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 localedef(4)							localedef(4)




 NAME
      localedef - format and semantics of locale definition file

 DESCRIPTION
      This is a description of the syntax and meaning of the locale
      definition that is provided as input to the localedef command to
      create a locale (see localedef(1M)).

      The following is a list of category tags, keywords and subsequent
      expressions which are recognized by localedef.  The order of keywords
      within a category is irrelevant with the exception of the copy keyword
      and other exceptions noted under the LC_COLLATE description.  (Note
      that, as a convention, the category tags are composed of uppercase
      characters, while the keywords are composed of lowercase characters).

    Category Tags and Keywords
      The following keywords do not belong to any category and should appear
      in the beginning of the locale definition file:

	   comment_char
		Single character indicating the character to be interpreted
		as starting a comment line within the locale definition
		file.  This character should be in the first column of a
		comment line.  The default comment_char is #.  All lines
		with a comment_char in the first column are ignored.

	   escape_char
		A single character indicating the character to be
		interpreted as an escape character within the script.  The
		default escape_char is \.  escape_char is used to escape
		localedef metacharacters to remove special meaning and in
		the character constant decimal, octal, and hexadecimal
		formats.  It is also used to continue a line onto the next,
		if escape_char is the last character on the line (before the
		new-line character).

      The following keywords can be used in any category:

	   copy A string naming another valid locale available on the
		system.	 This causes the category in the locale being
		created to be a copy of the same category in the named
		locale.	 Since the copy keyword defines the entire category,
		if used, it must be the only keyword in the category.

      The following six categories are recognized:

      LC_CTYPE:
	   This category defines character classification, case conversion
	   and other character attributes.  The following predefined
	   character classifications are recognized:




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		upper	       Character codes classified as uppercase
			       letters. Characters specified in the cntrl,
			       digit, punct or space classifications cannot
			       be specified in this category.

		lower	       Character codes classified as lowercase
			       letters. Same restrictions applicable to the
			       upper category apply to this classification.

		digit	       Character codes classified as numeric. Only
			       ten characters in contiguous ascending
			       sequence by numerical value can be specified.
			       Alternative digits cannot be specified here.

		space	       Character codes classified as white-space. No
			       character specified for the upper, lower,
			       alpha, digit, graph or xdigit categories can
			       be included in this classification.

		punct	       Character codes classified as punctuation
			       characters.  No character included in the
			       upper, lower, alpha, digit, cntrl, xdigit or
			       space categories can be specified.

		cntrl	       Character codes classified as control
			       characters. No character included in the
			       upper, lower, alpha, digit, punct, graph,
			       print or xdigit can be included here.

		blank	       Character codes classified as blank
			       characters. The <space> and <tab> characters
			       are automatically included.

		xdigit	       Character codes classified as hexadecimal
			       digits. Only the characters defined for the
			       digit class can be specified, followed by one
			       or more sets of six characters, with each set
			       in ascending order.

		alpha	       Character codes classified as letters.
			       Characters classified as cntrl, digit, punct
			       or space cannot be specified. Characters
			       specified as upper and lower classes are
			       automatically included in this class.

		print	       Character codes classified as printable
			       characters.  Characters specified for upper,
			       lower, alpha, digit, xdigit, and punct
			       classes and the <space> character are
			       automatically included. No character from the
			       cntrl category can be specified.



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		graph	       Character codes classified as printable
			       characters, except the <space> character.  In
			       all other respect this classification is
			       similar to the print category.

	   The following two are special classifications, used to designate
	   valid first-of-two and second-of-two bytes.	Note that these are
	   byte classifications and not character classifications; hence,
	   they cannot be used with the iswctype interface (see wctype(3C)),
	   in the same manner as the other classifications can be used.

		first	       Valid first bytes of two-byte characters.

		second	       Valid second bytes of two-byte characters.

	   Character case conversion definitions:

		toupper	       Lowercase to uppercase character
			       relationships.

		tolower	       Uppercase to lowercase character
			       relationships.

	   Miscellaneous character attribute and classifications:

		alt_punct      String mapped into the ASCII equivalent
			       string ``b!"#$%&'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\]^_`{}~'',
			       where b is a blank (a langinfo(5) item).

		charclass      Defines one or more locale-specific character
			       class names as strings separated by
			       semicolons.  Each named character class can
			       then be defined subsequently in the LC_CTYPE
			       definition. The first character of a
			       character class name must be a letter and the
			       class name cannot match any of the predefined
			       classifications (e.g., space, letter, cntrl).

		direction      String operand indicates text direction (a
			       langinfo(5) item). String operand "1"
			       indicates right-to-left text direction.

		context	       String operand indicates character context
			       analysis. String "1" indicates Arabic context
			       analysis is required.

      LC_COLLATE:
	   The LC_COLLATE category provides collation sequence definition
	   for relative ordering between collating elements (single- and
	   multi-character collating elements) in the locale.  The following
	   keywords belong to this category and should come between the



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	   category tag LC_COLLATE and END LC_COLLATE.	The first two
	   keywords can be in any order, but must come before the
	   order_start keyword.	 Any number of the first two keywords can be
	   specified.

		collating-element <&lt&lt&lt;symbol>&gt&gt&gt; from string
			       Defines a multi-character collating element,
			       symbol, composed of the characters in string.
			       String is limited to two characters.

		collating-symbol <&lt&lt&lt;symbol>&gt&gt&gt;
			       Makes symbol a collating symbol which can be
			       used to define a place in the collating
			       sequence.  Symbol does not represent any
			       actual character.

		order_start    Denotes the start of the collation sequence.
			       The directives have an effect on string
			       collation.

			       The lines following the order_start keyword
			       and before the order_end keyword contain
			       collating element entries, one per line.

			       Operands can optionally appear after the
			       order_start keyword to defined rules for
			       string comparison using a multiple-weight
			       scheme (if no operands are specified, a
			       single forward operand is assumed). The
			       possible operands are:

			  forward	 Specifies that comparison
					 operations proceed from start of
					 string towards the end of it.

			  backward	 Specifies that comparison
					 operations proceed from end of
					 string towards the beginning of it.

		order_end      Marks the end of the list of collating
			       element entries.

      LC_MONETARY:
	   The LC_MONETARY category defines the rules and symbols used to
	   format monetary numeric information. The following keywords
	   belong to this category and should come between the category tag
	   LC_MONETARY and END LC_MONETARY:

		int_curr_symbol
			       The operand is a four-character string used
			       to designate the international currency



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			       symbol.

		currency_symbol
			       The operand is a string used as the local
			       currency symbol.

		mon_decimal_point
			       The operand is a string containing the symbol
			       used as the decimal delimiter (radix
			       character).

		mon_thousands_sep
			       The operand is a string containing the symbol
			       used as a separator for groups of digits to
			       the left of decimal delimiter.

		mon_grouping   The operand is a semicolon-separated list of
			       integers.  The initial integer defines the
			       size of the group immediately preceding the
			       decimal delimiter, and the following integers
			       define the preceding groups.  If the last
			       integer is not -1, then the size of the
			       previous group (if any) will be repeatedly
			       used for the remainder of the digits.  If the
			       last integer is -1, then no further grouping
			       will be performed.

		positive_sign  The operand is a srting to indicate a non-
			       negative monetary quantity.

		negative_sign  The operand is a srting to indicate a
			       negative monetary quantity.

		int_frac_digits
			       The operand is an integer representing the
			       number of fractional digits used in formatted
			       monetary values using int_curr_symbol.

		frac_digits    The operand is an integer representing the
			       number of fractional digits used in formatted
			       monetary values using currency_symbol.

		p_cs_precedes  The operand is an integer which if set to 1
			       indicates the currency_symbol or
			       int_curr_symbol precedes a monetary quantity,
			       and if set to 0 the symbol succeeds the
			       value.

		p_sep_by_space The operand is an integer which if set to 1
			       indicates a space separates the
			       currency_symbol or int_curr_symbol from the



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			       value, and otherwise if set to 0.

		n_cs_precedes  The operand is an integer which if set to 1
			       indicates the currency_symbol or
			       int_curr_symbol precedes a negative monetary
			       quantity, and if set to 0 the symbol succeeds
			       the negative value.

		n_sep_by_space The operand is an integer which if set to 1
			       indicates a space separates the
			       currency_symbol or int_curr_symbol from
			       negative monetary value, and otherwise if set
			       to 0.

		p_sign_posn    The operand is an integer which setting
			       indicates the positioning of the
			       positive_sign for a non-negative monetary
			       quantity.  The possible values are:

				    0	 Parenthesis surround the quantity
					 and the currency_symbol or
					 int_curr_symbol.

				    1	 The sign string precedes the
					 quantity and the currency_symbol or
					 int_curr_symbol.

				    2	 The sign string succeeds the
					 quantity and the currency_symbol or
					 int_curr_symbol.

				    3	 The sign string precedes the
					 currency_symbol or int_curr_symbol.

				    4	 The sign string succeeds the
					 currency_symbol or int_curr_symbol.

		n_sign_posn    The operand is an integer which setting
			       parallels that of p_sign_posn, but for
			       negative monetary quantities.

      LC_NUMERIC:
	   The LC_NUMERIC category defines rules and symbols used to format
	   non-monetary numeric information.  The following keywords belong
	   to this category and should come between the category tag
	   LC_NUMERIC and END LC_NUMERIC:

		decimal_point  The operand is a string containing the symbol
			       used as the decimal delimiter (radix
			       character) in numeric, non-monetary formatted
			       quantities.  This keyword cannot be omitted



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			       and cannot be set to the empty string.

		thousands_sep  The operand is a string containing the symbol
			       used as a separator for groups of digits to
			       the left of the decimal delimiter.

		grouping       The operand is a semicolon-separated list of
			       integers.  The initial integer defines the
			       size of the group immediately preceding the
			       decimal delimiter, and the following integers
			       define the preceding groups.  If the last
			       integer is not -1, then the size of the
			       previous group (if any) will be repeatedly
			       used for the remainder of the digits. If the
			       last integer is -1, then no further grouping
			       will be performed.

		alt_digit      String mapped into the ASCII equivalent
			       string ``0123456789b+-.,eE'', where b is a
			       blank (a langinfo(5) item).  The alt_digit
			       keyword is a HP extension to the localedef
			       POSIX standards and it has a different
			       meaning than the alt_digits defined in POSIX
			       standards.

      LC_TIME:
	   The LC_TIME category defines the rules for generating locale-
	   specific formatted date strings.  The following mandatory
	   keywords belong to this category and should come between the
	   category tag LC_TIME and END LC_TIME:

		abday	       Seven semicolon-separated strings giving
			       abbreviated names for the days of the week
			       beginning with Sunday.

		day	       Seven semicolon-separated strings giving full
			       names for the days of the week beginning with
			       Sunday.

		abmon	       Twelve semicolon-separated strings giving
			       abbreviated names for the months, beginning
			       with January.

		mon	       Twelve semicolon-separated strings giving
			       full names for the months, beginning with
			       January.

		d_t_fmt	       The operand is a string defining the
			       appropriate date and time representation.





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		d_fmt	       The operand is a string defining the
			       appropriate date representation.

		t_fmt	       The operand is a string defining the
			       appropriate time representation.

		am_pm	       The operand is two semicolon-separated
			       strings giving the representations for AM and
			       PM.

		t_fmt_ampm     The operand is a string defining the
			       appropriate time representation in the 12-
			       hour clock format with am_pm.

		era	       The operand is a semi-colon-separated list of
			       strings. Each string defines the name and
			       date of an era or emperor for a locale. Each
			       string should conform to the following
			       format:

			       direction:offset:start_date:end_date:name:format

			       where:

				    direction	Either a + or - character.
						The + character indicates
						the time axis should be such
						that the years count in the
						positive direction when
						moving from the starting
						date towards the ending
						date.  The - character
						indicates the time axis
						should be such that the
						years count in the negative
						direction when moving from
						the starting date towards
						the ending date.

				    offset	A number in the range
						[SHRT_MIN,SHRT_MAX]
						indicating the number of the
						first year of the era.

				    start_date	A date in the form
						yyyy/mm/dd where yyyy, mm,
						and dd are the year, month
						and day numbers,
						respectively, of the start
						of the era.  Years prior to
						the year 0 A.D.	 are



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						represented as negative
						numbers.  For example, an
						era beginning March 5th in
						the year 100 B.C.  would be
						represented as 3-100/3/5.
						Years in the range
						[SHRT_MIN+1,SHRT_MAX-1] are
						supported.

				    end_date	The ending date of the era
						in the same form as the
						start_date above or one of
						the two special values -* or
						+*.  A value of -* indicates
						the ending date of the era
						extends to the beginning of
						time while +* indicates it
						extends to the end of time.
						The ending date can be
						chronologically either
						before or after the starting
						date of an era.	 For
						example, the expressions for
						the Christian eras A.D.	 and
						B.C.  would be:

						+:0:0000/01/01:+*:A.D.:%o %N
						+:1:-0001/12/31:-*:B.C.:%o %N

				    name	A string representing the
						name of the era which is
						substituted for the %N
						directive of date and
						strftime() (see date(1) and
						strftime(3C)).

				    format	A string for formatting the
						%E directive of date(1) and
						strftime(3C).  This string
						is usually a function of the
						%o and %N directives.  If
						format is not specified, the
						string specified for the
						LC_TIME category keyword
						era_d_fmt (see below) is
						used as a default.

		era_d_fmt      The operand is a string defining the format
			       of date in era notation.





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		era_t_fmt      The operand is a string defining the format
			       of time in era notation.

		era_d_t_fmt    The operand is a string defining the format
			       of date and time in era notation.

		alt_digits     The operand is a semi-colon-separated list of
			       strings. The first string is the alternative
			       symbol corresponding to zero, the second
			       string is the alternative symbol
			       corresponding to one, and so on.	 Note that
			       if the HP-UX-proprietary alt_digit keyword
			       has been specified in the same locale, the
			       first ten symbols should be identical for
			       these two keywords.

	   In addition to the above, the following HP-UX-proprietary
	   keywords are recognized (these are provided for backward
	   compatibility and their use is otherwise not recommended):
	   year_unit, mon_unit, day_unit, rour_unit, min_unit, sec_unit.

      LC_MESSAGES:
	   The LC_MESSAGES category defines the format and values for
	   affirmative and negative responses.	The following keywords
	   belong to this category and should come between the category tag
	   LC_MESSAGES and END LC_MESSAGES:

		yesexpr	       The string operand is an Extended Regular
			       Expression matching acceptable affirmative
			       responses to yes/no queries.

		noexpr	       The string operand is an Extended Regular
			       Expression matching acceptable negative
			       responses to yes/no queries.

		yesstr	       The string operand identifies the affirmative
			       response for yes/no questions.  This keyword
			       is now obsolete and yesexpr should be used
			       instead.

		nostr	       The string operand identifies the negative
			       response for yes/no questions This keyword is
			       now obsolete and noexpr should be used
			       instead.

    Keyword Operands
      Keyword operands consist of character-code constants and symbols,
      strings, and metacharacters.  The types of legal expressions are:
      character lists, string lists, integer lists, shift, collating element
      entries, regular expression, character constants and string:




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	   character lists
		     character list operands consist of single character-
		     code constants or symbolic names separated by
		     semicolons, or a character-code range consisting of a
		     constant or symbolic name followed by an ellipsis
		     followed by another constant or symbolic name.  The
		     constant preceding the ellipsis must have a smaller
		     code value than the constant following the ellipsis.  A
		     range represents a set of consecutive character codes.
		     If the list is longer than a single line, the escape
		     character must be used at the end of each line as a
		     continuation character.  It is an error to use any
		     symbolic name that is not defined in an accompanying
		     charmap file (see charmap(4)).

	   string lists
		     string list operands consist of strings separated by
		     semicolons.  If longer than one line, the escape
		     character must be used for continuation.

	   string    string operands consist of a sequence of zero or more
		     characters surrounded by double quotes (").  Within a
		     string, the double-quote character must be preceded by
		     an escape character.  The following escape sequences
		     also can be used:

		     \n	     newline

		     \t	     horizontal tab

		     \b	     backspace

		     \r	     carriage return

		     \f	     form feed

		     \\	     backslash

		     \'	     single quote

		     \ddd    bit pattern

			     The escape \ddd consists of the escape
			     character followed by 1, 2, or 3 octal digits
			     specifying the value of the desired character
			     (for other possible bit pattern specification,
			     see character constants below).  Also, an
			     escape character (\) and an immediately-
			     following newline are ignored.





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		     Although the backslash (\) has been used for
		     illustration, another escape character can be
		     substituted by the escape_char keyword.

	   character constants
		     Constants represent character codes in the operands.
		     They can be used in the following forms:

		     decimal constants	    An escape character followed by
					    a 'd' followed by up to three
					    decimal digits.

		     octal constants	    An escape character followed by
					    up to three octal digits.

		     hexadecimal constants  An escape character followed by
					    a 'x' followed by two
					    hexadecimal digits.

		     character constants    A single character (e.g., A)
					    having the numerical value of
					    the character in the machine's
					    character set.

		     symbolic names	    A string enclosed between <&lt&lt&lt; and
					    >&gt&gt&gt; is a symbolic name.  localedef
					    input files are recommended to
					    be written entirely in symbolic
					    names, utilizing a user defined
					    or system-supplied charmap file.
					    This aids portability of
					    localedef input files between
					    different encoded character sets
					    (see charmap(4)).

					    Symbolic names can be defined
					    within a locale definition file
					    by the collating-element and
					    collating-symbol keywords.
					    These are not character
					    constants.	It is an error if
					    such an internally defined
					    symbolic name collides with one
					    defined in a charmap file.

	   integer lists
		     Integer list operands consists of one or more decimal
		     digits separated by semicolons.

	   shift     Shift operands follow keywords toupper and tolower, and
		     must consist of two character-code constants enclosed



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		     by left and right parentheses and separated by a comma.
		     Each such character pair is separated from the next by
		     a semicolon.  For tolower, the first constant
		     represents an uppercase character and the second the
		     corresponding lowercase character.	 For toupper, the
		     first constant represents an lowercase character and
		     the second the corresponding uppercase character.

	   collating element entry
		     The order_start keyword is followed by collating
		     element entries, one per line, in ascending order by
		     collating position.  The collating element entries have
		     the form:

			  collation_element[weight[;weight]]

		     collation_element can be a character, a collating
		     symbol enclosed in angle brackets representing a
		     character or collating element, the special symbol
		     UNDEFINED or an ellipsis (...).

		     A character stands for itself; a collating symbol can
		     be a symbolic name for a character that is interpreted
		     by the charmap file, a multi-character collating
		     element defined by a collating-element keyword, or a
		     collating symbol defined by the collating-symbol
		     keyword.

		     The special symbol UNDEFINED specifies the collating
		     position of any characters not explicitly defined by
		     collating element entries.	 For example, if some group
		     of characters is to be omitted from the collation
		     sequence and just collate after all defined characters,
		     a collating symbol might be defined before the
		     order_start keyword:

			  collating-symbol  <&lt&lt&lt;HIGH>&gt&gt&gt;

		     Then somewhere in the list of collating element
		     entries:

			  UNDEFINED  <&lt&lt&lt;HIGH>&gt&gt&gt;

		     Notice that there is no second weight.  This means that
		     on a second pass all characters collate by their
		     encoded value.

		     An ellipsis is interpreted as a list of characters with
		     an encoded value higher than that of the character on
		     the preceding line and lower than that on the following
		     line.  Because it is tied to encoded value of



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		     characters, the ellipsis is inherently non-portable.
		     If it is used, a warning is issued and no output
		     generated unless the -c option was given.

		     The weight operands provide information about how the
		     collating element is to be collated on first and
		     subsequent passes.	 Weight can be a two-character
		     string, the special symbol IGNORE, or a collating
		     element of any of the forms specified for
		     collating_element except UNDEFINED.  If there are no
		     weights, the character is collating strictly by its
		     position in the list.  If there is only one weight
		     given, the character sorts by its relative position in
		     the list on the second collation pass.

		     An equivalence class is defined by a series of
		     collating element entries all having the same character
		     or symbol in the first weight position.  For example,
		     in many locales all forms of the character 'A' collate
		     equal on the first pass.  This is represented in the
		     collating element entries as:

			  'A'	 'A';'A' # first element of equivalence class
			  'a'	 'A';'a' # next element of class

		     Two-to-one collating elements are specified by
		     collating-elements defined before the order_start
		     keyword.  For example, the two-to-one collating element
		     CH in Spanish, would be defined before the order_start
		     keyword as

			  collating element <&lt&lt&lt;CH>&gt&gt&gt; from "CH"

		     It would then be used in a collating element entry as
		     <&lt&lt&lt;CH>&gt&gt&gt;.

		     A one-to-two collating element is defined by having a
		     two-character string in one of the weight positions.
		     For example, if the character 'X' collates equal to the
		     pair "AE", the collating element entry would be:

			  'X' "AE";'X'

		     A don't-care character is defined by the special symbol
		     IGNORE.  For example, the dash character, '-' may be a
		     don't care on the first collation pass.  The collating
		     element entry is:

			  '-'	IGNORE;'-'





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		     Symbols defined by the collating-symbol keyword can be
		     used to indicate that a given character collates higher
		     or lower than some position in the sequence.  For
		     example if all characters with an encoded value less
		     than that of '0' are to collate lower than all other
		     characters on the first pass, and in relative order on
		     the second pass, define a collating symbol before the
		     order_start keyword:

			  collating-symbol    <&lt&lt&lt;LOW>&gt&gt&gt;

		     The first two collating element entries are then:

			  ...	 <&lt&lt&lt;LOW>&gt&gt&gt;;...
			  '0'	 '0';'0'

		     This also illustrates the use of the ellipsis to
		     indicate a range.	The first ellipsis is interpreted as
		     "all characters in the encoded character set with a
		     value lower than '0'"; the second ellipsis means that
		     all characters in the range defined by the first
		     collate in relative order.

	   regular expression
		     regular expression operands conform to the Extended
		     Regular Expressions specifications as described in
		     regexp(5).

    Metacharacters
      Metacharacters are characters having a special meaning to localedef in
      operands.	 To escape the special meaning of these characters, surround
      them with single quotes or precede them by an escape character.
      localedef meta-characters include:

	   <&lt&lt&lt;	   Indicates the beginning of a symbolic name.

	   >&gt&gt&gt;	   Indicates the end of a symbolic name.

	   (	   Indicates the beginning of a character shift pair
		   following the toupper and tolower keywords.

	   )	   Indicates the end of a character shift pair.

	   ,	   Used to separate the characters of a character shift
		   pair.

	   "	   Used to quote strings.

	   ;	   Used as a separator in list operands.





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 localedef(4)							localedef(4)




	   escape character
		   Used to escape special meaning from other metacharacters
		   and itself.	It is backslash (\) by default, but can be
		   redefined by the escape_char keyword.

    Comments
      Comments are lines beginning with a comment character.  The comment
      character is pound sign (#) by default, but can be redefined by the
      comment_char keyword.  Comments and blank lines are ignored.

    Separators
      Separator characters include blanks and tabs.  Any number of
      separators can be used to delimit the keywords, metacharacters,
      constants and strings that comprise a localedef script except that all
      characters between <&lt&lt&lt; and >&gt&gt&gt; are considered to be part of the symbolic
      name even they are <blank>s.

 EXAMPLE
      Please see the files under /usr/lib/nls/loc/src for examples of locale
      description files.  These files were used to create the various
      locales which are delivered with HP-UX.

































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