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class_scheduling(4)					  class_scheduling(4)


  class_scheduling, class.h - Allocate CPU resources based on scheduling


  #include <sys/class.h>


  The class scheduling features	included in the	operating system software let
  you restrict the percentage of CPU time allowed different kinds of users
  and tasks. This helps	you allocate CPU resources so that the most important
  work receives	the processing time it requires. For example, you might	want
  to run two versions of a production database on your system.	One version
  is used as part of your business operations, while the other is a test
  copy,	with different tuning parameters.  The test database can be assigned
  to a class that has a	lower percentage of CPU	time so	that your daily
  operations are not impacted by the testing. As another example, you might
  want to give background daemons, such	as the print spooler, less access
  time to CPUs to improve response time	for interactive	users.

  By using the class_admin utility, you	can:

    +  Create and maintain one or more databases of scheduling classes,	each
       of which	has a specified	percentage of CPU time.	The databases are
       typically stored	in the /etc/class directory and	cannot be edited
       manually. You can set up	different class	databases for different	time
       intervals during	a 24-hour period (for example, one database that
       favors interactive users	during the day and another that	favors batch
       jobs at night). A class_admin load command can then be included as a
       cron job	to load	the appropriate	database into shared memory at a cer-
       tain time.

    +  Assign members to different classes. Members assigned to	a particular
       class can be users, groups, processes, process groups, sessions,	or
       some combination	of these.

    +  Enable and disable the daemon that schedules execution of different
       tasks according to what you've defined in the database currently
       loaded into memory. Among the configuration parameters you supply dur-
       ing setup of the	class database is a time interval that controls	how
       often the daemon	refreshes the structure	used by	the kernel to imple-
       ment your class scheduling priorities.

  You cannot use the class_admin utility to add	application names to a class.
  However, after defining a class in the current database and enabling class
  scheduling, you can use runclass commands to launch programs in that class.
  When you do this, identifiers	for all	the application	processes are
  automatically	added as members of the	specified class. The runclass command
  is particularly useful as a cron job that executes after the one that
  enables class	scheduling and loads a particular class	database into memory.

  The libclass library provides	programming routines for setting up and	using
  class	scheduling. The	name for each routine in this library uses the format
  class_operation, for example class_create(). A complete list of routines is
  provided in the SEE ALSO section.

  How Class Scheduling Works

  The kernel has very little internal knowledge	of class scheduling.  Much of
  the work done	by the class scheduler is done in user space. To the kernel,
  a class is simply an element in an array of integers,	each specifying	a
  number of clock ticks	that are available for a certain time interval.	The
  time interval	is set when the	class scheduling database is configured, and
  the integer values vary, depending on	the CPU	percentage specified for the
  different classes. A thread that is subject to class scheduling has an
  index	into the array.	Each time the thread uses CPU time, the	kernel decre-
  ments	the number of clock ticks used from the	array element. When the	count
  reaches zero,	the thread is prevented	from running.

  A class database can be configured to	impose CPU percentages in either a
  hard or soft way. Hard percentages (the default) mean	that, once a thread
  uses its allotted percentage of CPU time, it is prevented from running
  until	the next time interval.	Soft percentages mean that thread execution
  can continue after the CPU percentage	is reached if the system has idle
  CPUs (if there is no contention for CPU time among users). Hard percentages
  risk wasting CPU cycles; however, they are appropriate for a system on
  which	users contract and pay for a certain allocation	of system resources..

  When the class scheduler daemon is started, it loads the database into
  memory, creates an initial array of clock-tick integers used by the kernel,
  and writes this array	to the kernel. Along with the array, the daemon	gives
  the kernel the time interval during which integers in	the array are to be
  decremented. Then the	daemon alternately sleeps and wakes up to refresh the
  array. The daemon calculates the total number	of clock ticks in the inter-
  val during which it sleeps by	using the following formula:

  interval_in_seconds *	clock_ticks_per_second * number_of_CPUs

  The deamon then allocates the	total number of	clock ticks among classes
  according to the specified percentages, creates the array of integers, and
  writes the array to the kernel. Should the daemon terminate or fail to wake
  up, the kernel automatically disables	class scheduling after twice the
  specified time interval has passed. If this happens, processes belonging to
  scheduling classes then run freely, no longer	subject	to their CPU percen-
  tage restrictions.

  Class	scheduling always operates in the context of a soft partition, which
  is currently mapped to a processor set. (See processor_sets(4).) This	means
  that "number_of_CPUs"	in the preceding formula represents the	number of
  CPUs in the partition	associated with	the class database. If user-defined
  partitions do	not exist on the system, all system CPUs belong	to the
  default partition (processor set 0), and the system can have only one
  active database and one instance of a	class scheduler	daemon.	If system
  CPUs have been allocated into	different partitions, you have the option of
  setting up class scheduling on one or	more of	the available partitions.

  By default, the class_admin utility operates on the system default parti-
  tion;	however, the utility includes the setp subcommand to change partition
  context for subsequent subcommands.  For each	partition where	you want
  class	scheduling to be implemented, you must create at least one class
  scheduling database and enable class scheduling.  See	class_admin(8) for

  A process may	be represented in a class database by members in more than
  one class. For example, the group ID representing the	group staff might be
  a member of class A and the user ID representing the user guest might	be a
  member of class B. If	user guest belongs to group staff, the user belongs
  to two classes. In such cases, the class containing the most restrictive
  type of ID applies to	the process.  For the example just described, user ID
  is more restrictive than group ID, so	the process for	user guest would exe-
  cute in class	B. When	member types are ranked	from least to most restric-
  tive,	the order is as	follows: group ID, user	ID, session ID,	process	group
  ID, process ID.

  Class	scheduling is subject to the following limits, as defined in the
  class.h header file:

    +  Maximum of partitions (class database/daemon pairs) per system: 100

    +  Maximum number of classes per database: 100

    +  Maximum number of members across	all classes: 2500

    +  Maximum number of characters in a class database	pathname (for save
       and load	subcommands): 80

    +  Maximum number of characters in a class name: 20

  Class	scheduling is subject to the following restrictions:

    +  You must	be superuser to	invoke the class_admin utility.

    +  Users cannot use	the runclass command to	raise an application's prior-
       ity above what it would otherwise have through definitions in the
       class database. In other	words, a user who is a member of a class
       entitled	to a certain percentage	of CPU time cannot use the runclass
       command to start	applications at	a higher priority than what the	user
       is entitled to.

    +  For most	operations that	applications perform by	using routines in the
       libclass	library, root permission is required.

    +  The root	user (UID 0) cannot be class scheduled.	 However, a program
       running in setuid root mode can lower the priority of the program's
       own processes.

  Using	Class Scheduling

  To implement class scheduling, you must first	create a database file and
  populate the file with one or	more classes.  You assign each class a per-
  centage of the total CPU time	available.  One	or more	applications or
  groups of applications can be	assigned to a class, specified by the
  appropriate identifying number, such as a GID, UID, or PID. Any identifiers
  that are temporary, such as a	PID, do	not persist across a reboot and	cease
  to exist when	a task is completed.  Therefore, they have no effect when the
  system or task is restarted. For this	reason,	the members you	add to the
  database when	first creating it are usually user and group identifiers.

  After	the database is	established, you can start the class scheduling	dae-
  mon to put the CPU access restrictions into effect.  The class_admin util-
  ity has subcommands that let you review classes, change members and CPU
  percentages, delete members or entire	classes, and review assigned CPU per-
  centages against actual use. You can invoke the utility either interac-
  tively or by using a script.

  Once a class scheduling database is configured and its corresponding daemon
  enabled, you can start applications in any of	the existing classes by	using
  the runclass command.	This allows you	to indirectly add entirely new
  processes to a class.	It also	allows you to temporarily lower	or (if you
  have superuser privilege) increase the CPU percentages for processes that
  otherwise startup in a class with a different	CPU percentage.	For example,
  you might set	a value	for interactive	operations that	is much	higher than
  background processes such as print daemons.  If it is	later necessary	to
  temporarily use the higher value for a particular print job, you can use
  the runclass command to execute the lpd daemon in the	same class as
  interactive operations. After	the print job has completed, the class_admin
  delete subcommand can	be used	to remove the process identifier for lpd from
  the class.

  The following	sections suggest a systematic approach to using	class
  scheduling, although you can use it equally well to quickly fix a CPU
  resource sharing problem.

  Planning CPU Resource	Allocation

  How you allocate CPU resources will depend on	your system environment	and
  which	resources and priorities must be considered.  A	typical	scenario is
  to assign a higher priority to interactive tasks so that users do not
  encounter long response times.  Most batch or	background processes will be
  assigned a lower priority, while some	specific background processes may
  require a higher priority.  For example, if a	nightly	backup is being	per-
  formed, you might not	want it	to have	such a low priority that it does not
  complete in a	reasonable time.

  An alternative scenario is if	there are critical realtime tasks, such	as in
  process-control applications,	that should take priority over interactive
  processes. For this scenario,	you should design a baseline, assigning
  processes to classes and then	monitor	tasks and user feedback	to tune	the
  database by moving tasks from	class to class or changing the CPU access
  time of the classes.

  While	thinking about CPU resource allocation,	you need to decide whether
  you should use class scheduling, a user-defined processor set, or both on
  your system. CPUs in a user-defined processor	set cannot be used by any
  process that is not explicitly run on	that processor set. Sometimes reserv-
  ing specific CPUs for	use only by certain applications, such as those	doing
  realtime process control, is warranted. For critical applications, a pro-
  cessor set can provide a better guarantee of immediate CPU availability
  than class scheduling	if the system load is high and load patterns are not
  always predictable. When running selected applications in a non-default
  processor set, you trade off potential waste of CPU resources	to guarantee
  that CPUs are	available for the applications running in that processor set.
  Setting "soft" CPU percentages for scheduling	classes	allows the kernel to
  apply	only the idle CPUs in the processor set	for which the class database
  was created. The kernel cannot use idle CPUs in one processor	set to ease
  CPU contention by processes running in another processor set.	This means
  that the performance of less critical	applications might not be acceptable
  after	they are restricted to the reduced number of CPUs in the default pro-
  cessor set. Using class scheduling in	a processor set	to better control CPU
  access is not	likely to help when there are simply too few CPUs to do	the
  required amount of work.

  Sometimes your site might be running an application that incorrectly spawns
  large	numbers	of threads that	immediately grab more CPU resources than the
  application needs. Until the application can be corrected, you can define a
  new processor	set, populate it with a	subset of the system CPUs, and use
  the runon command to start the application in	the new	processor set. In
  this case, it	might or might not be worthwhile to use	class scheduling in
  the default processor	set where remaining applications are run and interac-
  tive user processes are running.

  If your intention is simply to apply a more appropriate allocation of	CPU
  resources than the kernel applies by default,	try class scheduling by
  itself (on the default processor set while it	contains all system CPUs) to
  see if this approach accomplishes what you want. Consider defining and
  using	an additional processor	set in order to	meet the requirements of
  applications with unusual requirements.

  Steps	for Setting Up and Using Class Scheduling

  The usual process for	setting	up class scheduling is as follows:

   1.  Decide how you want to allocate the CPU resources (decide on class
       groupings of users and tasks).

   2.  Use the class_admin utility's subcommands to set	up and maintain	the
       class database:

	 +  Configure the database. For	this step, you specify:	whether	you
	    want a default class for processes (other than those for UID 0)
	    that are not members of the	classes	you define, whether you	want
	    hard or soft enforcement of	CPU percentages, and how frequently
	    the	scheduler checks CPU usage by classes.

	 +  Create classes and add any users and groups	to classes by using
	    the	create and add subcommands.  When creating classes, keep in
	    mind the 20-character restriction on class names and the fact
	    that CPU percentages for all your classes cannot add up to more
	    than 100 percent.

	 +  Verify class entries with the show subcommand.

	 +  Use	the save subcommand to write database entries to
	    /etc/class/filename.  Keep in mind the 80-character	pathname res-
	    triction if	you prefer your	own directory locations	and names for
	    class databases.

	 +  Use	the enable subcommand to start the scheduler.

	    Applications are usually added to classes after class scheduling
	    is enabled by using	the runclass command, which is not a subcom-
	    mand in the	class_admin utility.

	 +  Use	the stats subcommand to	check target and actual	CPU usages
	    for	the different classes.

  The following	example	shows an interactive class_admin session that sets up
  two class databases (daytime and nighttime) for the default partition. In
  this example,	both databases have the	same two classes (interactive_users
  and batch_jobs), however, the	CPU percentages	for these classes and the
  time interval	for resetting class usage are set differently. After the two
  databases are	created	and saved to disk, the daytime database	is loaded
  into memory, the scheduler daemon is enabled,	and runtime statistics are

       # class_admin
			   Class Scheduler Administration

       Shall processes that have not been explicitly assigned to a
       defined class be	assigned to a 'default'	class?	Enter (yes/no) [no]:

       Enforce class scheduling	when the CPU is	otherwise idle?	(yes/no) [yes]:	no

       How often do you	want the system	to reset class usage?
       Enter number of seconds (1):
       class>&gt; show
	-Processes not explicitly defined in the database are not
	 class scheduled.
	-If the	processor has some idle	time, class scheduled processes	are
	 allowed to exceed their cpu percentage.
	-The class scheduler will check	class CPU usage	every 1	seconds.

       current partition: 0
       current database: /etc/class/part.default
       Class scheduler status: disabled


       class>&gt; create interactive_users 50
       interactive_users created at 50%	cpu usage
       class>&gt; create batch_jobs	10
       batch_jobs created at 10% cpu usage
       class>&gt; add interactive_users uid	234 457	235
       uid 234 457 235 added to	interactive_users.
       class>&gt; save /etc/class/daytime
       database	/etc/class/daytime saved
       class>&gt; modify interactive_users 10
       interactive_users targeted at 10% usage
       class>&gt; modify batch_jobs	50
       batch_jobs targeted at 50%
       class>&gt; configure
       Shall processes that have not been explicitly assigned to a
       defined class be	assigned to a 'default'	class?	Enter (yes/no) [no]:

       Enforce class scheduling	when the CPU is	otherwise idle?	(yes/no) [yes]:	no

       How often do you	want the system	to reset class usage?
       Enter number of seconds (1): 5
       class>&gt; save /etc/class/nighttime
       database	/etc/class/nighttime saved
       class>&gt; load /etc/class/daytime

  The following	warning	and prompt is displayed	because	this session has not
  saved	any changes to the /etc/class/part.default file, which is the data-
  base to which	context	was set	at the beginning of the	interactive session.
  However, all permanent changes were saved to databases with more meaningful
  names, and there is no intention to put the /etc/class/part.default data-
  base into use. Therefore, the	utility	is told	to continue with the load

       current database	modified and not saved
       load new	database anyway? (yes/no) [yes]: yes
       database	/etc/class/daytime loaded
       class>&gt; enable
       class scheduler enabled

  In another terminal window, the runclass command is used to start one	or
  two low-priority applications	in the batch_jobs class. For example:

       # runclass batch_jobs program_name

  Then,	runtime	statistics can be checked in the window	of the class_admin

       class>&gt; stats

	       Class scheduler status: enabled

	       class name	 target	percentage	 actual	percentage
	       interactive_users	      50%		     40.0%
	       batch_jobs		      10%		      9.0%

  While	the database is	loaded and class scheduling enabled, you can modify
  the database dynamically to achieve the results you want by using the	con-
  figure, change, add, and destroy subcommands,	interspersed with the show
  and stats subcommands	to check results. Enter	a final	save
  /etc/class/filename subcommand when you are satisfied	with your modifica-

  When run in interactive mode,	the class_admin	utility	asks on	exit or	quit
  whether you want to write database changes to	disk if	you have not expli-
  citly	saved them during your session.	If the utility is run from a script,
  any changes to the class database are	saved to disk automatically. The
  changes that are saved to disk do not	include	changes	in class membership
  for temporary	identifiers (process IDs, process group	IDs, and session IDs)
  because these	do not persist across system reboots. It is always a good
  idea to do explicit save operations when you intend to create	or modify
  class	databases that have non-default	names or that are stored in direc-
  tories other than /etc/class.

  You also have	the programming	option of using	the class_* routines in	the
  libclass library to do the operations	discussed in this section.


      Default directory	and name for the class database	in the system default
      partition	(processor set 0).

      Default directory	and name for a class database in a user-defined	par-
      tition (processor	set number 2 and higher).

      Header file defining the prototypes for routines in the libclass
      library, as well as the type, structure, and other kinds of definitions
      used by those routines.

      Class scheduler daemon.


  Commands: runclass(1), class_admin(8)

  Files: processor_sets(4)

  Functions: class_add(3), class_change(3), class_change_name(3),
  class_close(3), class_configure(3), class_create(3),
  class_database_file_exists(3), class_database_modified(3),
  class_database_name(3), class_delete(3), class_destroy(3),
  class_disable(3), class_get_class_members(3),	class_get_classes(3),
  class_get_config_stats(3), class_load_database(3), class_open(3),
  class_restore_database(3), class_save_database(3)