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RUM(4)                   BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual                   RUM(4)

     rum -- Ralink Technology USB IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless network device

     rum* at uhub? port ?

     The rum driver supports USB 2.0 and PCI Express Mini Card wireless
     adapters based on the Ralink RT2501USB and RT2601USB chipsets.

     Ralink PCI Express Mini Card adapters show up as normal USB 2.0 devices
     and are thus handled by the rum driver.

     The RT2501USB chipset is the second generation of 802.11a/b/g adapters
     from Ralink.  It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2571W MAC/BBP and
     an RT2528 or RT5226 radio transceiver.

     The RT2601USB chipset consists of two integrated chips, an RT2671 MAC/BBP
     and an RT2527 or RT5225 radio transceiver.  This chipset uses the MIMO
     (multiple-input multiple-output) technology with multiple antennas to
     extend the operating range of the adapter and to achieve higher through-

     These are the modes the rum driver can operate in:

     BSS mode       Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when asso-
                    ciating with an access point, through which all traffic
                    passes.  This mode is the default.

     IBSS mode      Also known as IEEE ad-hoc mode or peer-to-peer mode.  This
                    is the standardized method of operating without an access
                    point.  Stations associate with a service set.  However,
                    actual connections between stations are peer-to-peer.

     Host AP        In this mode the driver acts as an access point (base sta-
                    tion) for other cards.

     monitor mode   In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without
                    associating with an access point.  This disables the
                    internal receive filter and enables the card to capture
                    packets from networks which it wouldn't normally have
                    access to, or to scan for access points.

     The rum driver can be configured to use Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) or
     Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK).  WPA is the current
     encryption standard for wireless networks.  It is strongly recommended
     that WEP not be used as the sole mechanism to secure wireless communica-
     tion, due to serious weaknesses in it.  The rum driver relies on the
     software 802.11 stack for both encryption and decryption of data frames.

     The rum driver can be configured at runtime with ifconfig(8) or on boot
     with hostname.if(5).

     The following firmware file is loaded when an interface is brought up:


     The following adapters should work:

           3Com Aolynk WUB320g
           Abocom WUG2700
           Airlink101 AWLL5025
           ASUS WL-167g ver 2
           Atlantis Land A02-UP1-W54
           Belkin F5D7050 ver 3
           Belkin F5D9050 ver 3
           Belkin F5D9050C
           Buffalo WLI-U2-SG54HG
           Buffalo WLI-U2-SG54HP
           Buffalo WLI-U2-G54HP
           CNet CWD-854 ver F
           Conceptronic C54RU ver 2
           Corega CG-WLUSB2GL
           Corega CG-WLUSB2GO
           Corega CG-WLUSB2GPX
           D-Link DWA-110
           D-Link DWA-111
           D-Link DWL-G122 rev C1
           D-Link WUA-1340
           Digitus DN-7003GR
           Edimax EW-7318Ug
           Edimax EW-7318USg
           Edimax EW-7618Ug
           Gigabyte GN-WB01GS
           Gigabyte GN-WI05GS
           Hawking HWUG1
           Hawking HWU54DM
           Hercules HWGUSB2-54-LB
           Hercules HWGUSB2-54V2-AP
           LevelOne WNC-0301USB v3
           Linksys WUSB200
           Linksys WUSB54G rev C
           Linksys WUSB54GR
           Planex GW-US54HP
           Planex GW-US54Mini2
           Planex GW-USMM
           Senao NUB-3701
           Sitecom WL-113 ver 2
           Sitecom WL-172
           Sweex LW053
           TP-LINK TL-WN321G

     The following example scans for available networks:

           # ifconfig rum0 scan

     The following hostname.if(5) example configures rum0 to join network
     ``mynwid'', using WPA key ``mywpakey'', obtaining an IP address using

           nwid mynwid
           wpakey mywpakey

     The following hostname.if(5) example creates a host-based access point on

           mediaopt hostap
           nwid mynwid
           wpakey mywpakey

     rum0: error N, could not read firmware ...  For some reason, the driver
     was unable to read the microcode file from the filesystem.  The file
     might be missing or corrupted.

     rum0: could not load 8051 microcode  An error occurred while attempting
     to upload the microcode to the onboard 8051 microcontroller unit.

     rum0: device timeout  A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmission
     did not complete in time.  The driver will reset the hardware.  This
     should not happen.

     arp(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4), usb(4), hostname.if(5),
     hostapd(8), ifconfig(8)

     Ralink Technology:

     The rum driver first appeared in OpenBSD 4.0.

     The rum driver was written by Niall O'Higgins <niallo@openbsd.org> and
     Damien Bergamini <damien.bergamini@free.fr>.

     The rum driver supports automatic control of the transmit speed in BSS
     mode only.  Therefore the use of a rum adapter in Host AP mode is dis-

     Host AP mode doesn't support power saving.  Clients attempting to use
     power saving mode may experience significant packet loss (disabling power
     saving on the client will fix this).

BSD                            February 15, 2014                           BSD