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Test(3p)         Perl Programmers Reference Guide        Test(3p)


NAME
       Test - provides a simple framework for writing test
       scripts

SYNOPSIS
         use strict;
         use Test;

         # use a BEGIN block so we print our plan before MyModule is loaded
         BEGIN { plan tests => 14, todo => [3,4] }

         # load your module...
         use MyModule;

         # Helpful notes.  All note-lines must start with a "#".
         print "# I'm testing MyModule version $MyModule::VERSION\n";

         ok(0); # failure
         ok(1); # success

         ok(0); # ok, expected failure (see todo list, above)
         ok(1); # surprise success!

         ok(0,1);             # failure: '0' ne '1'
         ok('broke','fixed'); # failure: 'broke' ne 'fixed'
         ok('fixed','fixed'); # success: 'fixed' eq 'fixed'
         ok('fixed',qr/x/);   # success: 'fixed' =~ qr/x/

         ok(sub { 1+1 }, 2);  # success: '2' eq '2'
         ok(sub { 1+1 }, 3);  # failure: '2' ne '3'

         my @list = (0,0);
         ok @list, 3, "\@list=".join(',',@list);      #extra notes
         ok 'segmentation fault', '/(?i)success/';    #regex match

         skip(
           $^O =~ m/MSWin/ ? "Skip if MSWin" : 0,  # whether to skip
           $foo, $bar  # arguments just like for ok(...)
         );
         skip(
           $^O =~ m/MSWin/ ? 0 : "Skip unless MSWin",  # whether to skip
           $foo, $bar  # arguments just like for ok(...)
         );

DESCRIPTION
       This module simplifies the task of writing test files for
       Perl modules, such that their output is in the format that
       Test::Harness expects to see.

QUICK START GUIDE
       To write a test for your new (and probably not even done)
       module, create a new file called t/test.t (in a new t
       directory). If you have multiple test files, to test the
       "foo", "bar", and "baz" feature sets, then feel free to



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       call your files t/foo.t, t/bar.t, and t/baz.t

       Functions

       This module defines three public functions, "plan(...)",
       "ok(...)", and "skip(...)".  By default, all three are
       exported by the "use Test;" statement.

       "plan(...)"
                BEGIN { plan %theplan; }

           This should be the first thing you call in your test
           script.  It declares your testing plan, how many there
           will be, if any of them should be allowed to fail, and
           so on.

           Typical usage is just:

                use Test;
                BEGIN { plan tests => 23 }

           These are the things that you can put in the parame-
           ters to plan:

           "tests => number"
               The number of tests in your script.  This means
               all ok() and skip() calls.

           "todo => [1,5,14]"
               A reference to a list of tests which are allowed
               to fail.  See "TODO TESTS".

           "onfail => sub { ... }"
           "onfail => \&some_sub"
               A subroutine reference to be run at the end of the
               test script, if any of the tests fail.  See
               "ONFAIL".

           You must call "plan(...)" once and only once.  You
           should call it in a "BEGIN {...}" block, like so:

                BEGIN { plan tests => 23 }

       "ok(...)"
             ok(1 + 1 == 2);
             ok($have, $expect);
             ok($have, $expect, $diagnostics);

           This function is the reason for "Test"'s existence.
           It's the basic function that handles printing ""ok""
           or ""not ok"", along with the current test number.
           (That's what "Test::Harness" wants to see.)

           In its most basic usage, "ok(...)" simply takes a



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           single scalar expression.  If its value is true, the
           test passes; if false, the test fails.  Examples:

               # Examples of ok(scalar)

               ok( 1 + 1 == 2 );           # ok if 1 + 1 == 2
               ok( $foo =~ /bar/ );        # ok if $foo contains 'bar'
               ok( baz($x + $y) eq 'Armondo' );    # ok if baz($x + $y) returns
                                                   # 'Armondo'
               ok( @a == @b );             # ok if @a and @b are the same length

           The expression is evaluated in scalar context.  So the
           following will work:

               ok( @stuff );                       # ok if @stuff has any elements
               ok( !grep !defined $_, @stuff );    # ok if everything in @stuff is
                                                   # defined.

           A special case is if the expression is a subroutine
           reference (in either "sub {...}" syntax or "\&foo"
           syntax).  In that case, it is executed and its value
           (true or false) determines if the test passes or
           fails.  For example,

               ok( sub {   # See whether sleep works at least passably
                 my $start_time = time;
                 sleep 5;
                 time() - $start_time  >= 4
               });

           In its two-argument form, "ok(arg1, arg2)" compares
           the two scalar values to see if they match.  They
           match if both are undefined, or if arg2 is a regex
           that matches arg1, or if they compare equal with "eq".

               # Example of ok(scalar, scalar)

               ok( "this", "that" );               # not ok, 'this' ne 'that'
               ok( "", undef );                    # not ok, "" is defined

           The second argument is considered a regex if it is
           either a regex object or a string that looks like a
           regex.  Regex objects are constructed with the qr//
           operator in recent versions of perl.  A string is con-
           sidered to look like a regex if its first and last
           characters are "/", or if the first character is "m"
           and its second and last characters are both the same
           non-alphanumeric non-whitespace character.  These reg-
           exp

           Regex examples:






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               ok( 'JaffO', '/Jaff/' );    # ok, 'JaffO' =~ /Jaff/
               ok( 'JaffO', 'm|Jaff|' );   # ok, 'JaffO' =~ m|Jaff|
               ok( 'JaffO', qr/Jaff/ );    # ok, 'JaffO' =~ qr/Jaff/;
               ok( 'JaffO', '/(?i)jaff/ ); # ok, 'JaffO' =~ /jaff/i;

           If either (or both!) is a subroutine reference, it is
           run and used as the value for comparing.  For example:

               ok sub {
                   open(OUT, ">x.dat") || die $!;
                   print OUT "\x{e000}";
                   close OUT;
                   my $bytecount = -s 'x.dat';
                   unlink 'x.dat' or warn "Can't unlink : $!";
                   return $bytecount;
                 },
                 4
               ;

           The above test passes two values to "ok(arg1, arg2)"
           -- the first a coderef, and the second is the number
           4.  Before "ok" compares them, it calls the coderef,
           and uses its return value as the real value of this
           parameter. Assuming that $bytecount returns 4, "ok"
           ends up testing "4 eq 4".  Since that's true, this
           test passes.

           Finally, you can append an optional third argument, in
           "ok(arg1,arg2, note)", where note is a string value
           that will be printed if the test fails.  This should
           be some useful information about the test, pertaining
           to why it failed, and/or a description of the test.
           For example:

               ok( grep($_ eq 'something unique', @stuff), 1,
                   "Something that should be unique isn't!\n".
                   '@stuff = '.join ', ', @stuff
                 );

           Unfortunately, a note cannot be used with the single
           argument style of "ok()".  That is, if you try
           "ok(arg1, note)", then "Test" will interpret this as
           "ok(arg1, arg2)", and probably end up testing "arg1 eq
           arg2" -- and that's not what you want!

           All of the above special cases can occasionally cause
           some problems.  See "BUGS and CAVEATS".

       "skip(skip_if_true, args...)"
           This is used for tests that under some conditions can
           be skipped.  It's basically equivalent to:






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             if( $skip_if_true ) {
               ok(1);
             } else {
               ok( args... );
             }

           ...except that the ok(1) emits not just ""ok testnum""
           but actually ""ok testnum # skip_if_true_value"".

           The arguments after the skip_if_true are what is fed
           to "ok(...)" if this test isn't skipped.

           Example usage:

             my $if_MSWin =
               $^O =~ m/MSWin/ ? 'Skip if under MSWin' : '';

             # A test to be skipped if under MSWin (i.e., run except under MSWin)
             skip($if_MSWin, thing($foo), thing($bar) );

           Or, going the other way:

             my $unless_MSWin =
               $^O =~ m/MSWin/ ? '' : 'Skip unless under MSWin';

             # A test to be skipped unless under MSWin (i.e., run only under MSWin)
             skip($unless_MSWin, thing($foo), thing($bar) );

           The tricky thing to remember is that the first parame-
           ter is true if you want to skip the test, not run it;
           and it also doubles as a note about why it's being
           skipped. So in the first codeblock above, read the
           code as "skip if MSWin -- (otherwise) test whether
           "thing($foo)" is "thing($bar)"" or for the second
           case, "skip unless MSWin...".

           Also, when your skip_if_reason string is true, it
           really should (for backwards compatibility with older
           Test.pm versions) start with the string "Skip", as
           shown in the above examples.

           Note that in the above cases, "thing($foo)" and
           "thing($bar)" are evaluated -- but as long as the
           "skip_if_true" is true, then we "skip(...)" just
           tosses out their value (i.e., not bothering to treat
           them like values to "ok(...)".  But if you need to not
           eval the arguments when skipping the test, use this
           format:









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             skip( $unless_MSWin,
               sub {
                 # This code returns true if the test passes.
                 # (But it doesn't even get called if the test is skipped.)
                 thing($foo) eq thing($bar)
               }
             );

           or even this, which is basically equivalent:

             skip( $unless_MSWin,
               sub { thing($foo) }, sub { thing($bar) }
             );

           That is, both are like this:

             if( $unless_MSWin ) {
               ok(1);  # but it actually appends "# $unless_MSWin"
                       #  so that Test::Harness can tell it's a skip
             } else {
               # Not skipping, so actually call and evaluate...
               ok( sub { thing($foo) }, sub { thing($bar) } );
             }

TEST TYPES
       * NORMAL TESTS
           These tests are expected to succeed.  Usually, most or
           all of your tests are in this category.  If a normal
           test doesn't succeed, then that means that something
           is wrong.

       * SKIPPED TESTS
           The "skip(...)" function is for tests that might or
           might not be possible to run, depending on the avail-
           ability of platform-specific features.  The first
           argument should evaluate to true (think "yes, please
           skip") if the required feature is not available.
           After the first argument, "skip(...)" works exactly
           the same way as "ok(...)" does.

       * TODO TESTS
           TODO tests are designed for maintaining an executable
           TODO list.  These tests are expected to fail.  If a
           TODO test does succeed, then the feature in question
           shouldn't be on the TODO list, now should it?

           Packages should NOT be released with succeeding TODO
           tests.  As soon as a TODO test starts working, it
           should be promoted to a normal test, and the newly
           working feature should be documented in the release
           notes or in the change log.

ONFAIL
         BEGIN { plan test => 4, onfail => sub { warn "CALL 911!" } }



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       Although test failures should be enough, extra diagnostics
       can be triggered at the end of a test run.  "onfail" is
       passed an array ref of hash refs that describe each test
       failure.  Each hash will contain at least the following
       fields: "package", "repetition", and "result".  (You
       shouldn't rely on any other fields being present.)  If the
       test had an expected value or a diagnostic (or "note")
       string, these will also be included.

       The optional "onfail" hook might be used simply to print
       out the version of your package and/or how to report prob-
       lems.  It might also be used to generate extremely sophis-
       ticated diagnostics for a particularly bizarre test fail-
       ure.  However it's not a panacea.  Core dumps or other
       unrecoverable errors prevent the "onfail" hook from run-
       ning.  (It is run inside an "END" block.)  Besides,
       "onfail" is probably over-kill in most cases.  (Your test
       code should be simpler than the code it is testing, yes?)

BUGS and CAVEATS
       o   "ok(...)"'s special handing of strings which look like
           they might be regexes can also cause unexpected behav-
           ior.  An innocent:

               ok( $fileglob, '/path/to/some/*stuff/' );

           will fail, since Test.pm considers the second argument
           to be a regex!  The best bet is to use the one-argu-
           ment form:

               ok( $fileglob eq '/path/to/some/*stuff/' );

       o   "ok(...)"'s use of string "eq" can sometimes cause odd
           problems when comparing numbers, especially if you're
           casting a string to a number:

               $foo = "1.0";
               ok( $foo, 1 );      # not ok, "1.0" ne 1

           Your best bet is to use the single argument form:

               ok( $foo == 1 );    # ok "1.0" == 1

       o   As you may have inferred from the above documentation
           and examples, "ok"'s prototype is "($;$$)" (and, inci-
           dentally, "skip"'s is "($;$$$)"). This means, for
           example, that you can do "ok @foo, @bar" to compare
           the size of the two arrays. But don't be fooled into
           thinking that "ok @foo, @bar" means a comparison of
           the contents of two arrays -- you're comparing just
           the number of elements of each. It's so easy to make
           that mistake in reading "ok @foo, @bar" that you might
           want to be very explicit about it, and instead write
           "ok scalar(@foo), scalar(@bar)".



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       o   This almost definitely doesn't do what you expect:

                ok $thingy->can('some_method');

           Why?  Because "can" returns a coderef to mean "yes it
           can (and the method is this...)", and then "ok" sees a
           coderef and thinks you're passing a function that you
           want it to call and consider the truth of the result
           of!  I.e., just like:

                ok $thingy->can('some_method')->();

           What you probably want instead is this:

                ok $thingy->can('some_method') && 1;

           If the "can" returns false, then that is passed to
           "ok".  If it returns true, then the larger expression
           "$thingy->can('some_method') && 1" returns 1, which
           "ok" sees as a simple signal of success, as you would
           expect.

       o   The syntax for "skip" is about the only way it can be,
           but it's still quite confusing.  Just start with the
           above examples and you'll be okay.

           Moreover, users may expect this:

             skip $unless_mswin, foo($bar), baz($quux);

           to not evaluate "foo($bar)" and "baz($quux)" when the
           test is being skipped.  But in reality, they are eval-
           uated, but "skip" just won't bother comparing them if
           $unless_mswin is true.

           You could do this:

             skip $unless_mswin, sub{foo($bar)}, sub{baz($quux)};

           But that's not terribly pretty.  You may find it sim-
           pler or clearer in the long run to just do things like
           this:

             if( $^O =~ m/MSWin/ ) {
               print "# Yay, we're under $^O\n";
               ok foo($bar), baz($quux);
               ok thing($whatever), baz($stuff);
               ok blorp($quux, $whatever);
               ok foo($barzbarz), thang($quux);
             } else {
               print "# Feh, we're under $^O.  Watch me skip some tests...\n";
               for(1 .. 4) { skip "Skip unless under MSWin" }
             }




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           But be quite sure that "ok" is called exactly as many
           times in the first block as "skip" is called in the
           second block.

ENVIRONMENT
       If "PERL_TEST_DIFF" environment variable is set, it will
       be used as a command for comparing unexpected multiline
       results.  If you have GNU diff installed, you might want
       to set "PERL_TEST_DIFF" to "diff -u".  If you don't have a
       suitable program, you might install the "Text::Diff" mod-
       ule and then set "PERL_TEST_DIFF" to be "perl -MText::Diff
       -e 'print diff(@ARGV)'".  If "PERL_TEST_DIFF" isn't set
       but the "Algorithm::Diff" module is available, then it
       will be used to show the differences in multiline results.

NOTE
       A past developer of this module once said that it was no
       longer being actively developed.  However, rumors of its
       demise were greatly exaggerated.  Feedback and suggestions
       are quite welcome.

       Be aware that the main value of this module is its sim-
       plicity.  Note that there are already more ambitious mod-
       ules out there, such as Test::More and Test::Unit.

       Some earlier versions of this module had docs with some
       confusing typoes in the description of "skip(...)".

SEE ALSO
       Test::Harness

       Test::Simple, Test::More, Devel::Cover

       Test::Builder for building your own testing library.

       Test::Unit is an interesting XUnit-style testing library.

       Test::Inline and SelfTest let you embed tests in code.

AUTHOR
       Copyright (c) 1998-2000 Joshua Nathaniel Pritikin.  All
       rights reserved.

       Copyright (c) 2001-2002 Michael G. Schwern.

       Copyright (c) 2002-2004 and counting Sean M. Burke.

       Current maintainer: Sean M. Burke. <sburkeATcpan.org>

       This package is free software and is provided "as is"
       without express or implied warranty.  It may be used,
       redistributed and/or modified under the same terms as Perl
       itself.




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