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Unicode::UCD(3p) Perl Programmers Reference GuideUnicode::UCD(3p)


NAME
       Unicode::UCD - Unicode character database

SYNOPSIS
           use Unicode::UCD 'charinfo';
           my $charinfo   = charinfo($codepoint);

           use Unicode::UCD 'charblock';
           my $charblock  = charblock($codepoint);

           use Unicode::UCD 'charscript';
           my $charscript = charscript($codepoint);

           use Unicode::UCD 'charblocks';
           my $charblocks = charblocks();

           use Unicode::UCD 'charscripts';
           my %charscripts = charscripts();

           use Unicode::UCD qw(charscript charinrange);
           my $range = charscript($script);
           print "looks like $script\n" if charinrange($range, $codepoint);

           use Unicode::UCD 'compexcl';
           my $compexcl = compexcl($codepoint);

           my $unicode_version = Unicode::UCD::UnicodeVersion();

DESCRIPTION
       The Unicode::UCD module offers a simple interface to the
       Unicode Character Database.

       charinfo

           use Unicode::UCD 'charinfo';

           my $charinfo = charinfo(0x41);

       charinfo() returns a reference to a hash that has the fol-
       lowing fields as defined by the Unicode standard:

           key















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           code             code point with at least four hexdigits
           name             name of the character IN UPPER CASE
           category         general category of the character
           combining        classes used in the Canonical Ordering Algorithm
           bidi             bidirectional category
           decomposition    character decomposition mapping
           decimal          if decimal digit this is the integer numeric value
           digit            if digit this is the numeric value
           numeric          if numeric is the integer or rational numeric value
           mirrored         if mirrored in bidirectional text
           unicode10        Unicode 1.0 name if existed and different
           comment          ISO 10646 comment field
           upper            uppercase equivalent mapping
           lower            lowercase equivalent mapping
           title            titlecase equivalent mapping

           block            block the character belongs to (used in \p{In...})
           script           script the character belongs to

       If no match is found, a reference to an empty hash is
       returned.

       The "block" property is the same as returned by char-
       info().  It is not defined in the Unicode Character
       Database proper (Chapter 4 of the Unicode 3.0 Standard,
       aka TUS3) but instead in an auxiliary database (Chapter 14
       of TUS3).  Similarly for the "script" property.

       Note that you cannot do (de)composition and casing based
       solely on the above "decomposition" and "lower", "upper",
       "title", properties, you will need also the compexcl(),
       casefold(), and casespec() functions.

       charblock

           use Unicode::UCD 'charblock';

           my $charblock = charblock(0x41);
           my $charblock = charblock(1234);
           my $charblock = charblock("0x263a");
           my $charblock = charblock("U+263a");

           my $range     = charblock('Armenian');

       With a code point argument charblock() returns the block
       the character belongs to, e.g.  "Basic Latin".  Note that
       not all the character positions within all blocks are
       defined.

       See also "Blocks versus Scripts".

       If supplied with an argument that can't be a code point,
       charblock() tries to do the opposite and interpret the
       argument as a character block. The return value is a



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       range: an anonymous list of lists that contain start-of-
       range, end-of-range code point pairs. You can test whether
       a code point is in a range using the "charinrange" func-
       tion. If the argument is not a known charater block,
       "undef" is returned.

       charscript

           use Unicode::UCD 'charscript';

           my $charscript = charscript(0x41);
           my $charscript = charscript(1234);
           my $charscript = charscript("U+263a");

           my $range      = charscript('Thai');

       With a code point argument charscript() returns the script
       the character belongs to, e.g.  "Latin", "Greek", "Han".

       See also "Blocks versus Scripts".

       If supplied with an argument that can't be a code point,
       charscript() tries to do the opposite and interpret the
       argument as a character script. The return value is a
       range: an anonymous list of lists that contain start-of-
       range, end-of-range code point pairs. You can test whether
       a code point is in a range using the "charinrange" func-
       tion. If the argument is not a known charater script,
       "undef" is returned.

       charblocks

           use Unicode::UCD 'charblocks';

           my $charblocks = charblocks();

       charblocks() returns a reference to a hash with the known
       block names as the keys, and the code point ranges (see
       "charblock") as the values.

       See also "Blocks versus Scripts".

       charscripts

           use Unicode::UCD 'charscripts';

           my %charscripts = charscripts();

       charscripts() returns a hash with the known script names
       as the keys, and the code point ranges (see "charscript")
       as the values.

       See also "Blocks versus Scripts".




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       Blocks versus Scripts

       The difference between a block and a script is that
       scripts are closer to the linguistic notion of a set of
       characters required to present languages, while block is
       more of an artifact of the Unicode character numbering and
       separation into blocks of (mostly) 256 characters.

       For example the Latin script is spread over several
       blocks, such as "Basic Latin", "Latin 1 Supplement",
       "Latin Extended-A", and "Latin Extended-B".  On the other
       hand, the Latin script does not contain all the characters
       of the "Basic Latin" block (also known as the ASCII): it
       includes only the letters, and not, for example, the dig-
       its or the punctuation.

       For blocks see http://www.unicode.org/Pub-
       lic/UNIDATA/Blocks.txt

       For scripts see UTR #24: http://www.unicode.org/uni-
       code/reports/tr24/

       Matching Scripts and Blocks

       Scripts are matched with the regular-expression construct
       "\p{...}" (e.g. "\p{Tibetan}" matches characters of the
       Tibetan script), while "\p{In...}" is used for blocks
       (e.g. "\p{InTibetan}" matches any of the 256 code points
       in the Tibetan block).

       Code Point Arguments

       A code point argument is either a decimal or a hexadecimal
       scalar designating a Unicode character, or "U+" followed
       by hexadecimals designating a Unicode character.  In other
       words, if you want a code point to be interpreted as a
       hexadecimal number, you must prefix it with either "0x" or
       "U+", because a string like e.g. 123 will be interpreted
       as a decimal code point.  Also note that Unicode is not
       limited to 16 bits (the number of Unicode characters is
       open-ended, in theory unlimited): you may have more than 4
       hexdigits.

       charinrange

       In addition to using the "\p{In...}" and "\P{In...}" con-
       structs, you can also test whether a code point is in the
       range as returned by "charblock" and "charscript" or as
       the values of the hash returned by "charblocks" and
       "charscripts" by using charinrange():

           use Unicode::UCD qw(charscript charinrange);





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           $range = charscript('Hiragana');
           print "looks like hiragana\n" if charinrange($range, $codepoint);

       compexcl

           use Unicode::UCD 'compexcl';

           my $compexcl = compexcl("09dc");

       The compexcl() returns the composition exclusion (that is,
       if the character should not be produced during a precompo-
       sition) of the character specified by a code point argu-
       ment.

       If there is a composition exclusion for the character,
       true is returned.  Otherwise, false is returned.

       casefold

           use Unicode::UCD 'casefold';

           my $casefold = casefold("00DF");

       The casefold() returns the locale-independent case folding
       of the character specified by a code point argument.

       If there is a case folding for that character, a reference
       to a hash with the following fields is returned:

           key

           code             code point with at least four hexdigits
           status           "C", "F", "S", or "I"
           mapping          one or more codes separated by spaces

       The meaning of the status is as follows:

          C                 common case folding, common mappings shared
                            by both simple and full mappings
          F                 full case folding, mappings that cause strings
                            to grow in length. Multiple characters are separated
                            by spaces
          S                 simple case folding, mappings to single characters
                            where different from F
          I                 special case for dotted uppercase I and
                            dotless lowercase i
                            - If this mapping is included, the result is
                              case-insensitive, but dotless and dotted I's
                              are not distinguished
                            - If this mapping is excluded, the result is not
                              fully case-insensitive, but dotless and dotted
                              I's are distinguished

       If there is no case folding for that character, "undef" is



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       returned.

       For more information about case mappings see
       http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr21/

       casespec

           use Unicode::UCD 'casespec';

           my $casespec = casespec("FB00");

       The casespec() returns the potentially locale-dependent
       case mapping of the character specified by a code point
       argument.  The mapping may change the length of the string
       (which the basic Unicode case mappings as returned by
       charinfo() never do).

       If there is a case folding for that character, a reference
       to a hash with the following fields is returned:

           key

           code             code point with at least four hexdigits
           lower            lowercase
           title            titlecase
           upper            uppercase
           condition        condition list (may be undef)

       The "condition" is optional.  Where present, it consists
       of one or more locales or contexts, separated by spaces
       (other than as used to separate elements, spaces are to be
       ignored).  A condition list overrides the normal behavior
       if all of the listed conditions are true.  Case distinc-
       tions in the condition list are not significant.  Condi-
       tions preceded by "NON_" represent the negation of the
       condition.

       Note that when there are multiple case folding definitions
       for a single code point because of different locales, the
       value returned by casespec() is a hash reference which has
       the locales as the keys and hash references as described
       above as the values.

       A locale is defined as a 2-letter ISO 3166 country code,
       possibly followed by a "_" and a 2-letter ISO language
       code (possibly followed by a "_" and a variant code).  You
       can find the lists of those codes, see Locale::Country and
       Locale::Language.

       A context is one of the following choices:







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           FINAL            The letter is not followed by a letter of
                            general category L (e.g. Ll, Lt, Lu, Lm, or Lo)
           MODERN           The mapping is only used for modern text
           AFTER_i          The last base character was "i" (U+0069)

       For more information about case mappings see
       http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr21/

       Unicode::UCD::UnicodeVersion

       Unicode::UCD::UnicodeVersion() returns the version of the
       Unicode Character Database, in other words, the version of
       the Unicode standard the database implements.  The version
       is a string of numbers delimited by dots ('.').

       Implementation Note

       The first use of charinfo() opens a read-only filehandle
       to the Unicode Character Database (the database is
       included in the Perl distribution).  The filehandle is
       then kept open for further queries.  In other words, if
       you are wondering where one of your filehandles went,
       that's where.

BUGS
       Does not yet support EBCDIC platforms.

AUTHOR
       Jarkko Hietaniemi




























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