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Time::Local(3p)  Perl Programmers Reference Guide Time::Local(3p)

       Time::Local - efficiently compute time from local and GMT

           $time = timelocal($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year);
           $time = timegm($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year);

       These routines are the inverse of built-in perl functions
       localtime() and gmtime().  They accept a date as a six-
       element array, and return the corresponding time(2) value
       in seconds since the system epoch (Midnight, January 1,
       1970 GMT on Unix, for example).  This value can be posi-
       tive or negative, though POSIX only requires support for
       positive values, so dates before the system's epoch may
       not work on all operating systems.

       It is worth drawing particular attention to the expected
       ranges for the values provided.  The value for the day of
       the month is the actual day (ie 1..31), while the month is
       the number of months since January (0..11).  This is con-
       sistent with the values returned from localtime() and

       The timelocal() and timegm() functions perform range
       checking on the input $sec, $min, $hour, $mday, and $mon
       values by default.  If you'd rather they didn't, you can
       explicitly import the timelocal_nocheck() and
       timegm_nocheck() functions.

               use Time::Local 'timelocal_nocheck';

                   # The 365th day of 1999
                   print scalar localtime timelocal_nocheck 0,0,0,365,0,99;

                   # The twenty thousandth day since 1970
                   print scalar localtime timelocal_nocheck 0,0,0,20000,0,70;

                   # And even the 10,000,000th second since 1999!
                   print scalar localtime timelocal_nocheck 10000000,0,0,1,0,99;

       Your mileage may vary when trying these with minutes and
       hours, and it doesn't work at all for months.

       Strictly speaking, the year should also be specified in a
       form consistent with localtime(), i.e. the offset from
       1900.  In order to make the interpretation of the year
       easier for humans, however, who are more accustomed to
       seeing years as two-digit or four-digit values, the fol-
       lowing conventions are followed:

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          1

Time::Local(3p)  Perl Programmers Reference Guide Time::Local(3p)

       o   Years greater than 999 are interpreted as being the
           actual year, rather than the offset from 1900.  Thus,
           1963 would indicate the year Martin Luther King won
           the Nobel prize, not the year 3863.

       o   Years in the range 100..999 are interpreted as offset
           from 1900, so that 112 indicates 2012.  This rule also
           applies to years less than zero (but see note below
           regarding date range).

       o   Years in the range 0..99 are interpreted as shorthand
           for years in the rolling "current century," defined as
           50 years on either side of the current year.  Thus,
           today, in 1999, 0 would refer to 2000, and 45 to 2045,
           but 55 would refer to 1955.  Twenty years from now, 55
           would instead refer to 2055.  This is messy, but
           matches the way people currently think about two digit
           dates.  Whenever possible, use an absolute four digit
           year instead.

       The scheme above allows interpretation of a wide range of
       dates, particularly if 4-digit years are used.

       Please note, however, that the range of dates that can be
       actually be handled depends on the size of an integer
       (time_t) on a given platform.  Currently, this is 32 bits
       for most systems, yielding an approximate range from Dec
       1901 to Jan 2038.

       Both timelocal() and timegm() croak if given dates outside
       the supported range.

       Ambiguous Local Times (DST)

       Because of DST changes, there are many time zones where
       the same local time occurs for two different GMT times on
       the same day.  For example, in the "Europe/Paris" time
       zone, the local time of 2001-10-28 02:30:00 can represent
       either 2001-10-28 00:30:00 GMT, or 2001-10-28 01:30:00

       When given an ambiguous local time, the timelocal() func-
       tion should always return the epoch for the earlier of the
       two possible GMT times.

       Non-Existent Local Times (DST)

       When a DST change causes a locale clock to skip one hour
       forward, there will be an hour's worth of local times that
       don't exist.  Again, for the "Europe/Paris" time zone, the
       local clock jumped from 2001-03-25 01:59:59 to 2001-03-25

       If the timelocal() function is given a non-existent local

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          2

Time::Local(3p)  Perl Programmers Reference Guide Time::Local(3p)

       time, it will simply return an epoch value for the time
       one hour later.

       Negative Epoch Values

       Negative epoch (time_t) values are not officially sup-
       ported by the POSIX standards, so this module's tests do
       not test them.  On some systems, they are known not to
       work.  These include MacOS (pre-OSX) and Win32.

       On systems which do support negative epoch values, this
       module should be able to cope with dates before the start
       of the epoch, down the minimum value of time_t for the

       These routines are quite efficient and yet are always
       guaranteed to agree with localtime() and gmtime().  We
       manage this by caching the start times of any months we've
       seen before.  If we know the start time of the month, we
       can always calculate any time within the month.  The start
       times are calculated using a mathematical formula. Unlike
       other algorithms that do multiple calls to gmtime().

       timelocal() is implemented using the same cache.  We just
       assume that we're translating a GMT time, and then fudge
       it when we're done for the timezone and daylight savings
       arguments.  Note that the timezone is evaluated for each
       date because countries occasionally change their official
       timezones.  Assuming that localtime() corrects for these
       changes, this routine will also be correct.

       The whole scheme for interpreting two-digit years can be
       considered a bug.

       Support for this module is provided via the date-
       timeATperl.org email list.  See http://lists.perl.org/ for
       more details.

       Please submit bugs using the RT system at rt.cpan.org, or
       as a last resort, to the datetimeATperl.org list.

       This module is based on a Perl 4 library, timelocal.pl,
       that was included with Perl 4.036, and was most likely
       written by Tom Christiansen.

       The current version was written by Graham Barr.

       It is now being maintained separately from the Perl core
       by Dave Rolsky, <autarchATurth.org>.

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          3