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gateways(4)							  gateways(4)



NAME
  gateways - Specifies Internet	routing	information to the routed daemon

SYNOPSIS

  /etc/gateways

DESCRIPTION

  The /etc/gateways file identifies gateways for the routed daemon.  Ordi-
  narily, the routed daemon queries the	network	and builds routing tables.
  The routed daemon builds the tables from routing information transmitted by
  other	hosts directly connected to the	network. However, there	may be gate-
  ways that this command cannot	identify through its queries.  These uniden-
  tified gateways are known as distant gateways. Such gateways should be
  identified in	the /etc/gateways file,	which the routed daemon	reads when it
  starts.

  The general format of	an file	entry in the /etc/gateways file	is:

       Destination Name1 gateway Name2 metric Value Type

  The following	is a brief description of each element in an /etc/gateways
  file entry:

  Destination
      A	keyword	that indicates whether the route is to a network or to a
      specific host. The two possible keywords are net and host.

  Name1
      The name associated with Destination.  Name1 can be either a symbolic
      name (as used in the /etc/hosts or /etc/networks file) or	an Internet
      address specified	in dotted-decimal format.

  gateway
      An indicator that	the following string identifies	the gateway host.

  Name2
      The name or address of the gateway host to which messages	should be
      forwarded.

  metric
      An indicator that	the next string	represents the hop count to the	des-
      tination host or network.

  Value
      The hop count, or	number of gateways, from the local network to the
      destination network.

  Type
      A	keyword	that indicates whether the gateway should be treated as
      active, passive, or external. The	three possible keywords	are as fol-
      lows:

      active
	  An active gateway is treated like a network interface.  That is, it
	  is expected to exchange RIP (Routing Information Protocol) routing
	  information. Information about it is maintained in the internal
	  routing tables as long as it is active and is	included in any
	  routing information that is transmitted through RIP. If it does not
	  respond for a	period of time,	the route associated with it is
	  deleted from the internal routing tables.

      passive
	  A passive gateway is not expected to exchange	RIP routing informa-
	  tion.	Information about it is	maintained in the routing tables
	  indefinitely and is included in any routing information that is
	  transmitted through RIP.

      external
	  An external gateway is identified to inform the routed daemon	that
	  another routing process will install such a route and	that alterna-
	  tive routes to that destination should not be	installed. Informa-
	  tion about external gateways is not maintained in the	internal
	  routing tables and is	not transmitted	through	RIP.
  Note that these routes must be to networks.

EXAMPLES

   1.  To specify a route to a network through a gateway host with an entry
       in the gateways file, enter:
	    net	net2 gateway host4 metric 4 passive

       This example specifies a	route to a network, net2, through the gateway
       host4. The hop count metric to net2 is 4, and the gateway is treated
       as passive.

   2.  To specify a route to a host through a gateway host with	an entry in
       the gateways file, enter:
	    host host2 gateway host4 metric 4 passive

       This example specifies a	route to a host, host2,	through	the gateway
       host4. The hop count metric to host2 is 4, and the gateway is treated
       as passive.

   3.  To specify a route to a host through an active Internet gateway with
       an entry	in the gateways	file, enter:
	    host host10	gateway	192.100.11.5 metric 9 active

       This example specifies a	route to a specific host, host10, through the
       gateway 192.100.11.5. The hop count metric to host10 is 9 and the
       gateway is treated as active.

   4.  To specify a route to a host through a passive Internet gateway with
       an entry	in the gateways	file, enter:
	    host host10	gateway	192.100.11.5 metric 9 passive

       This example specifies a	route to a specific host, host10, through the
       gateway 192.100.11.5.  The hop metric count to host10 is	9 and the
       gateway is treated as passive.

   5.  To specify a route to a network through an external gateway, enter a
       line in the following format:
	    net	net5 gateway host7 metric 11 external

       This example specifies a	route to a network, net5, through the gateway
       host7. The hop count metric to net5 is 11 and the gateway is treated
       as external (that is, it	is not advertised through RIP, but is adver-
       tised through an	unspecified routing protocol).

RELATED	INFORMATION

  Daemons: gated(8), routed(8)