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RAL(4)                   BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual                   RAL(4)

     ral -- Ralink Technology IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n wireless network device

     ral* at cardbus?
     ral* at pci?

     The ral driver supports PCI/PCIe/CardBus wireless adapters based on the
     Ralink RT2500, RT2501, RT2600, RT2700, RT2800 and RT3090 chipsets.

     The RT2500 chipset is the first generation of 802.11b/g adapters from
     Ralink.  It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2560 MAC/BBP and an
     RT2525 radio transceiver.

     The RT2501 chipset is the second generation of 802.11a/b/g adapters from
     Ralink.  It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2561 MAC/BBP and an
     RT2527 radio transceiver.  This chipset provides support for the IEEE
     802.11e standard with multiple hardware transmission queues and allows
     scatter/gather for efficient DMA operations.

     The RT2600 chipset consists of two integrated chips, an RT2661 MAC/BBP
     and an RT2529 radio transceiver.  This chipset uses the MIMO (multiple-
     input multiple-output) technology with multiple radio transceivers to
     extend the operating range of the adapter and to achieve higher through-
     put.  However, the RT2600 chipset does not support any of the 802.11n

     The RT2700 chipset is a low-cost version of the RT2800 chipset.  It sup-
     ports a single transmit path and two receiver paths (1T2R).  It consists
     of two integrated chips, an RT2760 or RT2790 (PCIe) MAC/BBP and an RT2720
     (2.4GHz) or RT2750 (2.4GHz/5GHz) radio transceiver.

     The RT2800 chipset is the first generation of 802.11n adapters from
     Ralink.  It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2860 or RT2890 (PCIe)
     MAC/BBP and an RT2820 (2.4GHz) or RT2850 (2.4GHz/5GHz) radio transceiver.
     The RT2800 chipset supports two transmit paths and up to three receiver
     paths (2T2R/2T3R).  It can achieve speeds up to 144Mbps (20MHz bandwidth)
     and 300Mbps (40MHz bandwidth.)

     The RT3090 chipset is the first generation of single-chip 802.11n
     adapters from Ralink.

     These are the modes the ral driver can operate in:

     BSS mode       Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when asso-
                    ciating with an access point, through which all traffic
                    passes.  This mode is the default.

     IBSS mode      Also known as IEEE ad-hoc mode or peer-to-peer mode.  This
                    is the standardized method of operating without an access
                    point.  Stations associate with a service set.  However,
                    actual connections between stations are peer-to-peer.

     Host AP        In this mode the driver acts as an access point (base sta-
                    tion) for other cards.

     monitor mode   In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without
                    associating with an access point.  This disables the
                    internal receive filter and enables the card to capture
                    packets from networks which it wouldn't normally have
                    access to, or to scan for access points.

     The ral driver can be configured to use Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) or
     Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK).  WPA is the current
     encryption standard for wireless networks.  It is strongly recommended
     that WEP not be used as the sole mechanism to secure wireless communica-
     tion, due to serious weaknesses in it.

     The ral driver relies on the software 802.11 stack for both encryption
     and decryption of data frames on the RT2500, RT2501 and RT2600 chipsets.
     On the RT2700 and RT2800 chipsets, the ral driver offloads both encryp-
     tion and decryption of data frames to the hardware for the WEP40, WEP104,
     TKIP(+MIC) and CCMP ciphers.

     The transmit speed is user-selectable or can be adapted automatically by
     the driver depending on the number of hardware transmission retries.

     The ral driver can be configured at runtime with ifconfig(8) or on boot
     with hostname.if(5).

     The RT2501, RT2600, RT2700 and RT2800 chipsets require the following
     firmware files to be loaded when an interface is brought up:


     The RT2500 chipset does not require a firmware file to operate.

     The following PCI adapters should work:

     A-Link  WL54H.  AirLive WN-5000PCI.  Amigo AWI-926W.  AMIT WL531P.  AOpen
     AOI-831.  ASUS WL-130G.  ASUS WL-130N.  ASUS WIFI-G-AAY.   Atlantis  Land
     A02-PCI-W54.  Belkin F5D7000 v3.  Canyon CN-WF511.  CNet CWP-854.  Compex
     WLP54G.  Conceptronic C54Ri.  Corega CG-WLPCI54GL.  Digitus  DN-7006G-RA.
     Dynalink  WLG25PCI.   E-Tech WGPI02.  Edimax EW-7128g.  Edimax EW-7628Ig.
     Edimax  EW-7728In.   Eminent   EM3037.    Encore   ENLWI-G-RLAM.    Eusso
     UGL2454-VPR.   Fiberline  WL-400P.   Foxconn WLL-3350.  Gigabyte GN-WPKG.
     Gigabyte GN-WP01GS.  Gigabyte GN-WI02GM.   Gigabyte  GN-WP01GM.   Hawking
     HWP54GR.   Hercules HWGPCI-54.  iNexQ CR054g-009 (R03).  JAHT WN-4054PCI.
     KCORP LifeStyle KLS-660.   LevelOne  WNC-0301  v2.   Linksys  WMP54G  v4.
     Longshine LCS-8031N.  Micronet SP906GK.  Minitar MN54GPC-R.  MSI MS-6834.
     MSI PC54G2.  OvisLink EVO-W54PCI.  PheeNet HWL-PCIG/RA.   Planex  PCI-GW-
     DS300N.  Pro-Nets PC80211G.  Repotec RP-WP0854.  SATech SN-54P.  Signamax
     065-1798.  Sitecom WL-115.  SparkLAN WL-660R.  Surecom EP-9321-g.   Sure-
     com  EP-9321-g1.   Sweex  LC700030.   TekComm NE-9321-g.  Tonze PC-6200C.
     Unex CR054g-R02.  Zinwell ZWX-G361.  Zonet ZEW1600.

     The following CardBus adapters should work:

     A-Link WL54PC.   Alfa  AWPC036.   Amigo  AWI-914W.   AMIT  WL531C.   ASUS
     WL-107G.   Atlantis  Land  A02-PCM-W54.   Belkin  F5D7010 v2.  Canyon CN-
     WF513.  CC&C WL-2102.  CNet CWC-854.  Compex WL54.   Conceptronic  C54RC.
     Corega  CG-WLCB54GL.  Digiconnect WL591C.  Digitus DN-7001G-RA.  Dynalink
     WLG25CARDBUS.  E-Tech WGPC02.  E-Tech WGPC03.  Edimax EW-7108PCg.  Edimax
     EW-7708PN.   Eminent  EM3036.   Encore  ENPWI-G-RLAM.  Eusso UGL2454-01R.
     Fiberline WL-400X.  Gigabyte GN-WMKG.  Gigabyte GN-WM01GS.  Gigabyte  GN-
     WM01GM.   Hawking  HWC54GR.   Hercules  HWGPCMCIA-54.   JAHT WN-4054P(E).
     KCORP LifeStyle KLS-611.  LevelOne WPC-0301  v2.   Micronet  SP908GK  V3.
     Minitar   MN54GCB-R.   MSI  CB54G2.   MSI  MS-6835.   Pro-Nets  CB80211G.
     Repotec RP-WB7108.  SATech SN-54C.  Sitecom  WL-112.   SparkLAN  WL-611R.
     SparkLAN   WPCR-501.    Surecom   EP-9428-g.   Sweex  LC500050.   TekComm
     NE-9428-g.  Tonze PW-6200C.  Unex MR054g-R02.  Zinwell  ZWX-G160.   Zonet

     The following Mini PCI adapters should work:

     Amigo  AWI-922W.   Billionton  MIWLGRL.   Gigabyte GN-WIKG.  Gigabyte GN-
     WI01GS.   Gigabyte  GN-WI02GM.   MSI  MP54G2.   MSI  MS-6833.    SparkLAN
     WMIR-215GN.  Tonze PC-620C.  Zinwell ZWX-G360.

     The following example scans for available networks:

           # ifconfig ral0 scan

     The following hostname.if(5) example configures ral0 to join network
     ``mynwid'', using WPA key ``mywpakey'', obtaining an IP address using

           nwid mynwid
           wpakey mywpakey

     The following hostname.if(5) example creates a host-based access point on

           mediaopt hostap
           nwid mynwid
           wpakey mywpakey

     arp(4), cardbus(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4), pci(4),
     hostname.if(5), hostapd(8), ifconfig(8)

     Ralink Technology:

     The ral driver first appeared in OpenBSD 3.7.  Support for the RT2501 and
     RT2600 chipsets was added in OpenBSD 3.9.  Support for the RT2800 chipset
     was added in OpenBSD 4.3.  Support for the RT2700 chipset was added in
     OpenBSD 4.4.  Support for the RT3090 chipset was added in OpenBSD 4.9.

     The ral driver was written by Damien Bergamini

     The ral driver does not make use of the hardware cryptographic engine
     present on the RT2500, RT2501 and RT2600 chipsets.

     The ral driver does not support any of the 802.11n capabilities offered
     by the RT2700, RT2800 and RT3090 chipsets.  Additional work is required
     in ieee80211(9) before those features can be supported.

     On the RT2500, RT2501 and RT2600 chipsets, host AP mode doesn't support
     power saving.  Clients attempting to use power saving mode may experience
     significant packet loss (disabling power saving on the client will fix

     Some PCI ral adapters seem to strictly require a system supporting PCI
     2.2 or greater and will likely not work in systems based on older revi-
     sions of the PCI specification.  Check the board's PCI version before
     purchasing the card.

BSD                            February 6, 2015                            BSD