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Dialers(4)							   Dialers(4)



NAME
  Dialers - Lists modems used for uucp remote communications links

SYNOPSIS

  /usr/lib/uucp/Dialers

DESCRIPTION

  The /usr/lib/uucp/Dialers file lists the modems used by the uucp program
  and specifies	the initial handshaking	necessary to establish remote commun-
  ications links.  Handshaking is a series of expect-send sequences that
  specify the initial communications that occur	on a link before it is ready
  to send or receive data.  Using the handshaking, the local and remote	sys-
  tems confirm that they are compatible	and configured to transfer data.

  The Dialers file contains an entry for each autodialer that is included in
  the /usr/lib/uucp/Devices file.  It also contains entries specifying no
  handshaking for direct hardware links	(the direct entry) and TCP/IP links
  (the TCP entry).  The	first field of the Dialers file, which specifies the
  dialer, is matched to	the fifth field	of the Devices file, the Dialer-Token
  Pairs	field, to determine handshaking	when making a connection.

  Note that only someone with superuser	authority can edit the Dialers file,
  which	is owned by the	uucp program login ID.

  Fields in the	Dialers	File


  Every	modem is listed	on a line by itself in the Dialers file.  Each line
  consists of three groups of information:  the	Dialer Name field, the Dial
  Tone and Wait	Characters field, and the Handshaking field.

  Dialer Name Field
	    The	first field in the Dialers file, the Dialer Name field,
	    specifies the type of autodialer (modem) used in the connection.
	    It matches the fifth field in the /usr/lib/uucp/Devices file, the
	    Dialer-Token Pairs field.  When a particular device	is used	to
	    make a connection, uucp uses the Dialer-Token Pairs	field in the
	    Devices file to find the handshaking entry in the Dialers file.
	    If your system has direct hardware connections to one or more
	    remote systems, include an entry with a Dialer Name	of direct.
	    Similarly, if your system uses TCP/IP to connect to	one or more
	    other systems, include an entry with a Dialer Name of TCP.	These
	    entries correspond to the word direct or the word TCP in the
	    Dialer-Token Pairs field of	entries	in the /usr/lib/uucp/Devices
	    file.  Omit	the Dial Tone and Wait Characters field	and the
	    Handshaking	field, since no	handshaking is needed on these con-
	    nections.

  Dial Tone and	Wait Characters
	    The	second field, the Dial Tone and	Wait Characters	field, con-
	    sists of two sets of two characters, for a total of	four entries.
	    These characters comprise a	translation string.  In	the actual
	    telephone number of	the remote modem, the first character in each
	    string is mapped to	the second character in	that set.

	    Entry     BAction

	    =,-,      Translates the telephone number.	Any = (equal sign)
		      represents wait for dial tone and	any - (dash)
		      represents pause.

	    ""	      Waits for	nothing; continues with	the rest of the
		      string. This field generally translates the = and	-
		      characters into whatever the dialer uses for wait	for
		      dial tone	and pause.  For	direct and TCP entries,	omit
		      this field.

  Handshaking Field
	    The	handshaking, or	dialer negotiations, is	an expect-send
	    sequence of	ASCII strings.	It is given in the  Handshaking
	    field, which comprises the remainder of the	entry.	This string
	    is generally used to pass telephone	numbers	to a modem, or to
	    make a connection to another system	on the same data switch	as
	    the	local system.  The string tells	the cu or ct programs or the
	    uucico daemon the sequence of characters to	use to dial out	on a
	    particular type of modem.  If the connection succeeds, the line
	    in the Dialers file	is interpreted to perform the dialer negotia-
	    tions.

	    The	handshaking characters include entries such as \d to specify
	    a delay, \p	for a pause, \r	for a carriage return, and \c for a
	    newline.  To determine the appropriate entries in the handshaking
	    string, refer to the documentation that accompanied	the modems
	    that you are including in the Dialers file,	and to the list	of
	    expect-send	sequences given	in the /usr/lib/uucp/Systems file
	    format.  For direct	and TCP	entries, omit this field.

EXAMPLES

  Several types	of Dialers file	entries	are shown below.

  Setting Up Entries in	the Dialers File


   1.  The following example lists several entries in a	typical	Dialers	file:
	    hayes =,-, "" \dAT\r\c OK \pATDT\T\r\c CONNECT
	    penril =W-P	"" \d >	s\p9\c )-W\p\r\ds\p9\c-) y\E\TP	> 9\c OK
	    ventel =&-%	"" \r\p	\r\p-\r\p-$ <K\D%%\r>\c	ONLINE!
	    vadiac =K-K	"" \005\p *-\005\p-* D\p BER? \E\D\e \r\c LINE
	    direct
	    TCP
       Note that in the	Dialers	file, each entry must be entirely on one
       line.

       Note that the next to last entry	in this	example	consists only of the
       word direct.  This entry	indicates that hardwired connections do	not
       require any handshaking.	 Similarly, the	last entry, TCP, indicates
       that TCP/IP connections require no handshaking.

   2.  The following example interprets	the first line in the preceding
       Dialers file.  This is a	standard entry that may	be included in your
       Dialers file with modifications for use at your site.
	    hayes =,-, "" \dAT\r\c OK \pATDT\T\r\c CONNECT
       The two sequences =,-, and "" comprise the Dial Tone and	Wait Charac-
       ters field.  The	remaining strings comprise the Handshaking field.
       Following is an explanation of how each entry affects the action	of
       the dialer.

       =,-,	 Translates the	telephone number.  Any = (equal	sign)
		 represents wait for dial tone and any - (dash)	represents
		 pause.

       ""	 Waits for nothing; continues with the rest of the string.

       \dAT	 Delays, then sends AT (the Hayes Attention prefix).

       \r\c	 Sends a carriage return (r) followed by a newline (c).

       OK	 Waits for OK from the remote modem, signaling that the	first
		 part of the string was	executed.

       \pATDT	 Pauses	(p), then sends	ATDT.  AT is again the Hayes Atten-
		 tion prefix, D	represents a dialing signal, and T represents
		 a dial	tone.

       \T	 Sends the telephone number, which is specified	in the
		 /usr/lib/uucp/Systems file, with dial-code translation	from
		 the /usr/lib/uucp/Dialcodes file.

       \r\c	 Sends a carriage return and a newline following the number.

       CONNECT	 Waits for CONNECT from	the remote modem, signaling that the
		 modems	are connected at the baud rate specified in the
		 /usr/lib/uucp/Devices file.

       Note that if you	need to	modify this example for	use at your site and
       are unsure about	the appropriate	entries	in the handshaking string,
       refer to	the documentation that accompanied the modems that you are
       including in the	Dialers	file.

  Setting Up the Direct	Entry


  If your uucp configuration includes hardwired	connections, the Dialers file
  must contain the direct entry. Enter:

       direct

  This entry indicates that hardwired connections do not require any
  handshaking.	It corresponds to the word direct in the Dialer-Token Pairs
  field	of the entries for hardwired devices in	the /usr/lib/uucp/Devices
  file.

  Setting Up the TCP/IP	Entry


  If your uucp configuration includes TCP/IP connections, the Dialers file
  must contain the TCP entry. Enter:

       TCP

  This entry indicates that TCP/IP connections do not require any handshak-
  ing.	It corresponds to the word TCP in the Dialer-Token Pairs field of the
  entries for TCP/IP connections in the	/usr/lib/uucp/Devices file.

  Setting Up Entries for Both Local and	Remote Systems


  The following	examples illustrate the	entries	needed in the Dialers file to
  correspond to	entries	in the /usr/lib/uucp/Devices file for both local and
  remote systems so that the two systems can communicate using the uucp	pro-
  gram.

  These	files are set up to connect systems venus and merlin over a telephone
  line using modems.  System venus is considered the local system, and system
  merlin is considered the remote system.  On both systems, the	tty1 device
  is hooked to a hayes modem at	1200 baud.

   1.  The /usr/lib/uucp/Devices file on system	venus must contain the
       following entry for the connection to remote system merlin:
	    ACU	tty1 - 1200 hayes

   2.  The Dialers file	on system venus	must contain the following entry for
       its modem:
	    hayes  =,-,	 ""  \dAT\r\c  OK  \pATDT\T\r\c	 CONNECT

   3.  The /usr/lib/uucp/Devices file on system	merlin must contain the	fol-
       lowing entry for	the connection to system venus:
	    ACU	 tty1  -  1200	hayes

   4.  The Dialers file	on system merlin must contain the following entry for
       its modem:
	    hayes  =,-,	 ""  \dAT\r\c  OK  \pATDT\T\r\c	 CONNECT

  Troubleshooting Connection Problems


  When establishing a connection between a local and a remote system using a
  telephone line and modem, the	uucp program consults the Dialers file.	 (The
  uucp program also checks the /usr/lib/uucp/Systems file to make sure it
  contains a listing for the specified remote computer.)  If users report a
  faulty connection, use the uucico command to debug the connection problem.
  For example, if users	are experiencing difficulties connecting to remote
  system venus,	enter:

       /usr/lib/uucp/uucico  -r1  -svenus  -x9

  where	-r1 specifies the server mode, -svenus is the name of the remote sys-
  tem to which you are trying to connect, and -x9 is the debug level that
  produces the most detailed debugging information.

  Expect-send debugging	output produced	by the uucico command can come either
  from information in the Dialers file or from information in the
  /usr/lib/uucp/Systems	file. If the relevant line in the Dialers file is not
  set up correctly for the specified modem, the	uucp program will probably
  display the following	error message:

       DIALER SCRIPT FAILED

  If the dialer	script fails, verify the following:

   1.  Make sure that both the local and the remote modems are turned on,
       that they are both set up correctly, and	that the telephone number of
       the remote modem	is correct.

   2.  Check the Dialers file and make sure the	information is correctly
       specified for the local modem.  If possible, check the Dialers file on
       the remote system also.

   3.  Check the documentation that came with your modem to make sure you
       have used the correct expect-send sequence characters in	the Dialers
       file.

FILES

  /usr/lib/uucp/*
	    Contains all the configuration files for the uucp program,
	    including the Dialers file

  usr/lib/uucp/Devices
	    Contains information about available devices

  /usr/lib/uucp/Dialcodes
	    Contains dial-code abbreviations

  /usr/lib/uucp/Systems
	    Describes accessible remote	systems

RELATED	INFORMATION

  Daemons: uucico(8)

  Commands: ct(1), cu(1), uutry(1)