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CD(4)                      Kernel Interfaces Manual                      CD(4)

     cd -- SCSI and ATAPI CD-ROM driver

     cd* at scsibus? target ? lun ?
     cd1 at scsibus0 target 4 lun 0
     cd* at atapibus? drive ? flags 0x0000

     The cd driver provides support for a Small Computer Systems Interface
     (SCSI) bus and Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI)
     Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) drive.  In an attempt to look like
     a regular disk, the cd driver synthesizes a partition table, with one
     partition covering the entire CD-ROM.  It is possible to modify this
     partition table using disklabel(8), but it will only last until the
     CD-ROM is unmounted.  In general the interfaces are similar to those
     described by wd(4) and sd(4).

     As the SCSI adapter is probed during boot, the SCSI bus is scanned for
     devices.  Any devices found which answer as `Read-only' type devices will
     be `attached' to the cd driver.

     For the use of flags with ATAPI devices, see wd(4).

     The system utility disklabel(8) may be used to read the synthesized disk
     label structure, which will contain correct figures for the size of the
     CD-ROM should that information be required.

     Any number of CD-ROM devices may be attached to the system regardless of
     system configuration as all resources are dynamically allocated.

     The following ioctl(2) calls which apply to SCSI CD-ROM drives are
     defined in the header files <sys/cdio.h> and <sys/disklabel.h>.


     DIOCSDINFO           (struct disklabel) Read or write the in-core copy of
                          the disklabel for the drive.  The disklabel is
                          initialized with information read from the SCSI
                          inquiry commands, and should be the same as the
                          information printed at boot.  This structure is
                          defined in disklabel(5).

     CDIOCPLAYTRACKS      (struct ioc_play_track) Start audio playback given a
                          track address and length.  The structure is defined
                          as follows:

                                struct ioc_play_track
                                        u_char  start_track;
                                        u_char  start_index;
                                        u_char  end_track;
                                        u_char  end_index;

     CDIOCPLAYBLOCKS      (struct ioc_play_blocks) Start audio playback given
                          a block address and length.  The structure is
                          defined as follows:

                                struct ioc_play_blocks
                                        int     blk;
                                        int     len;

     CDIOCPLAYMSF         (struct ioc_play_msf) Start audio playback given a
                          `minutes-seconds-frames' address and length.  The
                          structure is defined as follows:

                                struct ioc_play_msf
                                        u_char  start_m;
                                        u_char  start_s;
                                        u_char  start_f;
                                        u_char  end_m;
                                        u_char  end_s;
                                        u_char  end_f;

     CDIOCREADSUBCHANNEL  (struct ioc_read_subchannel) Read information from
                          the subchannel at the location specified by this

                                struct ioc_read_subchannel {
                                        u_char address_format;
                                #define CD_LBA_FORMAT   1
                                #define CD_MSF_FORMAT   2
                                        u_char data_format;
                                #define CD_SUBQ_DATA            0
                                #define CD_CURRENT_POSITION     1
                                #define CD_MEDIA_CATALOG        2
                                #define CD_TRACK_INFO           3
                                        u_char track;
                                        int     data_len;
                                        struct  cd_sub_channel_info *data;

     CDIOREADTOCHEADER    (struct ioc_toc_header) Return summary information
                          about the table of contents for the mounted CD-ROM.
                          The information is returned into the following

                                struct ioc_toc_header {
                                        u_short len;
                                        u_char  starting_track;
                                        u_char  ending_track;

     CDIOREADTOCENTRYS    (struct ioc_read_toc_entry) Return information from
                          the table of contents entries mentioned.  (Yes, this
                          command name is misspelled).  The argument structure
                          is defined as follows:

                                struct ioc_read_toc_entry {
                                        u_char  address_format;
                                        u_char  starting_track;
                                        u_short data_len;
                                        struct  cd_toc_entry *data;
                          The requested data is written into an area of size
                          data_len and pointed to by data.

     CDIOCSETPATCH        (struct ioc_patch) Attach various audio channels to
                          various output channels.  The argument structure is
                          defined thusly:

                                struct ioc_patch {
                                        u_char  patch[4];
                                        /* one for each channel */


     CDIOCSETVOL          (struct ioc_vol) Get (set) information about the
                          volume settings of the output channels.  The
                          argument structure is as follows:

                                struct  ioc_vol
                                        u_char  vol[4];
                                        /* one for each channel */

     CDIOCSETMONO         Patch all output channels to all source channels.

     CDIOCSETSTEREO       Patch left source channel to the left output channel
                          and the right source channel to the right output

     CDIOCSETMUTE         Mute output without changing the volume settings.


     CDIOCSETRIGHT        Attach both output channels to the left (right)
                          source channel.


     CDIOCCLRDEBUG        Turn on (off) debugging for the appropriate device.


     CDIOCRESUME          Pause (resume) audio play, without resetting the
                          location of the read-head.

     CDIOCRESET           Reset the drive.


     CDIOCSTOP            Tell the drive to spin-up (-down) the CD-ROM.


     CDIOCPREVENT         Tell the drive to allow (prevent) manual ejection of
                          the CD-ROM disc.  Not all drives support this

     CDIOCEJECT           Eject the CD-ROM.

     CDIOCLOADUNLOAD      Cause the ATAPI changer to load or unload discs.

     CDIOCCLOSE           Tell the drive to close its door and load the media.
                          Not all drives support this feature.

     In addition the general scsi(4) ioctls may be used with the cd driver, if
     used against the `whole disk' partition (i.e.  /dev/rcd0d for the bebox
     and i386 port, /dev/rcd0c for all other ports).

     When a CD-ROM is changed in a drive controlled by the cd driver, then the
     act of changing the media will invalidate the disklabel and information
     held within the kernel.  To stop corruption, all accesses to the device
     will be discarded until there are no more open file descriptors
     referencing the device.  During this period, all new open attempts will
     be rejected.  When no more open file descriptors reference the device,
     the first next open will load a new set of parameters (including
     disklabel) for the drive.

     The audio code in the cd driver only support SCSI-2 standard audio
     commands.  Because many CD-ROM manufacturers have not followed the
     standard, there are many CD-ROM drives for which audio will not work.
     Some work is planned to support some of the more common `broken' CD-ROM
     drives; however, this is not yet under way.

     /dev/cd[0-9][a-h]   block mode CD-ROM devices
     /dev/rcd[0-9][a-h]  raw mode CD-ROM devices


     intro(4), scsi(4), sd(4), wd(4), disklabel(5), disklabel(8)

     The cd driver appeared in 386BSD 0.1.

     The names of the structures used for the third argument to ioctl() were
     poorly chosen, and a number of spelling errors have survived in the names
     of the ioctl() commands.

NetBSD 6.1.5                   January 16, 1996                   NetBSD 6.1.5