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File Formats                                          gateways(4)

     gateways - list static routing information


     The /etc/gateways  file  is  used  by  the  routing  daemon,
     in.routed(1M).    When   the   daemon   starts,   it   reads
     /etc/gateways to find such distant gateways that  cannot  be
     located  using  only  information  from a routing socket, to
     discover if some of the local gateways are passive,  and  to
     obtain other parameters.

     The /etc/gateways file consists of a series of  lines,  each
     in  one  of  the  two  formats  shown below or consisting of
     parameters described later. Blank lines and  lines  starting
     with "#" are treated as comments.

     One format specifies networks:

     net Nname[/mask] gateway Gname metric value <passive | active | extern>

     The other format specifies hosts:

     host Hname gateway Gname metric value <passive | active | extern>

     Host hname is equivalent to net nname/32.

     The parameters in the lines shown  above  are  described  as

     Nname or Hname
           Name of the destination network or host. It can  be  a
           symbolic network name or an Internet address specified
           in "dot" notation (see  inet(3SOCKET)).  If  it  is  a
           name,  then it must either be defined in /etc/networks
           or /etc/hosts, or a  naming  service  must  have  been
           started before in.routed(1M).

     Mask  An optional number between 1  and  32  indicating  the
           netmask associated with Nname.

     Gname Name or address of the gateway to which RIP  responses
           should be forwarded.

     Value The hop count to the destination host or network.

     passive | active | extern
           One of these keywords  must  be  present  to  indicate
           whether  the  gateway  should be treated as passive or
           active, or whether the  gateway  is  external  to  the

SunOS 5.9           Last change: 12 Feb 2003                    1

File Formats                                          gateways(4)

           scope  of  the RIP protocol.  A passive gateway is not
           expected to exchange routing information, while  gate-
           ways  marked  active should be willing to exchange RIP
           packets. See in.routed(1M) for further details.

     After turning on debugging in in.routed with the -t  option,
     you  can  see  that  lines  that follow the format described
     above create pseudo-interfaces. To set parameters for remote
     or   external   interfaces,   use   a   line  starting  with
     if=alias(Hname), if=remote(Hname), and so forth.

     For  backward  compatibility  with  the   previous   Solaris
     in.routed  implementation, three special keyword formats are
     accepted. If present, these forms must each be on a separate
     line,  and must not be combined on the same line with any of
     the keywords listed elsewhere in this document.  These three
     forms are:

     norip ifname
           Disable all RIP processing on the specified interface.

     noripin ifname
           Disable the processing of received  RIP  responses  on
           the specified interface.

     noripout ifname
           Disable RIP output on the specified interface.

     Lines that start with neither "net" nor "host" must  consist
     of   one  or  more  of  the  following  parameter  settings,
     separated by commas or blanks:

           Indicates that the other parameters on the line  apply
           to the interface name ifname.

           Advertises a route to network nname with mask mask and
           the  supplied  metric  (default 1). This is useful for
           filling "holes" in CIDR  allocations.  This  parameter
           must  appear  by  itself on a line. The network number
           must specify a full, 32-bit  value,  as  in
           instead of 192.0.2.

           Specifies that the netmask of  the  network  of  which
           nname/mask1  is a subnet should be mask2. For example,
           ripv1_mask=,27 marks  as  a
           subnet  of instead of It is
           better to turn on RIPv2 instead of using  this  facil-
           ity. See the description of ripv2_out, below.

SunOS 5.9           Last change: 12 Feb 2003                    2

File Formats                                          gateways(4)

           Specifies a RIPv2  cleartext  password  that  will  be
           included  on  all RIPv2 responses sent, and checked on
           all RIPv2 responses received. Any blanks, tab  charac-
           ters,  commas,  or "#", "|", or NULL characters in the
           password must be escaped with  a  backslash  (\).  The
           common  escape sequences \n, \r, \t, \b, and \xxx have
           their usual meanings. The KeyID must be unique but  is
           ignored for cleartext passwords. If present, start and
           stop     are     timestamps      in      the      form
           year/month/day@hour:minute.   They  specify  when  the
           password is valid. The valid password with the longest
           future is used on output packets, unless all passwords
           have expired, in which case the password that  expired
           most  recently is used. If no passwords are valid yet,
           no password is output. Incoming packets can carry  any
           password that is valid, will be valid within 24 hours,
           or that was valid within 24 hours. To protect password
           secrecy,  the  passwd  settings  are valid only in the
           /etc/gateways file and only when that file is readable
           only by UID 0.

           Specifies a RIPv2 MD5 password. Except that a KeyID is
           required, this keyword is similar to passwd (described

     no_ag Turns off aggregation of subnets in  RIPv1  and  RIPv2

           Turns off acceptance of host routes.

           Turns off aggregation of networks  into  supernets  in
           RIPv2 responses.

           Marks the interface not to be  advertised  in  updates
           sent  over other interfaces, and turns off all RIP and
           router discovery through the interface.

           Disables all RIP processing on  the  specified  inter-
           face.  If  no  interfaces  are  allowed to process RIP
           packets, in.routed acts purely as a  router  discovery

           Note that turning off RIP without  explicitly  turning
           on  router  discovery advertisements with rdisc_adv or
           -s  causes  in.routed  to  act  as  a  client   router
           discovery daemon, which does not advertise.

SunOS 5.9           Last change: 12 Feb 2003                    3

File Formats                                          gateways(4)

           Causes RIPv2 packets to be broadcast instead of multi-

           Causes RIPv1 received responses to be ignored.

           Causes RIPv2 received responses to be ignored.

           Turns on RIPv2 output and causes RIPv2  advertisements
           to be multicast when possible.

     ripv2 Equivalent to no_ripv1_in and ripv2_out. This  enables
           RIPv2 and disables RIPv1.

           Disables the Internet Router Discovery Protocol.

           Disables the transmission of Router Discovery  Solici-

           Specifies that Router Discovery  solicitations  should
           be  sent,  even  on  point-to-point  links,  which, by
           default, only listen to Router Discovery messages.

           Disables the transmission of Router  Discovery  Adver-

           Specifies that Router Discovery Advertisements  should
           be  sent,  even  on  point-to-point  links,  which  by
           default only listen to Router Discovery messages.

           Specifies that  Router  Discovery  packets  should  be
           broadcast instead of multicast.

           Sets the preference in Router Discovery Advertisements
           to  the  optionally  signed  integer  N.  The  default
           preference is 0. Default routes with  higher  or  less
           negative preferences are preferred by clients.

           Sets the nominal interval with which Router  Discovery
           Advertisements  are transmitted to N seconds and their
           lifetime to 3*N.

SunOS 5.9           Last change: 12 Feb 2003                    4

File Formats                                          gateways(4)

           Has an identical effect to -F net[/mask][=metric] with
           the  network number and netmask coming from the speci-
           fied interface.

           Similar to fake_default. To  prevent  RIPv1  listeners
           from receiving RIPv2 routes when those routes are mul-
           ticast, this feature causes a RIPv1 default  route  to
           be  broadcast to RIPv1 listeners. Unless modified with
           fake_default, the default route is  broadcast  with  a
           metric  of  14.  That  serves  as a "poor man's router
           discovery" protocol.

           Causes RIP packets from that router and other  routers
           named  in other trust_gateway keywords to be accepted,
           and packets from other routers to be ignored. If  net-
           works  are  specified,  then  routes to other networks
           will be ignored from that router.

           Causes RIP to allow ICMP Redirect  messages  when  the
           system  is  acting as a router and forwarding packets.
           Otherwise, ICMP Redirect messages are overridden.

           By default, RIPv1 advertisements  over  point-to-point
           links are sent to the peer's address (,
           if none is available), and  RIPv2  advertisements  are
           sent to either the RIP multicast address or the peer's
           address if no_rip_mcast is set. This option  overrides
           those  defaults  and  configures a specific address to
           use on the indicated interface. This can  be  used  to
           set  a  "broadcast"  type advertisement on a point-to-
           point link.

     in.routed(1M), route(1M), rtquery(1M), inet(3SOCKET),

     Internet Transport  Protocols,  XSIS  028112,  Xerox  System
     Integration Standard

SunOS 5.9           Last change: 12 Feb 2003                    5