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Text::Balanced(3pPerl Programmers Reference GuiText::Balanced(3p)


NAME
       Text::Balanced - Extract delimited text sequences from
       strings.

SYNOPSIS
        use Text::Balanced qw (
                               extract_delimited
                               extract_bracketed
                               extract_quotelike
                               extract_codeblock
                               extract_variable
                               extract_tagged
                               extract_multiple

                               gen_delimited_pat
                               gen_extract_tagged
                              );

        # Extract the initial substring of $text that is delimited by
        # two (unescaped) instances of the first character in $delim.

               ($extracted, $remainder) = extract_delimited($text,$delim);

        # Extract the initial substring of $text that is bracketed
        # with a delimiter(s) specified by $delim (where the string
        # in $delim contains one or more of '(){}[]<>').

               ($extracted, $remainder) = extract_bracketed($text,$delim);

        # Extract the initial substring of $text that is bounded by
        # an XML tag.

               ($extracted, $remainder) = extract_tagged($text);

        # Extract the initial substring of $text that is bounded by
        # a C<BEGIN>...C<END> pair. Don't allow nested C<BEGIN> tags

               ($extracted, $remainder) =
                       extract_tagged($text,"BEGIN","END",undef,{bad=>["BEGIN"]});

        # Extract the initial substring of $text that represents a
        # Perl "quote or quote-like operation"

               ($extracted, $remainder) = extract_quotelike($text);

        # Extract the initial substring of $text that represents a block
        # of Perl code, bracketed by any of character(s) specified by $delim
        # (where the string $delim contains one or more of '(){}[]<>').

               ($extracted, $remainder) = extract_codeblock($text,$delim);

        # Extract the initial substrings of $text that would be extracted by
        # one or more sequential applications of the specified functions
        # or regular expressions



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               @extracted = extract_multiple($text,
                                             [ \&extract_bracketed,
                                               \&extract_quotelike,
                                               \&some_other_extractor_sub,
                                               qr/[xyz]*/,
                                               'literal',
                                             ]);

       # Create a string representing an optimized pattern (a la
       Friedl) # that matches a substring delimited by any of the
       specified characters # (in this case: any type of quote or
       a slash)

               $patstring = gen_delimited_pat(q{'"`/});

       # Generate a reference to an anonymous sub that is just
       like extract_tagged # but pre-compiled and optimized for a
       specific pair of tags, and consequently # much faster
       (i.e. 3 times faster). It uses qr// for better performance
       on # repeated calls, so it only works under Perl 5.005 or
       later.

               $extract_head = gen_extract_tagged('<HEAD>','</HEAD>');

               ($extracted, $remainder) = $extract_head->($text);

DESCRIPTION
       The various "extract_..." subroutines may be used to
       extract a delimited substring, possibly after skipping a
       specified prefix string. By default, that prefix is
       optional whitespace ("/\s*/"), but you can change it to
       whatever you wish (see below).

       The substring to be extracted must appear at the current
       "pos" location of the string's variable (or at index zero,
       if no "pos" position is defined).  In other words, the
       "extract_..." subroutines don't extract the first occu-
       rance of a substring anywhere in a string (like an unan-
       chored regex would). Rather, they extract an occurance of
       the substring appearing immediately at the current match-
       ing position in the string (like a "\G"-anchored regex
       would).

       General behaviour in list contexts

       In a list context, all the subroutines return a list, the
       first three elements of which are always:

       [0] The extracted string, including the specified delim-
           iters.  If the extraction fails an empty string is
           returned.

       [1] The remainder of the input string (i.e. the characters
           after the extracted string). On failure, the entire



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           string is returned.

       [2] The skipped prefix (i.e. the characters before the
           extracted string).  On failure, the empty string is
           returned.

       Note that in a list context, the contents of the original
       input text (the first argument) are not modified in any
       way.

       However, if the input text was passed in a variable, that
       variable's "pos" value is updated to point at the first
       character after the extracted text. That means that in a
       list context the various subroutines can be used much like
       regular expressions. For example:

               while ( $next = (extract_quotelike($text))[0] )
               {
                       # process next quote-like (in $next)
               }

       General behaviour in scalar and void contexts

       In a scalar context, the extracted string is returned,
       having first been removed from the input text. Thus, the
       following code also processes each quote-like operation,
       but actually removes them from $text:

               while ( $next = extract_quotelike($text) )
               {
                       # process next quote-like (in $next)
               }

       Note that if the input text is a read-only string (i.e. a
       literal), no attempt is made to remove the extracted text.

       In a void context the behaviour of the extraction subrou-
       tines is exactly the same as in a scalar context, except
       (of course) that the extracted substring is not returned.

       A note about prefixes

       Prefix patterns are matched without any trailing modifiers
       ("/gimsox" etc.)  This can bite you if you're expecting a
       prefix specification like '.*?(?=<H1>)' to skip everything
       up to the first <H1> tag. Such a prefix pattern will only
       succeed if the <H1> tag is on the current line, since .
       normally doesn't match newlines.

       To overcome this limitation, you need to turn on /s match-
       ing within the prefix pattern, using the "(?s)" directive:
       '(?s).*?(?=<H1>)'





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       "extract_delimited"

       The "extract_delimited" function formalizes the common
       idiom of extracting a single-character-delimited substring
       from the start of a string. For example, to extract a sin-
       gle-quote delimited string, the following code is typi-
       cally used:

               ($remainder = $text) =~ s/\A('(\\.|[^'])*')//s;
               $extracted = $1;

       but with "extract_delimited" it can be simplified to:

               ($extracted,$remainder) = extract_delimited($text, "'");

       "extract_delimited" takes up to four scalars (the input
       text, the delimiters, a prefix pattern to be skipped, and
       any escape characters) and extracts the initial substring
       of the text that is appropriately delimited. If the delim-
       iter string has multiple characters, the first one encoun-
       tered in the text is taken to delimit the substring.  The
       third argument specifies a prefix pattern that is to be
       skipped (but must be present!) before the substring is
       extracted.  The final argument specifies the escape char-
       acter to be used for each delimiter.

       All arguments are optional. If the escape characters are
       not specified, every delimiter is escaped with a backslash
       ("\").  If the prefix is not specified, the pattern '\s*'
       - optional whitespace - is used. If the delimiter set is
       also not specified, the set "/["'`]/" is used. If the text
       to be processed is not specified either, $_ is used.

       In list context, "extract_delimited" returns a array of
       three elements, the extracted substring (including the
       surrounding delimiters), the remainder of the text, and
       the skipped prefix (if any). If a suitable delimited sub-
       string is not found, the first element of the array is the
       empty string, the second is the complete original text,
       and the prefix returned in the third element is an empty
       string.

       In a scalar context, just the extracted substring is
       returned. In a void context, the extracted substring (and
       any prefix) are simply removed from the beginning of the
       first argument.

       Examples:

               # Remove a single-quoted substring from the very beginning of $text:

                       $substring = extract_delimited($text, "'", '');





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               # Remove a single-quoted Pascalish substring (i.e. one in which
               # doubling the quote character escapes it) from the very
               # beginning of $text:

                       $substring = extract_delimited($text, "'", '', "'");

               # Extract a single- or double- quoted substring from the
               # beginning of $text, optionally after some whitespace
               # (note the list context to protect $text from modification):

                       ($substring) = extract_delimited $text, q{"'};

               # Delete the substring delimited by the first '/' in $text:

                       $text = join '', (extract_delimited($text,'/','[^/]*')[2,1];

       Note that this last example is not the same as deleting
       the first quote-like pattern. For instance, if $text con-
       tained the string:

               "if ('./cmd' =~ m/$UNIXCMD/s) { $cmd = $1; }"

       then after the deletion it would contain:

               "if ('.$UNIXCMD/s) { $cmd = $1; }"

       not:

               "if ('./cmd' =~ ms) { $cmd = $1; }"

       See "extract_quotelike" for a (partial) solution to this
       problem.

       "extract_bracketed"

       Like "extract_delimited", the "extract_bracketed" function
       takes up to three optional scalar arguments: a string to
       extract from, a delimiter specifier, and a prefix pattern.
       As before, a missing prefix defaults to optional whites-
       pace and a missing text defaults to $_. However, a missing
       delimiter specifier defaults to '{}()[]<>' (see below).

       "extract_bracketed" extracts a balanced-bracket-delimited
       substring (using any one (or more) of the user-specified
       delimiter brackets: '(..)', '{..}', '[..]', or '<..>').
       Optionally it will also respect quoted unbalanced brackets
       (see below).

       A "delimiter bracket" is a bracket in list of delimiters
       passed as "extract_bracketed"'s second argument. Delimiter
       brackets are specified by giving either the left or right
       (or both!) versions of the required bracket(s). Note that
       the order in which two or more delimiter brackets are
       specified is not significant.



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       A "balanced-bracket-delimited substring" is a substring
       bounded by matched brackets, such that any other (left or
       right) delimiter bracket within the substring is also
       matched by an opposite (right or left) delimiter bracket
       at the same level of nesting. Any type of bracket not in
       the delimiter list is treated as an ordinary character.

       In other words, each type of bracket specified as a delim-
       iter must be balanced and correctly nested within the sub-
       string, and any other kind of ("non-delimiter") bracket in
       the substring is ignored.

       For example, given the string:

               $text = "{ an '[irregularly :-(] {} parenthesized >:-)' string }";

       then a call to "extract_bracketed" in a list context:

               @result = extract_bracketed( $text, '{}' );

       would return:

               ( "{ an '[irregularly :-(] {} parenthesized >:-)' string }" , "" , "" )

       since both sets of '{..}' brackets are properly nested and
       evenly balanced.  (In a scalar context just the first ele-
       ment of the array would be returned. In a void context,
       $text would be replaced by an empty string.)

       Likewise the call in:

               @result = extract_bracketed( $text, '{[' );

       would return the same result, since all sets of both types
       of specified delimiter brackets are correctly nested and
       balanced.

       However, the call in:

               @result = extract_bracketed( $text, '{([<' );

       would fail, returning:

               ( undef , "{ an '[irregularly :-(] {} parenthesized >:-)' string }"  );

       because the embedded pairs of '(..)'s and '[..]'s are
       "cross-nested" and the embedded '>' is unbalanced. (In a
       scalar context, this call would return an empty string. In
       a void context, $text would be unchanged.)

       Note that the embedded single-quotes in the string don't
       help in this case, since they have not been specified as
       acceptable delimiters and are therefore treated as non-
       delimiter characters (and ignored).



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       However, if a particular species of quote character is
       included in the delimiter specification, then that type of
       quote will be correctly handled.  for example, if $text
       is:

               $text = '<A HREF=">>>>">link</A>';

       then

               @result = extract_bracketed( $text, '<">' );

       returns:

               ( '<A HREF=">>>>">', 'link</A>', "" )

       as expected. Without the specification of """ as an embed-
       ded quoter:

               @result = extract_bracketed( $text, '<>' );

       the result would be:

               ( '<A HREF=">', '>>>">link</A>', "" )

       In addition to the quote delimiters "'", """, and "`",
       full Perl quote-like quoting (i.e. q{string}, qq{string},
       etc) can be specified by including the letter 'q' as a
       delimiter. Hence:

               @result = extract_bracketed( $text, '<q>' );

       would correctly match something like this:

               $text = '<leftop: conj /and/ conj>';

       See also: "extract_quotelike" and "extract_codeblock".

       "extract_variable"

       "extract_variable" extracts any valid Perl variable or
       variable-involved expression, including scalars, arrays,
       hashes, array accesses, hash look-ups, method calls
       through objects, subroutine calles through subroutine ref-
       erences, etc.

       The subroutine takes up to two optional arguments:

       1.  A string to be processed ($_ if the string is omitted
           or "undef")

       2.  A string specifying a pattern to be matched as a pre-
           fix (which is to be skipped). If omitted, optional
           whitespace is skipped.




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       On success in a list context, an array of 3 elements is
       returned. The elements are:

       [0] the extracted variable, or variablish expression

       [1] the remainder of the input text,

       [2] the prefix substring (if any),

       On failure, all of these values (except the remaining
       text) are "undef".

       In a scalar context, "extract_variable" returns just the
       complete substring that matched a variablish expression.
       "undef" is returned on failure. In addition, the original
       input text has the returned substring (and any prefix)
       removed from it.

       In a void context, the input text just has the matched
       substring (and any specified prefix) removed.

       "extract_tagged"

       "extract_tagged" extracts and segments text between (bal-
       anced) specified tags.

       The subroutine takes up to five optional arguments:

       1.  A string to be processed ($_ if the string is omitted
           or "undef")

       2.  A string specifying a pattern to be matched as the
           opening tag.  If the pattern string is omitted (or
           "undef") then a pattern that matches any standard XML
           tag is used.

       3.  A string specifying a pattern to be matched at the
           closing tag.  If the pattern string is omitted (or
           "undef") then the closing tag is constructed by
           inserting a "/" after any leading bracket characters
           in the actual opening tag that was matched (not the
           pattern that matched the tag). For example, if the
           opening tag pattern is specified as '{{\w+}}' and
           actually matched the opening tag "{{DATA}}", then the
           constructed closing tag would be "{{/DATA}}".

       4.  A string specifying a pattern to be matched as a pre-
           fix (which is to be skipped). If omitted, optional
           whitespace is skipped.

       5.  A hash reference containing various parsing options
           (see below)

       The various options that can be specified are:



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       "reject => $listref"
           The list reference contains one or more strings speci-
           fying patterns that must not appear within the tagged
           text.

           For example, to extract an HTML link (which should not
           contain nested links) use:

                   extract_tagged($text, '<A>', '</A>', undef, {reject => ['<A>']} );

       "ignore => $listref"
           The list reference contains one or more strings speci-
           fying patterns that are not be be treated as nested
           tags within the tagged text (even if they would match
           the start tag pattern).

           For example, to extract an arbitrary XML tag, but
           ignore "empty" elements:

                   extract_tagged($text, undef, undef, undef, {ignore => ['<[^>]*/>']} );

           (also see "gen_delimited_pat" below).

       "fail => $str"
           The "fail" option indicates the action to be taken if
           a matching end tag is not encountered (i.e. before the
           end of the string or some "reject" pattern matches).
           By default, a failure to match a closing tag causes
           "extract_tagged" to immediately fail.

           However, if the string value associated with <reject>
           is "MAX", then "extract_tagged" returns the complete
           text up to the point of failure.  If the string is
           "PARA", "extract_tagged" returns only the first para-
           graph after the tag (up to the first line that is
           either empty or contains only whitespace characters).
           If the string is "", the default behaviour (i.e. fail-
           ure) is reinstated.

           For example, suppose the start tag "/para" introduces
           a paragraph, which then continues until the next
           "/endpara" tag or until another "/para" tag is encoun-
           tered:

                   $text = "/para line 1\n\nline 3\n/para line 4";

                   extract_tagged($text, '/para', '/endpara', undef,
                                           {reject => '/para', fail => MAX );

                   # EXTRACTED: "/para line 1\n\nline 3\n"

           Suppose instead, that if no matching "/endpara" tag is
           found, the "/para" tag refers only to the immediately
           following paragraph:



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                   $text = "/para line 1\n\nline 3\n/para line 4";

                   extract_tagged($text, '/para', '/endpara', undef,
                                   {reject => '/para', fail => MAX );

                   # EXTRACTED: "/para line 1\n"

           Note that the specified "fail" behaviour applies to
           nested tags as well.

       On success in a list context, an array of 6 elements is
       returned. The elements are:

       [0] the extracted tagged substring (including the outer-
           most tags),

       [1] the remainder of the input text,

       [2] the prefix substring (if any),

       [3] the opening tag

       [4] the text between the opening and closing tags

       [5] the closing tag (or "" if no closing tag was found)

       On failure, all of these values (except the remaining
       text) are "undef".

       In a scalar context, "extract_tagged" returns just the
       complete substring that matched a tagged text (including
       the start and end tags). "undef" is returned on failure.
       In addition, the original input text has the returned sub-
       string (and any prefix) removed from it.

       In a void context, the input text just has the matched
       substring (and any specified prefix) removed.

       "gen_extract_tagged"

       (Note: This subroutine is only available under Perl5.005)

       "gen_extract_tagged" generates a new anonymous subroutine
       which extracts text between (balanced) specified tags. In
       other words, it generates a function identical in function
       to "extract_tagged".

       The difference between "extract_tagged" and the anonymous
       subroutines generated by "gen_extract_tagged", is that
       those generated subroutines:

       o   do not have to reparse tag specification or parsing
           options every time they are called (whereas
           "extract_tagged" has to effectively rebuild its tag



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           parser on every call);

       o   make use of the new qr// construct to pre-compile the
           regexes they use (whereas "extract_tagged" uses stan-
           dard string variable interpolation to create tag-
           matching patterns).

       The subroutine takes up to four optional arguments (the
       same set as "extract_tagged" except for the string to be
       processed). It returns a reference to a subroutine which
       in turn takes a single argument (the text to be extracted
       from).

       In other words, the implementation of "extract_tagged" is
       exactly equivalent to:

               sub extract_tagged
               {
                       my $text = shift;
                       $extractor = gen_extract_tagged(@_);
                       return $extractor->($text);
               }

       (although "extract_tagged" is not currently implemented
       that way, in order to preserve pre-5.005 compatibility).

       Using "gen_extract_tagged" to create extraction functions
       for specific tags is a good idea if those functions are
       going to be called more than once, since their performance
       is typically twice as good as the more general-purpose
       "extract_tagged".

       "extract_quotelike"

       "extract_quotelike" attempts to recognize, extract, and
       segment any one of the various Perl quotes and quotelike
       operators (see perlop(3)) Nested backslashed delimiters,
       embedded balanced bracket delimiters (for the quotelike
       operators), and trailing modifiers are all caught. For
       example, in:

               extract_quotelike 'q # an octothorpe: \# (not the end of the q!) #'

               extract_quotelike '  "You said, \"Use sed\"."  '

               extract_quotelike ' s{([A-Z]{1,8}\.[A-Z]{3})} /\L$1\E/; '

               extract_quotelike ' tr/\\\/\\\\/\\\//ds; '

       the full Perl quotelike operations are all extracted cor-
       rectly.

       Note too that, when using the /x modifier on a regex, any
       comment containing the current pattern delimiter will



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       cause the regex to be immediately terminated. In other
       words:

               'm /
                       (?i)            # CASE INSENSITIVE
                       [a-z_]          # LEADING ALPHABETIC/UNDERSCORE
                       [a-z0-9]*       # FOLLOWED BY ANY NUMBER OF ALPHANUMERICS
                  /x'

       will be extracted as if it were:

               'm /
                       (?i)            # CASE INSENSITIVE
                       [a-z_]          # LEADING ALPHABETIC/'

       This behaviour is identical to that of the actual com-
       piler.

       "extract_quotelike" takes two arguments: the text to be
       processed and a prefix to be matched at the very beginning
       of the text. If no prefix is specified, optional whites-
       pace is the default. If no text is given, $_ is used.

       In a list context, an array of 11 elements is returned.
       The elements are:

       [0] the extracted quotelike substring (including trailing
           modifiers),

       [1] the remainder of the input text,

       [2] the prefix substring (if any),

       [3] the name of the quotelike operator (if any),

       [4] the left delimiter of the first block of the opera-
           tion,

       [5] the text of the first block of the operation (that is,
           the contents of a quote, the regex of a match or sub-
           stitution or the target list of a translation),

       [6] the right delimiter of the first block of the opera-
           tion,

       [7] the left delimiter of the second block of the opera-
           tion (that is, if it is a "s", "tr", or "y"),

       [8] the text of the second block of the operation (that
           is, the replacement of a substitution or the transla-
           tion list of a translation),

       [9] the right delimiter of the second block of the opera-
           tion (if any),



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       [10]
           the trailing modifiers on the operation (if any).

       For each of the fields marked "(if any)" the default value
       on success is an empty string.  On failure, all of these
       values (except the remaining text) are "undef".

       In a scalar context, "extract_quotelike" returns just the
       complete substring that matched a quotelike operation (or
       "undef" on failure). In a scalar or void context, the
       input text has the same substring (and any specified pre-
       fix) removed.

       Examples:

               # Remove the first quotelike literal that appears in text

                       $quotelike = extract_quotelike($text,'.*?');

               # Replace one or more leading whitespace-separated quotelike
               # literals in $_ with "<QLL>"

                       do { $_ = join '<QLL>', (extract_quotelike)[2,1] } until $@;

               # Isolate the search pattern in a quotelike operation from $text

                       ($op,$pat) = (extract_quotelike $text)[3,5];
                       if ($op =~ /[ms]/)
                       {
                               print "search pattern: $pat\n";
                       }
                       else
                       {
                               print "$op is not a pattern matching operation\n";
                       }

       "extract_quotelike" and "here documents"

       "extract_quotelike" can successfully extract "here docu-
       ments" from an input string, but with an important caveat
       in list contexts.

       Unlike other types of quote-like literals, a here document
       is rarely a contiguous substring. For example, a typical
       piece of code using here document might look like this:

               <<'EOMSG' || die;
               This is the message.
               EOMSG
               exit;

       Given this as an input string in a scalar context,
       "extract_quotelike" would correctly return the string
       "<<'EOMSG'\nThis is the message.\nEOMSG", leaving the



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       string " || die;\nexit;" in the original variable. In
       other words, the two separate pieces of the here document
       are successfully extracted and concatenated.

       In a list context, "extract_quotelike" would return the
       list

       [0] "<<'EOMSG'\nThis is the message.\nEOMSG\n" (i.e. the
           full extracted here document, including fore and aft
           delimiters),

       [1] " || die;\nexit;" (i.e. the remainder of the input
           text, concatenated),

       [2] "" (i.e. the prefix substring -- trivial in this
           case),

       [3] "<<" (i.e. the "name" of the quotelike operator)

       [4] "'EOMSG'" (i.e. the left delimiter of the here docu-
           ment, including any quotes),

       [5] "This is the message.\n" (i.e. the text of the here
           document),

       [6] "EOMSG" (i.e. the right delimiter of the here docu-
           ment),

       [7..10]
           "" (a here document has no second left delimiter, sec-
           ond text, second right delimiter, or trailing modi-
           fiers).

       However, the matching position of the input variable would
       be set to "exit;" (i.e. after the closing delimiter of the
       here document), which would cause the earlier " ||
       die;\nexit;" to be skipped in any sequence of code frag-
       ment extractions.

       To avoid this problem, when it encounters a here document
       whilst extracting from a modifiable string,
       "extract_quotelike" silently rearranges the string to an
       equivalent piece of Perl:

               <<'EOMSG'
               This is the message.
               EOMSG
               || die;
               exit;

       in which the here document is contiguous. It still leaves
       the matching position after the here document, but now the
       rest of the line on which the here document starts is not
       skipped.



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       To prevent <extract_quotelike> from mucking about with the
       input in this way (this is the only case where a list-con-
       text "extract_quotelike" does so), you can pass the input
       variable as an interpolated literal:

               $quotelike = extract_quotelike("$var");

       "extract_codeblock"

       "extract_codeblock" attempts to recognize and extract a
       balanced bracket delimited substring that may contain
       unbalanced brackets inside Perl quotes or quotelike opera-
       tions. That is, "extract_codeblock" is like a combination
       of "extract_bracketed" and "extract_quotelike".

       "extract_codeblock" takes the same initial three parame-
       ters as "extract_bracketed": a text to process, a set of
       delimiter brackets to look for, and a prefix to match
       first. It also takes an optional fourth parameter, which
       allows the outermost delimiter brackets to be specified
       separately (see below).

       Omitting the first argument (input text) means process $_
       instead.  Omitting the second argument (delimiter brack-
       ets) indicates that only '{' is to be used.  Omitting the
       third argument (prefix argument) implies optional whites-
       pace at the start.  Omitting the fourth argument (outer-
       most delimiter brackets) indicates that the value of the
       second argument is to be used for the outermost delim-
       iters.

       Once the prefix an dthe outermost opening delimiter
       bracket have been recognized, code blocks are extracted by
       stepping through the input text and trying the following
       alternatives in sequence:

       1.  Try and match a closing delimiter bracket. If the
           bracket was the same species as the last opening
           bracket, return the substring to that point. If the
           bracket was mismatched, return an error.

       2.  Try to match a quote or quotelike operator. If found,
           call "extract_quotelike" to eat it. If "extract_quote-
           like" fails, return the error it returned. Otherwise
           go back to step 1.

       3.  Try to match an opening delimiter bracket. If found,
           call "extract_codeblock" recursively to eat the embed-
           ded block. If the recursive call fails, return an
           error. Otherwise, go back to step 1.

       4.  Unconditionally match a bareword or any other single
           character, and then go back to step 1.




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       Examples:

               # Find a while loop in the text

                       if ($text =~ s/.*?while\s*\{/{/)
                       {
                               $loop = "while " . extract_codeblock($text);
                       }

               # Remove the first round-bracketed list (which may include
               # round- or curly-bracketed code blocks or quotelike operators)

                       extract_codeblock $text, "(){}", '[^(]*';

       The ability to specify a different outermost delimiter
       bracket is useful in some circumstances. For example, in
       the Parse::RecDescent module, parser actions which are to
       be performed only on a successful parse are specified
       using a "<defer:...>" directive. For example:

               sentence: subject verb object
                               <defer: {$::theVerb = $item{verb}} >

       Parse::RecDescent uses "extract_codeblock($text, '{}<>')"
       to extract the code within the "<defer:...>" directive,
       but there's a problem.

       A deferred action like this:

                               <defer: {if ($count>10) {$count--}} >

       will be incorrectly parsed as:

                               <defer: {if ($count>

       because the "less than" operator is interpreted as a clos-
       ing delimiter.

       But, by extracting the directive using
       "extract_codeblock($text, '{}', undef, '<>')" the '>'
       character is only treated as a delimited at the outermost
       level of the code block, so the directive is parsed cor-
       rectly.

       "extract_multiple"

       The "extract_multiple" subroutine takes a string to be
       processed and a list of extractors (subroutines or regular
       expressions) to apply to that string.

       In an array context "extract_multiple" returns an array of
       substrings of the original string, as extracted by the
       specified extractors.  In a scalar context, "extract_mul-
       tiple" returns the first substring successfully extracted



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       from the original string. In both scalar and void contexts
       the original string has the first successfully extracted
       substring removed from it. In all contexts "extract_multi-
       ple" starts at the current "pos" of the string, and sets
       that "pos" appropriately after it matches.

       Hence, the aim of of a call to "extract_multiple" in a
       list context is to split the processed string into as many
       non-overlapping fields as possible, by repeatedly applying
       each of the specified extractors to the remainder of the
       string. Thus "extract_multiple" is a generalized form of
       Perl's "split" subroutine.

       The subroutine takes up to four optional arguments:

       1.  A string to be processed ($_ if the string is omitted
           or "undef")

       2.  A reference to a list of subroutine references and/or
           qr// objects and/or literal strings and/or hash refer-
           ences, specifying the extractors to be used to split
           the string. If this argument is omitted (or "undef")
           the list:

                   [
                           sub { extract_variable($_[0], '') },
                           sub { extract_quotelike($_[0],'') },
                           sub { extract_codeblock($_[0],'{}','') },
                   ]

           is used.

       3.  An number specifying the maximum number of fields to
           return. If this argument is omitted (or "undef"),
           split continues as long as possible.

           If the third argument is N, then extraction continues
           until N fields have been successfully extracted, or
           until the string has been completely processed.

           Note that in scalar and void contexts the value of
           this argument is automatically reset to 1 (under "-w",
           a warning is issued if the argument has to be reset).

       4.  A value indicating whether unmatched substrings (see
           below) within the text should be skipped or returned
           as fields. If the value is true, such substrings are
           skipped. Otherwise, they are returned.

       The extraction process works by applying each extractor in
       sequence to the text string.

       If the extractor is a subroutine it is called in a list
       context and is expected to return a list of a single



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       element, namely the extracted text. It may optionally also
       return two further arguments: a string representing the
       text left after extraction (like $' for a pattern match),
       and a string representing any prefix skipped before the
       extraction (like $` in a pattern match). Note that this is
       designed to facilitate the use of other Text::Balanced
       subroutines with "extract_multiple". Note too that the
       value returned by an extractor subroutine need not bear
       any relationship to the corresponding substring of the
       original text (see examples below).

       If the extractor is a precompiled regular expression or a
       string, it is matched against the text in a scalar context
       with a leading '\G' and the gc modifiers enabled. The
       extracted value is either $1 if that variable is defined
       after the match, or else the complete match (i.e. $&).

       If the extractor is a hash reference, it must contain
       exactly one element.  The value of that element is one of
       the above extractor types (subroutine reference, regular
       expression, or string).  The key of that element is the
       name of a class into which the successful return value of
       the extractor will be blessed.

       If an extractor returns a defined value, that value is
       immediately treated as the next extracted field and pushed
       onto the list of fields.  If the extractor was specified
       in a hash reference, the field is also blessed into the
       appropriate class,

       If the extractor fails to match (in the case of a regex
       extractor), or returns an empty list or an undefined value
       (in the case of a subroutine extractor), it is assumed to
       have failed to extract.  If none of the extractor subrou-
       tines succeeds, then one character is extracted from the
       start of the text and the extraction subroutines reap-
       plied. Characters which are thus removed are accumulated
       and eventually become the next field (unless the fourth
       argument is true, in which case they are disgarded).

       For example, the following extracts substrings that are
       valid Perl variables:

               @fields = extract_multiple($text,
                                          [ sub { extract_variable($_[0]) } ],
                                          undef, 1);

       This example separates a text into fields which are quote
       delimited, curly bracketed, and anything else. The delim-
       ited and bracketed parts are also blessed to identify them
       (the "anything else" is unblessed):






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               @fields = extract_multiple($text,
                          [
                               { Delim => sub { extract_delimited($_[0],q{'"}) } },
                               { Brack => sub { extract_bracketed($_[0],'{}') } },
                          ]);

       This call extracts the next single substring that is a
       valid Perl quotelike operator (and removes it from $text):

               $quotelike = extract_multiple($text,
                                             [
                                               sub { extract_quotelike($_[0]) },
                                             ], undef, 1);

       Finally, here is yet another way to do comma-separated
       value parsing:

               @fields = extract_multiple($csv_text,
                                         [
                                               sub { extract_delimited($_[0],q{'"}) },
                                               qr/([^,]+)(.*)/,
                                         ],
                                         undef,1);

       The list in the second argument means: "Try and extract a
       ' or " delimited string, otherwise extract anything up to
       a comma...".  The undef third argument means: "...as many
       times as possible...", and the true value in the fourth
       argument means "...discarding anything else that appears
       (i.e. the commas)".

       If you wanted the commas preserved as separate fields
       (i.e. like split does if your split pattern has capturing
       parentheses), you would just make the last parameter unde-
       fined (or remove it).

       "gen_delimited_pat"

       The "gen_delimited_pat" subroutine takes a single (string)
       argument and
          > builds a Friedl-style optimized regex that matches a
       string delimited by any one of the characters in the sin-
       gle argument. For example:

               gen_delimited_pat(q{'"})

       returns the regex:

               (?:\"(?:\\\"|(?!\").)*\"|\'(?:\\\'|(?!\').)*\')

       Note that the specified delimiters are automatically
       quotemeta'd.

       A typical use of "gen_delimited_pat" would be to build



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       special purpose tags for "extract_tagged". For example, to
       properly ignore "empty" XML elements (which might contain
       quoted strings):

               my $empty_tag = '<(' . gen_delimited_pat(q{'"}) . '|.)+/>';

               extract_tagged($text, undef, undef, undef, {ignore => [$empty_tag]} );

       "gen_delimited_pat" may also be called with an optional
       second argument, which specifies the "escape" character(s)
       to be used for each delimiter.  For example to match a
       Pascal-style string (where ' is the delimiter and '' is a
       literal ' within the string):

               gen_delimited_pat(q{'},q{'});

       Different escape characters can be specified for different
       delimiters.  For example, to specify that '/' is the
       escape for single quotes and '%' is the escape for double
       quotes:

               gen_delimited_pat(q{'"},q{/%});

       If more delimiters than escape chars are specified, the
       last escape char is used for the remaining delimiters.  If
       no escape char is specified for a given specified delim-
       iter, '\' is used.

       Note that "gen_delimited_pat" was previously called
       "delimited_pat". That name may still be used, but is now
       deprecated.

DIAGNOSTICS
       In a list context, all the functions return "(undef,$orig-
       inal_text)" on failure. In a scalar context, failure is
       indicated by returning "undef" (in this case the input
       text is not modified in any way).

       In addition, on failure in any context, the $@ variable is
       set.  Accessing "$@->{error}" returns one of the error
       diagnostics listed below.  Accessing "$@->{pos}" returns
       the offset into the original string at which the error was
       detected (although not necessarily where it occurred!)
       Printing $@ directly produces the error message, with the
       offset appended.  On success, the $@ variable is guaran-
       teed to be "undef".

       The available diagnostics are:

       "Did not find a suitable bracket: "%s""
           The delimiter provided to "extract_bracketed" was not
           one of '()[]<>{}'.





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       "Did not find prefix: /%s/"
           A non-optional prefix was specified but wasn't found
           at the start of the text.

       "Did not find opening bracket after prefix: "%s""
           "extract_bracketed" or "extract_codeblock" was expect-
           ing a particular kind of bracket at the start of the
           text, and didn't find it.

       "No quotelike operator found after prefix: "%s""
           "extract_quotelike" didn't find one of the quotelike
           operators "q", "qq", "qw", "qx", "s", "tr" or "y" at
           the start of the substring it was extracting.

       "Unmatched closing bracket: "%c""
           "extract_bracketed", "extract_quotelike" or
           "extract_codeblock" encountered a closing bracket
           where none was expected.

       "Unmatched opening bracket(s): "%s""
           "extract_bracketed", "extract_quotelike" or
           "extract_codeblock" ran out of characters in the text
           before closing one or more levels of nested brackets.

       "Unmatched embedded quote (%s)"
           "extract_bracketed" attempted to match an embedded
           quoted substring, but failed to find a closing quote
           to match it.

       "Did not find closing delimiter to match '%s'"
           "extract_quotelike" was unable to find a closing
           delimiter to match the one that opened the quote-like
           operation.

       "Mismatched closing bracket: expected "%c" but found "%s""
           "extract_bracketed", "extract_quotelike" or
           "extract_codeblock" found a valid bracket delimiter,
           but it was the wrong species. This usually indicates a
           nesting error, but may indicate incorrect quoting or
           escaping.

       "No block delimiter found after quotelike "%s""
           "extract_quotelike" or "extract_codeblock" found one
           of the quotelike operators "q", "qq", "qw", "qx", "s",
           "tr" or "y" without a suitable block after it.

       "Did not find leading dereferencer"
           "extract_variable" was expecting one of '$', '@', or
           '%' at the start of a variable, but didn't find any of
           them.

       "Bad identifier after dereferencer"
           "extract_variable" found a '$', '@', or '%' indicating
           a variable, but that character was not followed by a



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           legal Perl identifier.

       "Did not find expected opening bracket at %s"
           "extract_codeblock" failed to find any of the outer-
           most opening brackets that were specified.

       "Improperly nested codeblock at %s"
           A nested code block was found that started with a
           delimiter that was specified as being only to be used
           as an outermost bracket.

       "Missing second block for quotelike "%s""
           "extract_codeblock" or "extract_quotelike" found one
           of the quotelike operators "s", "tr" or "y" followed
           by only one block.

       "No match found for opening bracket"
           "extract_codeblock" failed to find a closing bracket
           to match the outermost opening bracket.

       "Did not find opening tag: /%s/"
           "extract_tagged" did not find a suitable opening tag
           (after any specified prefix was removed).

       "Unable to construct closing tag to match: /%s/"
           "extract_tagged" matched the specified opening tag and
           tried to modify the matched text to produce a matching
           closing tag (because none was specified). It failed to
           generate the closing tag, almost certainly because the
           opening tag did not start with a bracket of some kind.

       "Found invalid nested tag: %s"
           "extract_tagged" found a nested tag that appeared in
           the "reject" list (and the failure mode was not "MAX"
           or "PARA").

       "Found unbalanced nested tag: %s"
           "extract_tagged" found a nested opening tag that was
           not matched by a corresponding nested closing tag (and
           the failure mode was not "MAX" or "PARA").

       "Did not find closing tag"
           "extract_tagged" reached the end of the text without
           finding a closing tag to match the original opening
           tag (and the failure mode was not "MAX" or "PARA").

AUTHOR
       Damian Conway (damianATconway.org)

BUGS AND IRRITATIONS
       There are undoubtedly serious bugs lurking somewhere in
       this code, if only because parts of it give the impression
       of understanding a great deal more about Perl than they
       really do.



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       Bug reports and other feedback are most welcome.

COPYRIGHT
        Copyright (c) 1997-2001, Damian Conway. All Rights Reserved.
        This module is free software. It may be used, redistributed
            and/or modified under the same terms as Perl itself.



















































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