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open(3p)         Perl Programmers Reference Guide        open(3p)


NAME
       open - perl pragma to set default PerlIO layers for input
       and output

SYNOPSIS
           use open IN  => ":crlf", OUT => ":bytes";
           use open OUT => ':utf8';
           use open IO  => ":encoding(iso-8859-7)";

           use open IO  => ':locale';

           use open ':utf8';
           use open ':locale';
           use open ':encoding(iso-8859-7)';

           use open ':std';

DESCRIPTION
       Full-fledged support for I/O layers is now implemented
       provided Perl is configured to use PerlIO as its IO system
       (which is now the default).

       The "open" pragma serves as one of the interfaces to
       declare default "layers" (also known as "disciplines") for
       all I/O. Any two-argument open(), readpipe() (aka qx//)
       and similar operators found within the lexical scope of
       this pragma will use the declared defaults.  Three-argu-
       ment opens are not affected by this pragma since there you
       (can) explicitly specify the layers and are supposed to
       know what you are doing.

       With the "IN" subpragma you can declare the default layers
       of input streams, and with the "OUT" subpragma you can
       declare the default layers of output streams.  With the
       "IO"  subpragma you can control both input and output
       streams simultaneously.

       If you have a legacy encoding, you can use the ":encod-
       ing(...)" tag.

       if you want to set your encoding layers based on your
       locale environment variables, you can use the ":locale"
       tag.  For example:

           $ENV{LANG} = 'ru_RU.KOI8-R';
           # the :locale will probe the locale environment variables like LANG
           use open OUT => ':locale';
           open(O, ">koi8");
           print O chr(0x430); # Unicode CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER A = KOI8-R 0xc1
           close O;
           open(I, "<koi8");
           printf "%#x\n", ord(<I>), "\n"; # this should print 0xc1
           close I;




perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          1





open(3p)         Perl Programmers Reference Guide        open(3p)


       These are equivalent

           use open ':utf8';
           use open IO => ':utf8';

       as are these

           use open ':locale';
           use open IO => ':locale';

       and these

           use open ':encoding(iso-8859-7)';
           use open IO => ':encoding(iso-8859-7)';

       The matching of encoding names is loose: case does not
       matter, and many encodings have several aliases.  See
       Encode::Supported for details and the list of supported
       locales.

       Note that ":utf8" PerlIO layer must always be specified
       exactly like that, it is not subject to the loose matching
       of encoding names.

       When open() is given an explicit list of layers they are
       appended to the list declared using this pragma.

       The ":std" subpragma on its own has no effect, but if com-
       bined with the ":utf8" or ":encoding" subpragmas, it con-
       verts the standard filehandles (STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR) to
       comply with encoding selected for input/output handles.
       For example, if both input and out are chosen to be
       ":utf8", a ":std" will mean that STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR
       are also in ":utf8".  On the other hand, if only output is
       chosen to be in ":encoding(koi8r)", a ":std" will cause
       only the STDOUT and STDERR to be in "koi8r".  The
       ":locale" subpragma implicitly turns on ":std".

       The logic of ":locale" is as follows:

       1.  If the platform supports the langinfo(CODESET) inter-
           face, the codeset returned is used as the default
           encoding for the open pragma.

       2.  If 1. didn't work but we are under the locale pragma,
           the environment variables LC_ALL and LANG (in that
           order) are matched for encodings (the part after ".",
           if any), and if any found, that is used as the default
           encoding for the open pragma.

       3.  If 1. and 2. didn't work, the environment variables
           LC_ALL and LANG (in that order) are matched for any-
           thing looking like UTF-8, and if any found, ":utf8" is
           used as the default encoding for the open pragma.



perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          2





open(3p)         Perl Programmers Reference Guide        open(3p)


       If your locale environment variables (LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE,
       LANG) contain the strings 'UTF-8' or 'UTF8' (case-insensi-
       tive matching), the default encoding of your STDIN, STD-
       OUT, and STDERR, and of any subsequent file open, is
       UTF-8.

       Directory handles may also support PerlIO layers in the
       future.

NONPERLIO FUNCTIONALITY
       If Perl is not built to use PerlIO as its IO system then
       only the two pseudo-layers ":bytes" and ":crlf" are avail-
       able.

       The ":bytes" layer corresponds to "binary mode" and the
       ":crlf" layer corresponds to "text mode" on platforms that
       distinguish between the two modes when opening files
       (which is many DOS-like platforms, including Windows).
       These two layers are no-ops on platforms where binmode()
       is a no-op, but perform their functions everywhere if Per-
       lIO is enabled.

IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS
       There is a class method in "PerlIO::Layer" "find" which is
       implemented as XS code.  It is called by "import" to vali-
       date the layers:

          PerlIO::Layer::->find("perlio")

       The return value (if defined) is a Perl object, of class
       "PerlIO::Layer" which is created by the C code in per-
       lio.c.  As yet there is nothing useful you can do with the
       object at the perl level.

SEE ALSO
       "binmode" in perlfunc, "open" in perlfunc, perlunicode,
       PerlIO, encoding




















perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          3