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File Formats                                           aliases(4)



NAME
     aliases, addresses, forward  -  addresses  and  aliases  for
     sendmail

SYNOPSIS
     /etc/mail/aliases

     /etc/mail/aliases.db

     /etc/mail/aliases.dir

     /etc/mail/aliases.pag

     ~/.forward

DESCRIPTION
     These files contain mail addresses or aliases, recognized by
     sendmail(1M) for the local host:

     /etc/passwd
           Mail addresses (usernames) of local users.

     /etc/mail/aliases
           Aliases for the local host, in ASCII format. Root  can
           edit  this  file  to add, update, or delete local mail
           aliases.

     /etc/mail/aliases.{dir , pag}
           The aliasing information  from  /etc/mail/aliases,  in
           binary  ndbm(3C)  format  for use by sendmail(1M). The
           program newaliases(1M) maintains these files.

     /etc/mail/aliases.db
            The aliasing information from  /etc/mail/aliases,  in
           binary,   Berkeley   DataBase   format   for   use  by
           sendmail(1M). The program maintains these files.

           Depending on the configuration of the AliasFile option
           in   /etc/mail/sendmail.cf,  either  the  single  file
           aliases.db or the pair of files aliases.{dir, pag}  is
           generated  by newaliases(1M). As shipped with Solaris,
           sendmail(1M) supports  both  formats.  If  neither  is
           specified,  the  Berkeley  DataBase  format which gen-
           erates the single .db file is used.

     ~/.forward
           Addresses to which a user's  mail  is  forwarded  (see
           Automatic Forwarding).

     In addition, the NIS name services aliases map mail.aliases,
     and  the NIS+ mail_aliases table, both contain addresses and
     aliases available for use across the network.



SunOS 5.9           Last change: 13 Feb 2003                    1






File Formats                                           aliases(4)



  Addresses
     As distributed, sendmail(1M) supports the following types of
     addresses:

  Local Usernames
     username

     Each  local  username  is  listed  in   the   local   host's
     /etc/passwd file.

  Local Filenames
     pathname

     Messages addressed to the absolute pathname of  a  file  are
     appended to that file.

  Commands
     |command

     If the first character of the address is a vertical bar (|),
     sendmail(1M)  pipes the message to the standard input of the
     command the bar precedes.

  Internet-standard Addresses
     username@domain

     If domain does not contain any `.' (dots), then it is inter-
     preted  as  the name of a host in the current domain. Other-
     wise, the message is passed to a  mailhost  that  determines
     how to get to the specified domain. Domains are divided into
     subdomains separated by dots, with the top-level  domain  on
     the right.

     For example, the full address of John Smith could be:

     jsATjsmachine.EDU

     if he uses the machine named jsmachine at Podunk University.

  uucp Addresses
     ... [host!] host!username

     These are sometimes mistakenly  referred  to  as  ``Usenet''
     addresses.   uucp(1C)   provides  links  to  numerous  sites
     throughout the world for the remote copying of files.

     Other site-specific forms of addressing can be added by cus-
     tomizing    the    sendmail.cf   configuration   file.   See
     sendmail(1M) for details.   Standard  addresses  are  recom-
     mended.





SunOS 5.9           Last change: 13 Feb 2003                    2






File Formats                                           aliases(4)



  Aliases
  Local Aliases
     /etc/mail/aliases is formatted as a series of lines  of  the
     form

     aliasname:address[, address]

     aliasname is the name of  the  alias  or  alias  group,  and
     address  is the address of a recipient in the group. Aliases
     can be nested. That is,  an  address  can  be  the  name  of
     another  alias  group.  Because of the way sendmail(1M) per-
     forms mapping from upper-case to lower-case, an address that
     is  the  name  of  another  alias group must not contain any
     upper-case letters.

     Lines beginning with white space are treated as continuation
     lines  for  the  preceding alias. Lines beginning with # are
     comments.

  Special Aliases
     An alias of the form:

     owner-aliasname : address

     sendmail  directs  error-messages  resulting  from  mail  to
     aliasname to address, instead of back to the person who sent
     the message. sendmail rewrites the SMTP envelope  sender  to
     match  this,  so  owner-aliasname  should  always  point  to
     alias-request, and alias-request should point to the owner's
     actual address:

     owner-aliasname:      aliasname-request
     aliasname-request     address

     An alias of the form:

     aliasname: :include:pathname

     with colons as shown, adds the recipients listed in the file
     pathname  to the aliasname alias. This allows a private list
     to be maintained separately from the aliases file.

  NIS and NIS+ Domain Aliases
     The aliases file on the master NIS server is  used  for  the
     mail.aliases  NIS  map, which can be made available to every
     NIS client. The mail_aliases table serves the  same  purpose
     on  a NIS+ server. Thus, the /etc/mail/aliases* files on the
     various hosts  in  a  network  will  one  day  be  obsolete.
     Domain-wide aliases should ultimately be resolved into user-
     names on specific hosts. For example, if the following  were
     in the domain-wide alias file:




SunOS 5.9           Last change: 13 Feb 2003                    3






File Formats                                           aliases(4)



     jsmith:js@jsmachine

     then any NIS or NIS+ client could just mail  to  jsmith  and
     not  have  to  remember  the  machine  and username for John
     Smith.

     If a NIS or NIS+ alias does not resolve to an address with a
     specific  host,  then  the name of the NIS or NIS+ domain is
     used. There should be an alias of the domain name for a host
     in this case.

     For example, the alias:

     jsmith:root

     sends mail on a NIS or NIS+ client to root@podunk-u  if  the
     name of the NIS or NIS+ domain is podunk-u.

  Automatic Forwarding
     When an alias (or address) is resolved to the name of a user
     on  the  local  host,  sendmail(1M)  checks for a ~/.forward
     file, owned by the intended recipient, in that  user's  home
     directory,  and  with  universal  read access. This file can
     contain one or more addresses or aliases as described above,
     each of which is sent a copy of the user's mail.

     Care must be taken to avoid creating addressing loops in the
     ~/.forward  file.  When forwarding mail between machines, be
     sure that the destination machine does not return  the  mail
     to the sender through the operation of any NIS aliases. Oth-
     erwise, copies of the message  may  "bounce."  Usually,  the
     solution  is  to  change the NIS alias to direct mail to the
     proper destination.

     A backslash before a username inhibits further aliasing. For
     instance,  to invoke the vacation program, user js creates a
     ~/.forward file that contains the line:

     \js, "|/usr/ucb/vacation js"

     so that one copy of the message is sent  to  the  user,  and
     another is piped into the vacation program.

FILES
     /etc/passwd
           Password file

     /etc/nsswitch.conf
           Name service switch configuration file

     /etc/mail/aliases
           Mail aliases file (ascii)



SunOS 5.9           Last change: 13 Feb 2003                    4






File Formats                                           aliases(4)



     /etc/mail/aliases.db
           Database of mail aliases (binary)

     /etc/mail/aliases.dir
           Database of mail aliases (binary)

     /etc/mail/aliases.pag
           Database of mail aliases (binary)

     /etc/mail/sendmail.cf
           sendmail configuration file

     ~/.forward
           Forwarding information file

ATTRIBUTES
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:

     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWsndmr                   |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


SEE ALSO
     passwd(1),    uucp(1C),     vacation(1),     newaliases(1M),
     sendmail(1M),    ndbm(3C),    getusershell(3C),   passwd(4),
     shells(4), attributes(5)

NOTES
     Because of restrictions in ndbm(3C), a single  alias  cannot
     contain  more  than about 1000 characters (if this format is
     used). The Berkeley DataBase format does not have  any  such
     restriction.  Nested  aliases can be used to circumvent this
     limit.

     For aliases which result in piping  to  a  program  or  con-
     catenating a file, the shell of the controlling user must be
     allowed. Which shells are and are not allowed are determined
     by getusershell(3C).













SunOS 5.9           Last change: 13 Feb 2003                    5