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gateways(4)                      File Formats                      gateways(4)

       gateways  -  configuration  file  for  /usr/sbin/in.routed IPv4 network
       routing daemon


       The /etc/gateways file is used by the  routing  daemon,  in.routed(1M).
       When  the  daemon  starts,  it reads /etc/gateways to find such distant
       gateways that cannot be located using only information from  a  routing
       socket,  to  discover if some of the local gateways are passive, and to
       obtain other parameters.

       The /etc/gateways file consists of a series of lines, each  in  one  of
       the  two  formats  shown  below  or  consisting of parameters described
       later. Blank lines and lines starting with "#" are treated as comments.

       One format specifies networks:

       net Nname[/mask] gateway Gname metric value <passive | active | extern>

       The other format specifies hosts:

       host Hname gateway Gname metric value <passive | active | extern>

       Host hname is equivalent to net nname/32.

       The parameters in the lines shown above are described as follows:

       Nname or Hname

           Name of the destination network or host. It can be a symbolic  net-
           work  name  or an Internet address specified in "dot" notation (see
           inet(3SOCKET)). If it is a name, then it must either be defined  in
           /etc/networks  or  /etc/hosts,  or  a naming service must have been
           started before in.routed(1M).


           An optional number between 1 and 32 indicating the netmask  associ-
           ated with Nname.


           Name  or  address  of  the gateway to which RIP responses should be


           The hop count to the destination host or network.

       passive | active | extern

           One of these keywords must be present to indicate whether the gate-
           way  should be treated as passive or active, or whether the gateway
           is external to the scope of the RIP protocol.  A passive gateway is
           not expected to exchange routing information, while gateways marked
           active should be willing to exchange RIP packets. See in.routed(1M)
           for further details.

       After turning on debugging in in.routed with the -t option, you can see
       that lines that follow the format described above create  pseudo-inter-
       faces.  To set parameters for remote or external interfaces, use a line
       starting with if=alias(Hname), if=remote(Hname), and so forth.

       For backward compatibility with the previous Solaris  in.routed  imple-
       mentation,  three  special  keyword  formats  are accepted. If present,
       these forms must each be on a separate line, and must not  be  combined
       on the same line with any of the keywords listed elsewhere in this doc-
       ument.  These three forms are:

       norip ifname            Disable all RIP  processing  on  the  specified

       noripin ifname          Disable   the   processing   of   received  RIP
                               responses on the specified interface.

       noripout ifname         Disable RIP output on the specified interface.

       Note that, in each of the preceding three keywords, the ifname argument
       is  optional.  If  it is not present, the keyword applies to all inter-

       Lines that start with neither "net" nor "host" must consist of  one  or
       more  of  the  following  parameter  settings,  separated  by commas or


           Indicates that the other parameters on the line apply only  to  the
           interface  name  ifname.  If  this parameter is not specified, then
           other parameters on the line apply to all interfaces.


           Advertises a route to network nname with mask mask and the supplied
           metric  (default  1).  This  is  useful for filling "holes" in CIDR
           allocations. This parameter must appear by itself on  a  line.  The
           network  number  must specify a full, 32-bit value, as in
           instead of 192.0.2.


           Specifies that the netmask of the network of which nname/mask1 is a
           subnet  should  be  mask2. For example, ripv1_mask=,27
           marks  as  a  subnet  of  instead   of
   It  is better to turn on RIPv2 instead of using this
           facility. See the description of ripv2_out, below.


           Specifies a RIPv2 cleartext password that will be included  on  all
           RIPv2  responses sent, and checked on all RIPv2 responses received.
           Any blanks, tab characters, commas, or "#", "|", or NULL characters
           in  the  password  must be escaped with a backslash (\). The common
           escape sequences \n, \r, \t, \b, and \xxx have  their  usual  mean-
           ings.  The  KeyID must be unique but is ignored for cleartext pass-
           words. If present, start  and  stop  are  timestamps  in  the  form
           year/month/day@hour:minute.  They  specify  when  the  password  is
           valid. The valid password with the longest future is used on output
           packets, unless all passwords have expired, in which case the pass-
           word that expired most recently is used. If no passwords are  valid
           yet, no password is output. Incoming packets can carry any password
           that is valid, will be valid within 24 hours,  or  that  was  valid
           within  24  hours. To protect password secrecy, the passwd settings
           are valid only in the /etc/gateways file and only when that file is
           readable only by UID 0.


           Specifies  a  RIPv2  MD5 password. Except that a KeyID is required,
           this keyword is similar to passwd (described above).


           Turns off aggregation of subnets in RIPv1 and RIPv2 responses.


           Turns off acceptance of host routes.


           Turns  off  aggregation  of  networks  into  supernets   in   RIPv2


           Marks the interface not to be advertised in updates sent over other
           interfaces, and turns off all RIP and router discovery through  the


           Disables  all  RIP  processing  on  the  specified interface. If no
           interfaces are allowed  to  process  RIP  packets,  in.routed  acts
           purely as a router discovery daemon.

           Note that turning off RIP without explicitly turning on router dis-
           covery advertisements with rdisc_adv or -s causes in.routed to  act
           as a client router discovery daemon, which does not advertise.


           Causes RIPv2 packets to be broadcast instead of multicast.


           Causes RIPv1 received responses to be ignored.


           Causes RIPv2 received responses to be ignored.


           Turns  on RIPv2 output and causes RIPv2 advertisements to be multi-
           cast when possible.


           Equivalent to no_ripv1_in and ripv2_out.  This  enables  RIPv2  and
           disables RIPv1.


           Disables the Internet Router Discovery Protocol.


           Disables the transmission of Router Discovery Solicitations.


           Specifies  that Router Discovery solicitations should be sent, even
           on point-to-point links, which, by default, only listen  to  Router
           Discovery messages.


           Disables the transmission of Router Discovery Advertisements.


           Specifies that Router Discovery Advertisements should be sent, even
           on point-to-point links, which by default  only  listen  to  Router
           Discovery messages.


           Specifies that Router Discovery packets should be broadcast instead
           of multicast.


           Sets the preference  in  Router  Discovery  Advertisements  to  the
           optionally  signed  integer N. The default preference is 0. Default
           routes with higher or less negative preferences  are  preferred  by


           Sets  the  nominal  interval with which Router Discovery Advertise-
           ments are transmitted to N seconds and their lifetime to 3*N.


           Has an identical effect to -F net[/mask][=metric] with the  network
           number and netmask coming from the specified interface.


           Similar  to fake_default. To prevent RIPv1 listeners from receiving
           RIPv2 routes when those routes are multicast, this feature causes a
           RIPv1 default route to be broadcast to RIPv1 listeners. Unless mod-
           ified with fake_default, the default route is broadcast with a met-
           ric of 14. That serves as a "poor man's router discovery" protocol.


           Causes  RIP  packets  from  that  router and other routers named in
           other trust_gateway keywords to be accepted, and packets from other
           routers  to  be  ignored. If networks are specified, then routes to
           other networks will be ignored from that router.


           Causes RIP to allow ICMP Redirect messages when the system is  act-
           ing  as  a  router and forwarding packets. Otherwise, ICMP Redirect
           messages are overridden.


           By default, RIPv1 advertisements over point-to-point links are sent
           to  the peer's address (, if none is available), and
           RIPv2 advertisements are sent to either the RIP  multicast  address
           or the peer's address if no_rip_mcast is set. This option overrides
           those defaults and configures a specific  address  to  use  on  the
           indicated  interface.  This  can  be used to set a "broadcast" type
           advertisement on a point-to-point link.

       in.routed(1M), route(1M), rtquery(1M), inet(3SOCKET),

       Internet Transport Protocols, XSIS  028112,  Xerox  System  Integration

SunOS 5.10                        19 Aug 2004                      gateways(4)