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ext::threads::thrPerl(Programmers Refereext::threads::threads(3p)


NAME
       threads - Perl extension allowing use of interpreter based
       threads from perl

SYNOPSIS
           use threads;

           sub start_thread {
               print "Thread started\n";
           }

           my $thread  = threads->create("start_thread","argument");
           my $thread2 = $thread->create(sub { print "I am a thread"},"argument");
           my $thread3 = async { foreach (@files) { ... } };

           $thread->join();
           $thread->detach();

           $thread = threads->self();
           $thread = threads->object( $tid );

           $thread->tid();
           threads->tid();
           threads->self->tid();

           threads->yield();

           threads->list();

DESCRIPTION
       Perl 5.6 introduced something called interpreter threads.
       Interpreter threads are different from "5005threads" (the
       thread model of Perl 5.005) by creating a new perl inter-
       preter per thread and not sharing any data or state
       between threads by default.

       Prior to perl 5.8 this has only been available to people
       embedding perl and for emulating fork() on windows.

       The threads API is loosely based on the old Thread.pm API.
       It is very important to note that variables are not shared
       between threads, all variables are per default thread
       local.  To use shared variables one must use
       threads::shared.

       It is also important to note that you must enable threads
       by doing "use threads" as early as possible in the script
       itself and that it is not possible to enable threading
       inside an "eval """, "do", "require", or "use".  In par-
       ticular, if you are intending to share variables with
       threads::shared, you must "use threads" before you "use
       threads::shared" and "threads" will emit a warning if you
       do it the other way around.




perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          1





ext::threads::thrPerl(Programmers Refereext::threads::threads(3p)


       $thread = threads->create(function, LIST)
           This will create a new thread with the entry point
           function and give it LIST as parameters.  It will
           return the corresponding threads object, or "undef" if
           thread creation failed. The new() method is an alias
           for create().

       $thread->join
           This will wait for the corresponding thread to join.
           When the thread finishes, join() will return the
           return values of the entry point function. If the
           thread has been detached, an error will be thrown.

           The context (scalar or list) of the thread creation is
           also the context for join().  This means that if you
           intend to return an array from a thread, you must use
           "my ($thread) = threads-"new(...)>, and that if you
           intend to return a scalar, you must use "my $thread =
           ...".

           If the program exits without all other threads having
           been either joined or detached, then a warning will be
           issued. (A program exits either because one of its
           threads explicitly calls exit(), or in the case of the
           main thread, reaches the end of the main program
           file.)

       $thread->detach
           Will make the thread unjoinable, and cause any even-
           tual return value to be discarded.

       threads->self
           This will return the thread object for the current
           thread.

       $thread->tid
           This will return the id of the thread.  Thread IDs are
           integers, with the main thread in a program being 0.
           Currently Perl assigns a unique tid to every thread
           ever created in your program, assigning the first
           thread to be created a tid of 1, and increasing the
           tid by 1 for each new thread that's created.

           NB the class method "threads->tid()" is a quick way to
           get the current thread id if you don't have your
           thread object handy.

       threads->object( tid )
           This will return the thread object for the thread
           associated with the specified tid.  Returns undef if
           there is no thread associated with the tid or no tid
           is specified or the specified tid is undef.





perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          2





ext::threads::thrPerl(Programmers Refereext::threads::threads(3p)


       threads->yield();
           This is a suggestion to the OS to let this thread
           yield CPU time to other threads.  What actually hap-
           pens is highly dependent upon the underlying thread
           implementation.

           You may do "use threads qw(yield)" then use just a
           bare "yield" in your code.

       threads->list();
           This will return a list of all non joined, non
           detached threads.

       async BLOCK;
           "async" creates a thread to execute the block immedi-
           ately following it.  This block is treated as an
           anonymous sub, and so must have a semi-colon after the
           closing brace. Like "threads->new", "async" returns a
           thread object.

WARNINGS
       A thread exited while %d other threads were still running
           A thread (not necessarily the main thread) exited
           while there were still other threads running.  Usually
           it's a good idea to first collect the return values of
           the created threads by joining them, and only then
           exit from the main thread.

TODO
       The current implementation of threads has been an attempt
       to get a correct threading system working that could be
       built on, and optimized, in newer versions of perl.

       Currently the overhead of creating a thread is rather
       large, also the cost of returning values can be large.
       These are areas were there most likely will be work done
       to optimize what data that needs to be cloned.

BUGS
       Parent-Child threads.
           On some platforms it might not be possible to destroy
           "parent" threads while there are still existing child
           "threads".

           This will possibly be fixed in later versions of perl.

       tid is I32
           The thread id is a 32 bit integer, it can potentially
           overflow.  This might be fixed in a later version of
           perl.

       Returning objects
           When you return an object the entire stash that the
           object is blessed as well.  This will lead to a large



perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          3





ext::threads::thrPerl(Programmers Refereext::threads::threads(3p)


           memory usage.  The ideal situation would be to detect
           the original stash if it existed.

       Creating threads inside BEGIN blocks
           Creating threads inside BEGIN blocks (or during the
           compilation phase in general) does not work.  (In Win-
           dows, trying to use fork() inside BEGIN blocks is an
           equally losing proposition, since it has been imple-
           mented in very much the same way as threads.)

       PERL_OLD_SIGNALS are not threadsafe, will not be.
           If your Perl has been built with PERL_OLD_SIGNALS (one
           has to explicitly add that symbol to ccflags, see
           "perl -V"), signal handling is not threadsafe.

AUTHOR and COPYRIGHT
       Arthur Bergman <sky at nanisky.com>

       threads is released under the same license as Perl.

       Thanks to

       Richard Soderberg <perl at crystalflame.net> Helping me
       out tons, trying to find reasons for races and other weird
       bugs!

       Simon Cozens <simon at brecon.co.uk> Being there to answer
       zillions of annoying questions

       Rocco Caputo <troc at netrus.net>

       Vipul Ved Prakash <mail at vipul.net> Helping with debug-
       ging.

       please join perl-ithreadsATperl.org for more information

SEE ALSO
       threads::shared, perlthrtut,
       <http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2002/06/11/threads.html>;, perl-
       call, perlembed, perlguts

















perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          4