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printcap(4)							  printcap(4)


  printcap - Printer capability	data base




  The printcap file is used to describe	printer	characteristics.  The format
  of the printcap file is a simplified version of the /etc/termcap database

  The lpd line printer daemon accesses the /etc/printcap file every time a
  file is passed to the	spooler	for printing. The print	spooling system	uses
  the printcap file to obtain information about	each printer attached to the
  system and about remote printers.  Each entry	in the printcap	file
  describes a single printer.

  When the local line printer driver supports indentation, the lpd line
  printer daemon must understand how to	invoke this capability.

  The default printer for your system usually has the device reference lp,
  although environment variable	PRINTER	can be used to override	the default
  printer reference.  The print	commands (for example, lpr, lpq, and lprm)
  support the -Pprinter	option,	which enables you to specify a specific


       See the RESTRICTIONS section for	information on using printcon-

  Printer Characteristic Symbols

  Each printer has various characteristics that	tell the lpd line printer
  daemon how to	communicate with the printing device defined in	the /dev
  directory. A table in	this section lists the printer characteristic symbols
  and provides the following information for each:

  Name	    The	symbol,	which is a 2-character mnemonic. The symbol must be
	    specified exactly as it appears in this column.

  Type	    Type of data expressed by the entry	as str,	num, or	bool.  When
	    the	characteristic defined by the symbol is	referenced as a
	    string variable (str) in the Type column, it must be followed by
	    an = (equal	sign) together with a string value; when you do	not
	    define the string value, it	either remains a NULL string and con-
	    tains no data or takes the value specified in the Default column.
	    When the Type column defines a symbol type as bool,	it may only
	    be logically true (yes) or logically false (no).

	    When the parameter you define is a numerical variable, it must be
	    followed with a # (pound sign) together with the numerical value
	    you	assign;	when you do not	define the numerical parameter it
	    takes the value specified in the Default column of the table.

	    A summary of the printer characteristic that the symbol speci-

	    Symbols whose descriptions are followed by "(I18N)"	are provided
	    to meet country-specific printing requirements.  Refer to
	    i18n_printing(5) for information about when	these symbols are
	    valid in a printer entry.

	    The	following is an	example	of a printcap entry:


	    Entries can	continue onto multiple lines by	specifying the
	    backslash (\) as the last character	of a line.  Empty fields can
	    be included	for readability	(here between the last field on	a
	    line and the first field on	the next line).

	    Comments can be included on	lines beginning	with the pound sign

	    Refer to the RESTRICTIONS section for information on blank spaces
	    and	tab characters.

  Name Type Default	     Description
  af   str  NULL	     Name of accounting	file
  br   num  none

			     If	lp is a	tty, set the baud rate (ioctl call).
  cf   str  NULL	     The cifplot data filter.
  ct   str  dev

			     The connection type.  The choices are: dev, LAT (or
			     lat), and tcp (networked).
  df   str  NULL	     The tex data filter (DVI format).
  fc   num  0

			     If	lp is a	tty, clear flag	bits (sgtty.h).
  ff   str  \f		     String to send for	a form feed.
  fo   bool false	     Print a form feed when the	device is opened.
  fs   num  0		     Like fc, but set bits.
  gf   str  NULL	     The graph data filter (plot format).
  hl   bool false	     Print the burst header page last.
  if   str  NULL	     Name of text filter that does accounting.

  jj   bool NULL

			     Turns on (or restores) the	ability	of lpd to keep
			     one connection to a printer open for all pending
			     jobs in the queue.	 Zero (0) is off (one job per
			     connection), 1 is on (multiple jobs per connec-
  lf   str  /dev/console     Error logging filename.
  lo   str  lock	     Name of lock file.
  lp   str  /dev/lp

			     Device name to open for output. For network
			     (TCP/IP) printers,	enter the name a
			     @hostname/servicename.  The servicename is	defined
			     in	/etc/services with the port number.
  mj   num  1000

			     Maximum number of jobs that can be	submitted to a
			     print queue.  The limit is	1,000,000 (ranging from
			     0 to 999,999).
  mx   num  1000

			     Maximum file size (in BUFSIZ blocks). Zero	= unlim-

  nf   str  NULL

			     The ditroff data filter (for device independent
  of   str  NULL	     Name of output filtering program.
  on   str  NULL

			     Supported in clusters only.  Valid	entries	are
			     localhost and/or a	comma-separated	list of	cluster
			     member (host) names.
  pl   num  66		     Page length (in lines).
  pw   num  132		     Page width	(in columns).
  px   num  0		     Page width	in pixels (horizontal).
  py   num  0		     Page length in pixels (vertical).
  rf   str  NULL

			     Filter for	printing FORTRAN style text files.
  rm   str  NULL

			     Machine name for remote printer. (Required	for
			     remote printers.) Use the string @dpa to define an
			     inbound gateway for the Advanced Printing Software.
  rp   str  lp

			     Remote printer name argument. (Required for remote
			     printers.)	Specify	a logical printer name,	such as
			     lpr1, for the Advanced Printing Software.
  rs   bool false	     Restrict remote users to those with local accounts.
  rw   bool false

			     Open the printer device for reading and writing.
  sb   bool false	     Short banner (one line only).
  sc   bool false	     Suppress multiple copies.
  sd   str  /usr/spool/lpd

			     Spool directory. (Required	for LAT	and remote
  sf   bool false	     Suppress form feeds.
  sh   bool false	     Suppress printing of burst	page header.
  st   str  status	     Status filename.
  tf   str  NULL

			     The troff data filter (for	the cat	photo-
  tr   str  NULL

			     Trailer string to print when queue	empties.
  vf   str  NULL	     The raster	image filter.
  xc   num  0

			     If	lp is a	tty, clear local mode bits (tty).
  xf   str  NULL	     Pass-through filter.
  xs   num  0		     Like xc, but set bits.
  ya   str  NULL	     Additional	parameters for print filter (I18N).
  yd   str  NULL	     Secondary device name for font faulting (I18N).
  yp   str  NULL	     Printer ID	conforming to Wototo standard (I18N).
  ys   num  0		     Size of SoftODL character cache (I18N).
  yt   str  "fifo"	     SoftODL character replacement strategy (I18N).

  When the local line printer driver supports indentation, the lpd line
  printer daemon must understand how to	invoke this capability.

  LAT Printing Characteristics

  The following	table lists the	LAT printing characteristics:

  Name	 Type	Default	     Description
  ct	 str	LAT	     Remote printing using LAT as the

  lp	 str	/dev/ttyWX

			     Device name to open for output
			     where WX is a LAT device.

  Network (TCP/IP) Printing Characteristics

  The following	table lists typical TCP/IP printing characteristics for	a
  DEClaser3500 printer.	 The entry in the /etc/services	file reads:

       dlaser35	   10001/tcp

  Examples of print symbol settings are	set as follows:

  ct   Has a value of tcp to specify network printing using TCP/IP

  lp   Has a value of @prthub/dlaser35 which specifies service name dlaser35
       on node prthub

  Compaq Advanced Printing Software

  If Compaq Advanced Printing Software is installed you	must specify the
  string @dpa for the rm characteristic	and specify a queue name for the rp

  Refer	to the Compaq Advanced Printing	Software documentation for more
  information on setting up the	printing environment.

  Filter and Flags

  The lpd line printer daemon creates a	pipeline of filters to process files
  for various different	printer	device.	 The filters you select	depend on the
  flags	that are passed	to the lpr command. The	pipeline setup is:

  Flag	 Filter	   Description
  none	 if	   regular text
  -p	 pr | if   regular text	+ pr
  -c	 cf	   cifplot
  -d	 df	   DVI (tex)
  -g	 gf	   plot
  -n	 nf	   ditroff
  -f	 rf	   FORTRAN
  -t	 tf	   troff
  -v	 vf	   raster image

  The if filter	is invoked with	arguments according to the following format:

       if  [-c]	 -wwidth  -llength -iindent  -nlogin  -hhost acct-file

  The xf pass-through filter is	specified when output is preformatted and
  does not require special filtering.

  The -c flag is passed	only when the -l flag (pass control-characters
  literally) is	specified to the lpr command.  The -wwidth and -llength
  parameters specify the page width and	length (from the assigned or default
  values of pw and pl respectively in the printcap file) in characters.	The
  -n and -h flags specify the login name and hostname of the owner of the
  job, respectively. The acct-file is passed from the af entry in the
  printcap file.

  The if filter	is opened for all individual jobs, which makes it suitable
  for accounting. When the if filter is	not specified, the system uses the of
  filter as the	default	value. The of filter however, is opened	only once and
  is only given	the -wwidth and	-llength flags.

  All other filters are	called according to the	following format:

       filter -xwidth -ylength -nlogin -h host acct-file

  In this format, -xwidth and -ylength are represented in pixels as specified
  by the px and	py entries, respectively, in the printcap file.

  All filters take standard input (stdin) as the source	file and standard
  output (stdout) as the destination.  The printer may log either to standard
  error	(stderr) or use	syslogd, and must not ignore the SIGINT	signal.


  Error	messages generated by the line printer programs	(that is, the lp*
  programs) are	logged by syslogd using	the lpr	facility.  Messages printed
  on the stderr	of one of the filters are sent to the corresponding lf file
  specified in the printcap file.  The filters may, of course, also use	sys-

  Error	messages sent to the console have a carriage return and	a line feed
  appended to them, rather than	just a line feed.


  Editing the /etc/printcap file manually is not recommended.  Use the
  appropriate configuration utilities to add printers and symbols. If a
  printcap file	is corrupted, you will see an error message to this effect.
  A likely cause of such corruption is the presence of tab or space charac-
  ters in a blank line or following a continuation character (\).  Use the
  following command to find incorrect tabs or spaces in	the printcap file:

       $ cat -e	/etc/printcap |	more

  The preceding	command	marks the end of each line with	a dollar sign ($) so
  that trailing	tabs and spaces	are easily visible.

  The following	restrictions apply when	using older versions of	printcap
  files, at DIGITAL UNIX Version 3.2 or	earlier:

  Aliases that conflict	with system-assigned names
      The system assigns printers names	lp[0-9]*, [0-9]*, and for the default
      printer, lp.  For	example, the default printer may have a	name field
      such as lp0|0|lp|default|declaser3500:...	and another printer may	be
      lp7|7|some_alias|another alias:....  As a	result,	the system will	have
      difficulty with printers that have less than two names or	that use
      these reserved names as aliases.

  Altered attribute validation
      Some of the attribute value checking is different.  For example, some
      fields that were not required now	are, and some attributes values	that
      were legal no longer are.

  Trailing comments
      The printconfig utility requires that all	comments be associated with a
      printer. As a result, comments appearing after the last printer will be
      truncated	(deleted).  As a work around, invoke printconfig with the
      menu interface as	follows:

       printconfig -ui menu

  this command invokes lprsetup	which is fully compatible with earlier
  printcap files.


  Commands: lpq(1), lpr(1), lprm(1), lpc(8), lpd(8), lprsetup(8), pac(8)

  Files: termcap(4)

  Others: i18n_printing(5)

  System Administration

  Network Administration: Connections