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magic(4)							     magic(4)



NAME

  magic	- Magic	file for the file command

SYNOPSIS

  /etc/magic

DESCRIPTION

  The magic file is used by the	file command to	identify files that have some
  sort of magic	number.	 A magic number	is any numeric or string constant
  that identifies the file containing the constant.

  The format for the magic file	is as follows:

       offset	type   operator,value	string

  The fields should be separated by tabs.  Each	record must be contained on
  one line.

  The fields contain the following data:

  Byte Offset
    This field contains	the number of bytes from the beginning of the file on
    which you are running the file command to the first	byte of	the magic
    number of character	string you want	to identify.  Use a right angle
    bracket (>)	to indicate a continuation line	that supplies additional
    information	describing the file.

  Value	Type
    This field contains	information about the data type	of the magic number
    or character string	at the specified byte offset.  Valid data types	for
    this field are:

    byte
	Unsigned character type

    short
	Unsigned short type

    long
	Long type

    string
	Character (byte) string

  Comparison Operator
    This field contains	instructions for the file command on how to compare
    the	value read from	the file being checked with the	value stored in	the
    Value Type field of	the magic file.	 The valid comparison operators	are:

    = The two values are equal.

    >> The value	in the file being checked is greater than the value in the
      magic file.

    <&lt; The value	in the file being checked is less than the value in the	magic
      file.

    &&amp; All the bits in the magic	file value must	be set in the value from the
      file being checked.

    Note that the Comparison Operator field is optional.  If you do not
    specify the	operator, the values are expected to be	equal.

  Value
    This field contains	the value used to compare what is read from the	file
    being checked by the file command.	You can	use decimal, hex, or octal
    numbers in this field or character strings in the form of regular expres-
    sions.

    Precede all	hex numbers with the characters	zero and x (for	example,
    0x80). To specify an octal number, precede it with a zero (for example,
    0200).  Decimal numbers require no special representation and should be
    written as integers	(for example, 128).

    The	rules for specifying character strings follow those of the ed editor
    (see ed(1))	for regular expressions, with two extensions:

    - You use the backslash (\)	to escape an unprintable character.  The
      string can contain all special character such as \n, \b, \r, and \f. If
      a	backslash appears in the string, it must be escaped with a second
      backslash	(\\).  You can use octal representation	to specify any byte
      value other than zero (0).

    - Text found in the	file can be inserted into the printed string if	it is
      preceded and followed by \\% delimiters.	All text found between these
      delimiters is displayed as the print string.

    This regular expression search never terminates until a match is expli-
    citly found	or rejected.  The special character \n is a valid character
    in the patterns.  Therefore, the pattern .*	should never be	used here.

  String
    This field contains	the string to print. The string	provides information
    about the file. The	string can include text	found in the file when
    requested with an appropriate printf() format.

EXAMPLES

  The following	is an example of a script:

       string ^#!{ }*\\%[^ \n]*\\%     %s

  The following	are examples of	executable images:

       >2	short	02		       POSIX
       >2	short	01		       SVID
       >16	long	>0		       not stripped

  The following	are examples of	text and data files:

       0       string  ^\01h[0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9]	sccsfile
       0       string  ^#ifndef				c program
       0       string  ^070707				ASCII cpio archive



FILES

  /etc/magic



RELATED	INFORMATION

  Commands:  file(1)