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magic(4)                         File Formats                         magic(4)

       magic - file command's magic number file


       The  file(1)  command  identifies the type of a file using, among other
       tests, a test for whether the file begins with a certain magic  number.
       The  /etc/magic  file, or a file specified as an option-argument to the
       -m or -M options of file(1), specifies what magic  numbers  are  to  be
       tested  for,  what  message  to  print  if a particular magic number is
       found, and additional information to extract from the file.

       Each line of the file specifies a position-sensitive test to perform. A
       test compares the data starting at a particular offset in the file with
       a 1-byte, 2-byte, 4-byte, or 8-byte numeric value  or  string.  If  the
       test succeeds, a message is printed. The line consists of the following
       fields (separated by tabs): offset type value message

       offset          A number specifying the offset, in bytes, into the file
                       of the data which is to be tested.

       type            The  type of the data to be tested. The possible values

                       byte, d1, dC

                           A one-byte signed value.

                       short, d2, dS

                           A 2-byte signed value.

                       long, d4, dI, dL, d

                           A 4-byte signed value.

                       llong, d8

                           An 8-byte signed value

                       ubyte, u1, uC

                           A one-byte unsigned value.

                       ushort, u2, uS

                           A 2-byte unsigned value.

                       ulong, u4, uI, uL, u

                           A 4-byte unsigned value.

                       ullong, u8

                           An 8-byte unsigned value.

                       string, s

                           A string of bytes.

                       All type specifiers, except for string and  s,  may  be
                       followed  by a mask specifier of the form &&number. If a
                       mask specifier is given, the value is AND'ed  with  the
                       number  before  any comparisons are done. The number is
                       specified in C form. For instance, 13 is  decimal,  013
                       is octal, and 0x13 is hexadecimal.

       value           The  value to be compared with the value from the file.
                       If the type is numeric, this value is  specified  in  C
                       form.  If it is a string, it is specified as a C string
                       with the usual escapes permitted (for instance, \n  for

                       Numeric  values may be preceded by a character indicat-
                       ing the operation to be performed, as follows:

                       =        The value from the file must equal the  speci-
                                fied value.

                       <&lt;        The  value from the file must be less than the
                                specified value.

                       >&gt;        The value from the file must be  greater  than
                                the specified value.

                       &&amp;        All  the  bits  in the specified value must be
                                set in the value from the file.

                       ^        At least one of  the  bits  in  the  specified
                                value  must  not  be set in the value from the

                       x        Any value will match.

                       If the character is omitted, it is assumed to be "=".

                       For comparison of numeric values, the sign and size  of
                       both the value in the file and the value from the value
                       field of the magic entry will match that of the  corre-
                       sponding type field. If there is a non-zero mask (&&amp;) in
                       the type field, the comparison will be unsigned.

                       For string values, the byte string from the  file  must
                       match  the  specified byte string. The byte string from
                       the file which is matched is the  same  length  as  the
                       specified byte string. If the value is a string, it can
                       contain the following sequences:


                           The backslash-escape sequences \\, \a, \b, \f,  \n,
                           \r, \t, \v.


                           Octal sequences that can be used to represent char-
                           acters  with  specific  coded  values.   An   octal
                           sequence  consists  of  a backslash followed by the
                           longest sequence of one, two, or three  octal-digit
                           characters (01234567).

       message         The  message  to be printed if the comparison succeeds.
                       If the string contains a printf(3C)  format  specifica-
                       tion, the value from the file (with any specified mask-
                       ing performed) is printed using the message as the for-
                       mat string.

       Some file formats contain additional information which is to be printed
       along with the file type. A line which begins with  the  character  ">&gt;"
       indicates  additional  tests and messages to be printed. If the test on
       the line preceding the first line with a ">&gt;" succeeds, the tests speci-
       fied  in all the subsequent lines beginning with ">&gt;" are performed, and
       the messages are printed if the tests succeed. The next line which does
       not begin with a ">&gt;" terminates this.


       file(1), file(1B), printf(3C)

       In  Solaris  9  and prior releases, the file utility may have performed
       unsigned comparisons for types byte, short, and long. Old  user-defined
       magic files, which were specified with the -m option, will need modifi-
       cation of byte, short, and long entries to their corresponding unsigned
       types  (ubyte, ushort, or ulong) for those entries for which all of the
       following are true:

         o  The entry uses the "<&lt;" or the ">&gt;" operator.

         o  The type field does not contain a non-zero mask.

         o  The intention of the entry is to test unsigned values.

       For example, if the following entry is expected to match any  non-zero,
       one-byte  value  from the file, including values for which the sign bit
       is on:

       #offset type    value   message
       0       byte    >0      this matches any non-zero value

       then that entry should be changed to:

       0       ubyte    >0     this matches any non-zero value

       In Solaris 7 through Solaris 9, when  applying  tests  for  magic  file
       entries  whose  type  field  is the numeric type "short" or "long", the
       file utility in the x86 environment would switch the byte order of  the
       numeric values read. Starting in Solaris 10, the byte order will not be
       switched on x86. A test for a numeric value whose byte order is identi-
       cal  in both little- and big-endian architectures may require two magic
       file entries, to ensure that the test  correctly  identifies  files  in
       both environments. For example, a magic file entry that will match on a
       big-endian system may look like this:

       0       long      0xf00000ff      extended accounting file

       Its corresponding magic file entry that will match the same value on  a
       little-endian system would look like this:

       0       long      0xff0000f0      extended accounting file

       There  should  be more than one level of subtests, with the level indi-
       cated by the number of `>&gt;' at the beginning of the line.

SunOS 5.10                        6 Feb 2004                          magic(4)