RUN(4) BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual RUN(4)
run -- Ralink Technology USB IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n wireless network device
run* at uhub? port ?
The run driver supports USB 2.0 wireless adapters based on the Ralink
RT2700U, RT2800U, RT3000U and RT3900E chipsets.
The RT2700U chipset consists of two integrated chips, an RT2770 MAC/BBP
and an RT2720 (1T2R) or RT2750 (dual-band 1T2R) radio transceiver.
The RT2800U chipset consists of two integrated chips, an RT2870 MAC/BBP
and an RT2820 (2T3R) or RT2850 (dual-band 2T3R) radio transceiver.
The RT3000U is a single-chip solution based on an RT3070 MAC/BBP and an
RT3020 (1T1R), RT3021 (1T2R), RT3022 (2T2R) or RT3052 (dual-band 2T2R)
The RT3900E is a single-chip solution based on an RT3593, RT5390, RT5392
or an RT5592 MAC/BBP and an RT3053 (dual-band 3T3R), RT5370 (1T1R),
RT5372 (2T2R), or RT5572 (dual-band 2T2R) radio transceiver.
These are the modes the run driver can operate in:
BSS mode Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when asso-
ciating with an access point, through which all traffic
passes. This mode is the default.
monitor mode In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without
associating with an access point. This disables the
internal receive filter and enables the card to capture
packets from networks which it wouldn't normally have
access to, or to scan for access points.
The run driver can be configured to use Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) or
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK). WPA is the current
encryption standard for wireless networks. It is strongly recommended
that WEP not be used as the sole mechanism to secure wireless communica-
tion, due to serious weaknesses in it. The run driver offloads both
encryption and decryption of data frames to the hardware for the WEP40,
WEP104, TKIP(+MIC) and CCMP ciphers.
The run driver can be configured at runtime with ifconfig(8) or on boot
The driver needs the following firmware files, which are loaded when an
interface is brought up:
The following adapters should work:
ASUS USB-N13 ver. A1
Belkin F5D8051 ver 3000
Belkin F6D4050 ver 1
Belkin F6D4050 ver 2
Belkin F7D1101 ver 2
D-Link DWA-130 rev B1
D-Link DWA-140 rev B1, B2, B3, D1
D-Link DWA-160 rev B2
DrayTek Vigor N61
Linksys WUSB54GC v3
Mvix Nubbin MS-811N
TP-LINK TL-WN727N v3
The following example scans for available networks:
# ifconfig run0 scan
The following hostname.if(5) example configures run0 to join network
``mynwid'', using WPA key ``mywpakey'', obtaining an IP address using
run0: error N, could not read firmware ... For some reason, the driver
was unable to read the microcode file from the filesystem. The file
might be missing or corrupted.
run0: could not load 8051 microcode An error occurred while attempting
to upload the microcode to the onboard 8051 microcontroller unit.
run0: device timeout A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmission
did not complete in time. The driver will reset the hardware. This
should not happen.
arp(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4), usb(4), hostname.if(5),
The run driver first appeared in OpenBSD 4.5.
The run driver was written by Damien Bergamini
The run driver does not support any of the 802.11n capabilities offered
by the RT2800 and RT3000 chipsets. Additional work is required in
ieee80211(9) before those features can be supported.
BSD March 30, 2017 BSD