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passwd(4)							    passwd(4)



NAME
  passwd - Password files

DESCRIPTION

  A passwd file	is a file consisting of	records	separated by newline charac-
  ters,	one record per user, containing	seven colon (:)	separated fields.
  These	fields are as follows:

  name	    User's login name.	The default length is 8	characters.

  password  User's encrypted password.

  uid	    User's ID

  gid	    User's login group ID

  gecos	    General information	about the user

  home_dir  User's home	directory

  shell	    User's login shell

  The name field is the	login used to access the computer account, and the
  uid field is the number associated with it.  They should both	be unique
  across the system (and often across a	group of systems) since	they control
  file access.

  While	it is possible to have multiple	entries	with identical login names
  and/or identical user	gid's, it is usually a mistake to do so.  Routines
  that manipulate these	files will often return	only one of the	multiple
  entries, and that one	by random selection.

  The login name must never begin with a hyphen	(-); also, it is strongly
  suggested that neither uppercase characters or dots (.) be part of the
  name,	as this	tends to confuse mailers.  No field may	contain	a colon	(:)
  as this has been used	historically to	separate the fields in the user	data-
  base.

  The password field is	the encrypted form of the password.  If	the password
  field	is empty, no password is required to gain access to the	machine.
  Because these	files contain the encrypted user passwords, they should	not
  be readable by anyone	without	appropriate privileges.

  Use the vipw command to edit password	entries.  This ensures that the
  hashed password database is rebuilt.

				 Security Note

       If you have enhanced security installed on your system, the pass-
       word field contains an asterisk (*). The	encrypted password is
       stored in the user's protected password database.


  The gid field	is the group that the user will	be placed in upon login.
  Since	the operating system supports multiple groups (see the groups com-
  mand)	this field currently has little	special	meaning.


  The gecos field normally contains comma (,) separated	subfields as follows:

  name	    User's full	name

  office    User's office number

  wphone    User's work	phone number

  hphone    User's home	phone number

  This information is used by the finger command.

  The user's home directory is the full	UNIX pathname where the	user will be
  placed on login.

  The shell field is the command interpreter the user prefers.	If the shell
  field	is empty, the Bourne shell (/bin/sh) is	assumed.

  The allowable	values for the UID are unsigned	numbers	from 0 to 65535.

  The command pwck can be used to verify the accuracy of data entered in the
  passwd file.

EXAMPLES

       root:TZVtfX5VbS3KY:0:1:System PRIVILEGED	Account,,,:/:/bin/sh
       adm:*:5:16:Admin	Login:/usr/adm:/bin/sh
       operator:HdgoklKwZOlvU:25:28:System PRIVILEGED Account,,,:/etc/operator:
       guest:Nologin:-2:-2:anonymous NFS user:/:/bin/date
       osfuser:If2eoZ6gmghJo:50002:15:Osf User:/usr/users/osfuser:/bin/csh
       marcy:*:201:20:Marcy Swanson,dev,x1234:/usr/users/marcy:/bin/sh

RELATED	INFORMATION

  Functions: getpwent(3)

  Commands: login(1), passwd(1), pwck(8), vipw(8)

  Files: prpasswd(4)