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ext::Encode::encoPerl(Programmers Refereext::Encode::encoding(3p)

       encoding - allows you to write your script in non-ascii or

         use encoding "greek";  # Perl like Greek to you?
         use encoding "euc-jp"; # Jperl!

         # or you can even do this if your shell supports your native encoding

         perl -Mencoding=latin2 -e '...' # Feeling centrally European?
         perl -Mencoding=euc-kr -e '...' # Or Korean?

         # more control

         # A simple euc-cn => utf-8 converter
         use encoding "euc-cn", STDOUT => "utf8";  while(<>){print};

         # "no encoding;" supported (but not scoped!)
         no encoding;

         # an alternate way, Filter
         use encoding "euc-jp", Filter=>1;
         # now you can use kanji identifiers -- in euc-jp!

       Let's start with a bit of history: Perl 5.6.0 introduced
       Unicode support.  You could apply "substr()" and regexes
       even to complex CJK characters -- so long as the script
       was written in UTF-8.  But back then, text editors that
       supported UTF-8 were still rare and many users instead
       chose to write scripts in legacy encodings, giving up a
       whole new feature of Perl 5.6.

       Rewind to the future: starting from perl 5.8.0 with the
       encoding pragma, you can write your script in any encoding
       you like (so long as the "Encode" module supports it) and
       still enjoy Unicode support.  This pragma achieves that by
       doing the following:

       o   Internally converts all literals
           ("q//,qq//,qr//,qw///, qx//") from the encoding speci-
           fied to utf8.  In Perl 5.8.1 and later, literals in
           "tr///" and "DATA" pseudo-filehandle are also con-

       o   Changing PerlIO layers of "STDIN" and "STDOUT" to the

       Literal Conversions

       You can write code in EUC-JP as follows:

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          1

ext::Encode::encoPerl(Programmers Refereext::Encode::encoding(3p)

         my $Rakuda = "\xF1\xD1\xF1\xCC"; # Camel in Kanji
                      #<-char-><-char->   # 4 octets

       And with "use encoding "euc-jp"" in effect, it is the same
       thing as the code in UTF-8:

         my $Rakuda = "\x{99F1}\x{99DD}"; # two Unicode Characters

       PerlIO layers for "STD(IN|OUT)"

       The encoding pragma also modifies the filehandle layers of
       STDIN and STDOUT to the specified encoding.  Therefore,

         use encoding "euc-jp";
         my $message = "Camel is the symbol of perl.\n";
         my $Rakuda = "\xF1\xD1\xF1\xCC"; # Camel in Kanji
         $message =~ s/\bCamel\b/$Rakuda/;
         print $message;

       Will print "\xF1\xD1\xF1\xCC is the symbol of perl.\n",
       not "\x{99F1}\x{99DD} is the symbol of perl.\n".

       You can override this by giving extra arguments; see

       Implicit upgrading for byte strings

       By default, if strings operating under byte semantics and
       strings with Unicode character data are concatenated, the
       new string will be created by decoding the byte strings as
       ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1).

       The encoding pragma changes this to use the specified
       encoding instead.  For example:

           use encoding 'utf8';
           my $string = chr(20000); # a Unicode string
           utf8::encode($string);   # now it's a UTF-8 encoded byte string
           # concatenate with another Unicode string
           print length($string . chr(20000));

       Will print 2, because $string is upgraded as UTF-8.  With-
       out "use encoding 'utf8';", it will print 4 instead, since
       $string is three octets when interpreted as Latin-1.

       Some of the features offered by this pragma requires perl
       5.8.1.  Most of these are done by Inaba Hiroto.  Any other
       features and changes are good for 5.8.0.

       "NON-EUC" doublebyte encodings
           Because perl needs to parse script before applying

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          2

ext::Encode::encoPerl(Programmers Refereext::Encode::encoding(3p)

           this pragma, such encodings as Shift_JIS and Big-5
           that may contain '\' (BACKSLASH; \x5c) in the second
           byte fails because the second byte may accidentally
           escape the quoting character that follows.  Perl 5.8.1
           or later fixes this problem.

           "tr//" was overlooked by Perl 5 porters when they
           released perl 5.8.0 See the section below for details.

       DATA pseudo-filehandle
           Another feature that was overlooked was "DATA".

       use encoding [ENCNAME] ;
           Sets the script encoding to ENCNAME.  And unless
           ${^UNICODE} exists and non-zero, PerlIO layers of
           STDIN and STDOUT are set to ":encoding(ENCNAME)".

           Note that STDERR WILL NOT be changed.

           Also note that non-STD file handles remain unaffected.
           Use "use open" or "binmode" to change layers of those.

           If no encoding is specified, the environment variable
           PERL_ENCODING is consulted.  If no encoding can be
           found, the error "Unknown encoding 'ENCNAME'" will be

       use encoding ENCNAME [ STDIN => ENCNAME_IN ...] ;
           You can also individually set encodings of STDIN and
           STDOUT via the "STDIN => ENCNAME" form.  In this case,
           you cannot omit the first ENCNAME.  "STDIN => undef"
           turns the IO transcoding completely off.

           When ${^UNICODE} exists and non-zero, these options
           will completely ignored.  ${^UNICODE} is a variable
           introduced in perl 5.8.1.  See perlrun see "${^UNI-
           CODE}" in perlvar and "-C" in perlrun for details
           (perl 5.8.1 and later).

       use encoding ENCNAME Filter=>1;
           This turns the encoding pragma into a source filter.
           While the default approach just decodes interpolated
           literals (in qq() and qr()), this will apply a source
           filter to the entire source code.  See "The Filter
           Option" below for details.

       no encoding;
           Unsets the script encoding. The layers of STDIN, STD-
           OUT are reset to ":raw" (the default unprocessed raw
           stream of bytes).

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          3

ext::Encode::encoPerl(Programmers Refereext::Encode::encoding(3p)

The Filter Option
       The magic of "use encoding" is not applied to the names of
       identifiers.  In order to make "${"\x{4eba}"}++"
       ($human++, where human is a single Han ideograph) work,
       you still need to write your script in UTF-8 -- or use a
       source filter.  That's what 'Filter=>1' does.

       What does this mean?  Your source code behaves as if it is
       written in UTF-8 with 'use utf8' in effect.  So even if
       your editor only supports Shift_JIS, for example, you can
       still try examples in Chapter 15 of "Programming Perl, 3rd
       Ed.".  For instance, you can use UTF-8 identifiers.

       This option is significantly slower and (as of this writ-
       ing) non-ASCII identifiers are not very stable WITHOUT
       this option and with the source code written in UTF-8.

       Filter-related changes at Encode version 1.87

       o   The Filter option now sets STDIN and STDOUT like non-
           filter options.  And "STDIN=>ENCODING" and "STD-
           OUT=>ENCODING" work like non-filter version.

       o   "use utf8" is implicitly declared so you no longer
           have to "use utf8" to "${"\x{4eba}"}++".


       The pragma is a per script, not a per block lexical.  Only
       the last "use encoding" or "no encoding" matters, and it
       affects the whole script.  However, the <no encoding>
       pragma is supported and use encoding can appear as many
       times as you want in a given script.  The multiple use of
       this pragma is discouraged.

       By the same reason, the use this pragma inside modules is
       also discouraged (though not as strongly discouranged as
       the case above.  See below).

       If you still have to write a module with this pragma, be
       very careful of the load order.  See the codes below;

         # called module
         package Module_IN_BAR;
         use encoding "bar";
         # stuff in "bar" encoding here

         # caller script
         use encoding "foo"
         use Module_IN_BAR;
         # surprise! use encoding "bar" is in effect.

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          4

ext::Encode::encoPerl(Programmers Refereext::Encode::encoding(3p)

       The best way to avoid this oddity is to use this pragma
       RIGHT AFTER other modules are loaded.  i.e.

         use Module_IN_BAR;
         use encoding "foo";


       Notice that only literals (string or regular expression)
       having only legacy code points are affected: if you mix
       data like this


       the data is assumed to be in (Latin 1 and) Unicode, not in
       your native encoding.  In other words, this will match in

               "\xDF" =~ /\x{3af}/

       but this will not

               "\xDF\x{100}" =~ /\x{3af}\x{100}/

       since the "\xDF" (ISO 8859-7 GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH
       TONOS) on the left will not be upgraded to "\x{3af}" (Uni-
       code GREEK SMALL LETTER IOTA WITH TONOS) because of the
       "\x{100}" on the left.  You should not be mixing your
       legacy data and Unicode in the same string.

       This pragma also affects encoding of the 0x80..0xFF code
       point range: normally characters in that range are left as
       eight-bit bytes (unless they are combined with characters
       with code points 0x100 or larger, in which case all char-
       acters need to become UTF-8 encoded), but if the "encod-
       ing" pragma is present, even the 0x80..0xFF range always
       gets UTF-8 encoded.

       After all, the best thing about this pragma is that you
       don't have to resort to \x{....} just to spell your name
       in a native encoding.  So feel free to put your strings in
       your encoding in quotes and regexes.

       tr/// with ranges

       The encoding pragma works by decoding string literals in
       "q//,qq//,qr//,qw///, qx//" and so forth.  In perl 5.8.0,
       this does not apply to "tr///".  Therefore,

         use encoding 'euc-jp';
         $kana =~ tr/\xA4\xA1-\xA4\xF3/\xA5\xA1-\xA5\xF3/;
         #           -------- -------- -------- --------

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          5

ext::Encode::encoPerl(Programmers Refereext::Encode::encoding(3p)

       Does not work as

         $kana =~ tr/\x{3041}-\x{3093}/\x{30a1}-\x{30f3}/;

       Legend of characters above
             utf8     euc-jp   charnames::viacode()
             \x{3041} \xA4\xA1 HIRAGANA LETTER SMALL A
             \x{3093} \xA4\xF3 HIRAGANA LETTER N
             \x{30a1} \xA5\xA1 KATAKANA LETTER SMALL A
             \x{30f3} \xA5\xF3 KATAKANA LETTER N

       This counterintuitive behavior has been fixed in perl

       workaround to tr///;

       In perl 5.8.0, you can work around as follows;

         use encoding 'euc-jp';
         #  ....
         eval qq{ \$kana =~ tr/\xA4\xA1-\xA4\xF3/\xA5\xA1-\xA5\xF3/ };

       Note the "tr//" expression is surrounded by "qq{}".  The
       idea behind is the same as classic idiom that makes
       "tr///" 'interpolate'.

          tr/$from/$to/;            # wrong!
          eval qq{ tr/$from/$to/ }; # workaround.

       Nevertheless, in case of encoding pragma even "q//" is
       affected so "tr///" not being decoded was obviously
       against the will of Perl5 Porters so it has been fixed in
       Perl 5.8.1 or later.

EXAMPLE - Greekperl
           use encoding "iso 8859-7";

           # \xDF in ISO 8859-7 (Greek) is \x{3af} in Unicode.

           $a = "\xDF";
           $b = "\x{100}";

           printf "%#x\n", ord($a); # will print 0x3af, not 0xdf

           $c = $a . $b;

           # $c will be "\x{3af}\x{100}", not "\x{df}\x{100}".

           # chr() is affected, and ...

           print "mega\n"  if ord(chr(0xdf)) == 0x3af;

           # ... ord() is affected by the encoding pragma ...

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          6

ext::Encode::encoPerl(Programmers Refereext::Encode::encoding(3p)

           print "tera\n" if ord(pack("C", 0xdf)) == 0x3af;

           # ... as are eq and cmp ...

           print "peta\n" if "\x{3af}" eq  pack("C", 0xdf);
           print "exa\n"  if "\x{3af}" cmp pack("C", 0xdf) == 0;

           # ... but pack/unpack C are not affected, in case you still
           # want to go back to your native encoding

           print "zetta\n" if unpack("C", (pack("C", 0xdf))) == 0xdf;

       literals in regex that are longer than 127 bytes
           For native multibyte encodings (either fixed or vari-
           able length), the current implementation of the regu-
           lar expressions may introduce recoding errors for reg-
           ular expression literals longer than 127 bytes.

           The encoding pragma is not supported on EBCDIC plat-
           forms.  (Porters who are willing and able to remove
           this limitation are welcome.)

           This pragma doesn't work well with format because Per-
           lIO does not get along very well with it.  When format
           contains non-ascii characters it prints funny or gets
           "wide character warnings".  To understand it, try the
           code below.

             # Save this one in utf8
             # replace *non-ascii* with a non-ascii string
             my $camel;
             format STDOUT =
             $camel = "*non-ascii*";
             binmode(STDOUT=>':encoding(utf8)'); # bang!
             write;              # funny
             print $camel, "\n"; # fine

           Without binmode this happens to work but without bin-
           mode, print() fails instead of write().

           At any rate, the very use of format is questionable
           when it comes to unicode characters since you have to
           consider such things as character width (i.e. double-
           width for ideographs) and directions (i.e. BIDI for
           Arabic and Hebrew).

       This pragma first appeared in Perl 5.8.0.  For features

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          7

ext::Encode::encoPerl(Programmers Refereext::Encode::encoding(3p)

       that require 5.8.1 and better, see above.

       perlunicode, Encode, open, Filter::Util::Call,

       Ch. 15 of "Programming Perl (3rd Edition)" by Larry Wall,
       Tom Christiansen, Jon Orwant; O'Reilly & Associates; ISBN

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          8