draw raster-graphics images independent of
      the type of dot-matrix printer or the number of pins or dots the
      printer can handle at one time.

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

	   Dot-Matrix Graphics
	   npins    Number of pins, N, in print-head
	   spinv    Spacing of pins vertically in pins per inch
	   spinh    Spacing of dots horizontally in dots per inch
	   porder   Matches software bits to print-head pins
	   sbim	    Start printing bit image graphics, B bits wide
	   rbim	    End printing bit image graphics

      The sbim string is used with a single argument, B, the width of the
      image in dots.

      The model of dot-matrix or raster-graphics that terminfo presents is
      similar to the technique used for most dot-matrix printers:  each pass
      of the printer's print-head is assumed to produce a dot-matrix that is
      N dots high and B dots wide.  This is typically a wide, squat,
      rectangle of dots.  The height of this rectangle in dots will vary
      from one printer to the next; this is given in the npins numeric
      capability.  The size of the rectangle in fractions of an inch will
      also vary; it can be deduced from the spinv and spinh numeric
      capabilities.  With these three values an application can divide a
      complete raster-graphics image into several horizontal strips, perhaps
      interpolating to account for different dot spacing vertically and

      The sbim and rbim strings start and end a dot-matrix image,
      respectively.  The sbim string is used with a single argument that
      gives the width of the dot-matrix in dots.  A sequence of "image-data
      bytes" are sent to the printer after the sbim string and before the
      rbim string.  The number of bytes is a integral multiple of the width
      of the dot-matrix; the multiple and the form of each byte is
      determined by the porder string as described below.

      The porder string is a comma separated list of pin numbers optionally
      followed by an numerical offset.	The offset, if given, is separated
      from the list with a semicolon.  The position of each pin number in
      the list corresponds to a bit in an 8-bit data byte.  The pins are
      numbered consecutively from 1 to npins, with 1 being the top pin.
      Note that the term "pin" is used loosely here; "ink-jet" dot-matrix
      printers don't have pins, but can be considered to have an equivalent
      method of applying a single dot of ink to paper.	The bit positions in
      porder are in groups of 8, with the first position in each group the
      most significant bit and the last position the least significant bit.
      An application produces 8-bit bytes in the order of the groups in

      An application computes the "image-data bytes" from the internal
      image, mapping vertical dot positions in each print-head pass into 8-
      bit bytes, using a 1 bit where ink should be applied and 0 where no
      ink should be applied.  This can be reversed (0 bit for ink, 1 bit for

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

      no ink) by giving a negative pin number.	If a position is skipped in
      porder, a 0 bit is used.	If a position has a lower case "x" instead
      of a pin number, a 1 bit is used in the skipped position.	 For
      consistency, a lower case "o" can be used to represent a 0 filled,
      skipped bit.  There must be a multiple of 8 bit positions used or
      skipped in porder; if not, low-order bits of the last byte are set to
      0.  The offset, if given, is added to each data byte; the offset can
      be negative.

      Some examples may help clarify the use of the porder string.  The AT&T
      470, AT&T 475 and C.Itoh 8510 printers provide eight pins for
      graphics.	 The pins are identified top to bottom by the 8 bits in a
      byte, from least significant to most.  The porder strings for these
      printers would be 8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1.  The AT&T 478 and AT&T 479 printers
      also provide eight pins for graphics.  However, the pins are
      identified in the reverse order.	The porder strings for these
      printers would be 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8.  The AT&T 5310, AT&T 5320, Digital
      LA100, and Digital LN03 printers provide six pins for graphics.  The
      pins are identified top to bottom by the decimal values 1, 2, 4, 8, 16
      and 32.  These correspond to the low six bits in an 8-bit byte,
      although the decimal values are further offset by the value 63.  The
      porder string for these printers would be ,,6,5,4,3,2,1;63, equivalent
      to o,o,6,5,4,3,2,1;63.

 Effect of Changing Printing Resolution
      If the control sequences to change the character pitch or the line
      pitch are used, the pin or dot spacing may change:

	   Changing the Character/Line Pitches
	   cpi	  Change character pitch
	   cpix	  If set, cpi changes spinh

	   lpi	  Change line pitch
	   lpix	  If set, lpi changes spinv

      Programs that use cpi or lpi should recalculate the dot spacing:

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

	   Effects of Changing the Character/Line Pitches
		     Before			    After
	   Using cpi with cpix clear:
	   spinh'			spinh
	   Using cpi with cpix set:
	   spinh'			spinh = spinh' * orhi / orhi'
	   Using lpi with lpix clear:
	   spinv'			spinv
	   Using lpi with lpix set:
	   spinv'			spinv = spinv' * orhi / orhi'
	   Using chr:
	   spinh'			spinh
	   Using cvr:
	   spinv'			spinv

      orhi' and orhi are the values of the horizontal resolution in steps
      per inch, before using cpi and after using cpi, respectively.
      Likewise, orvi' and orvi are the values of the vertical resolution in
      steps per inch, before using lpi and after using lpi, respectively.
      Thus, the changes in the dots per inch for dot-matrix graphics follow
      the changes in steps per inch for printer resolution.

    Print Quality
      Many dot-matrix printers can alter the dot spacing of printed text to
      produce near-letter-quality printing or draft-quality printing.  It is
      important to be able to choose one or the other because the rate of
      printing generally decreases as the quality improves.  Three strings
      describe these capabilities:

	   Print Quality
	   snlq	   Set near-letter quality print
	   snrmq   Set normal quality print
	   sdrfq   Set draft quality print

      The capabilities are listed in decreasing levels of quality.  If a
      printer doesn't have all three levels, the respective strings should
      be left blank.

    Printing Rate and Buffer Size
      Because there is no standard protocol that can be used to keep a
      program synchronized with a printer, and because modern printers can

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

      buffer data before printing it, a program generally cannot determine
      at any time what has been printed.  Two numeric capabilities can help
      a program estimate what has been printed.

	   Print Rate/Buffer Size
	   cps	   Nominal print rate in characters per second
	   bufsz   Buffer capacity in characters

      cps is the nominal or average rate at which the printer prints
      characters; if this value is not given, the rate should be estimated
      at one-tenth the prevailing baud rate.  bufsz is the maximum number of
      subsequent characters buffered before the guaranteed printing of an
      earlier character, assuming proper flow control has been used.  If
      this value is not given it is assumed that the printer does not buffer
      characters, but prints them as they are received.

      As an example, if a printer has a 1000-character buffer, then sending
      the letter "a" followed by 1000 additional characters is guaranteed to
      cause the letter "a" to print.  If the same printer prints at the rate
      of 100 characters per second, then it should take 10 seconds to print
      all the characters in the buffer, less if the buffer is not full.	 By
      keeping track of the characters sent to a printer, and knowing the
      print rate and buffer size, a program can synchronize itself with the

      Note that most printer manufacturers advertise the maximum print rate,
      not the nominal print rate.  A good way to get a value to put in for
      cps is to generate a few pages of text, count the number of printable
      characters, and then see how long it takes to print the text.

      Applications that use these values should recognize the variability in
      the print rate.  Straight text, in short lines, with no embedded
      control sequences will probably print at close to the advertised print
      rate and probably faster than the rate in cps.  Graphics data with a
      lot of control sequences, or very long lines of text, will print at
      well below the advertised rate and below the rate in cps.	 If the
      application is using cps to decide how long it should take a printer
      to print a block of text, the application should pad the estimate.  If
      the application is using cps to decide how much text has already been
      printed, it should shrink the estimate.  The application will thus err
      in favor of the user, who wants, above all, to see all the output in
      its correct place.

 Selecting a Terminal
      If the environment variable TERMINFO is defined, any program using
      Curses checks for a local terminal definition before checking in the
      standard place.  For example, if TERM is set to att4424, then the
      compiled terminal definition is found by default in the path

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)


      within an implementation-specific directory.

      (The "a" is copied from the first letter of att4424 to avoid creation
      of huge directories.) However, if TERMINFO is set to $HOME/myterms,
      Curses first checks


      If that fails, it then checks the default path name.

      This is useful for developing experimental definitions or when write
      permission in the implementation-defined default database is not

      If the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables are set, or if the
      program is executing in a window environment, line and column
      information in the environment will override information read by

 Application Usage
      The most effective way to prepare a terminal description is by
      imitating the description of a similar terminal in terminfo and to
      build up a description gradually, using partial descriptions with a
      screen-oriented editor, to check that they are correct.  To easily
      test a new terminal description, the environment variable TERMINFO can
      be set to the path name of a directory containing the compiled
      description, and programs will look there rather than in the terminfo

    Conventions for Device Aliases
      Every device must be assigned a name, such as vt100.  Device names
      (except the long name) should be chosen using the following
      conventions.  The name should not contain hyphens because hyphens are
      reserved for use when adding suffixes that indicate special modes.

      These special modes may be modes that the hardware can be in, or user
      preferences.  To assign a special mode to a particular device, append
      a suffix consisting of a hyphen and an indicator of the mode to the
      device name.  For example, the -w suffix means wide mode; when
      specified, it allows for a width of 132 columns instead of the
      standard 80 columns.  Therefore, if you want to use a VT100 device set
      to wide mode, name the device vt100-w.  Use the following suffixes
      where possible:

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

	   Suffix		    Meaning			Example
	   -w	    Wide mode (more than 80 columns)	       5410-w
	   -am	    With automatic margins (usually default)   vt100-am
	   -nam	    Without automatic margins		       vt100-nam
	   -n	    Number of lines on the screen	       2300-40
	   -na	    No arrow keys (leave them in local)	       c100-na
	   -np	    Number of pages of memory		       c100-4p
	   -rv	    Reverse video			       4415-rv

    Variations of Terminal Definitions
      It is implementation-defined how the entries in terminfo may be

      There is more than one way to write a terminfo entry.  A minimal entry
      may permit applications to use Curses to operate the terminal.  If the
      entry is enhanced to describe more of the terminal's capabilities,
      applications can use Curses to invoke those features, and can take
      advantages of optimizations within Curses and thus operate more
      efficiently.  For most terminals, an optimal terminfo entry has
      already been written.

    Environment Variables
      CC	Specifies a substitute character for a prototype command
		character.  See cmdch in the "Miscellaneous" subsection of
		the "Insert/Delete Line" section.

      COLUMNS	Specifies column information that can override the column
		information in terminfo.  See the "Selecting a Terminal"

      LINES	Specifies lines information that can override the lines
		information in terminfo.  See the "Selecting a Terminal"

      TERM	Specifies the name of the current terminal.  See the
		"Selecting a Terminal" section.

      TERMINFO	Specifies an alternate location for a local terminal
		definition.  If the value in TERM is not found in
		$TERMINFO/?/* or if TERMINFO is not set, the value is sought
		in the default location, /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*.	 See the
		"Selecting a Terminal" section.

      tic(1), untic(1), curses(3X), tgetent(3X), tigetflag(3X), term(4),

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 terminfo(4)							 terminfo(4)

      ANSI Standard X3.64-1979.

      X/Open System Interface Definitions, Issue 4, Version 2.

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