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Pod::Man(3p)     Perl Programmers Reference Guide    Pod::Man(3p)

       Pod::Man - Convert POD data to formatted *roff input

           use Pod::Man;
           my $parser = Pod::Man->new (release => $VERSION, section => 8);

           # Read POD from STDIN and write to STDOUT.

           # Read POD from file.pod and write to file.1.
           $parser->parse_from_file ('file.pod', 'file.1');

       Pod::Man is a module to convert documentation in the POD
       format (the preferred language for documenting Perl) into
       *roff input using the man macro set.  The resulting *roff
       code is suitable for display on a terminal using nroff(1),
       normally via man(1), or printing using troff(1).  It is
       conventionally invoked using the driver script pod2man,
       but it can also be used directly.

       As a derived class from Pod::Parser, Pod::Man supports the
       same methods and interfaces.  See Pod::Parser for all the
       details; briefly, one creates a new parser with
       "Pod::Man->new()" and then calls either parse_from_file-
       handle() or parse_from_file().

       new() can take options, in the form of key/value pairs
       that control the behavior of the parser.  See below for

       If no options are given, Pod::Man uses the name of the
       input file with any trailing ".pod", ".pm", or ".pl"
       stripped as the man page title, to section 1 unless the
       file ended in ".pm" in which case it defaults to section
       3, to a centered title of "User Contributed Perl Documen-
       tation", to a centered footer of the Perl version it is
       run with, and to a left-hand footer of the modification
       date of its input (or the current date if given STDIN for

       Pod::Man assumes that your *roff formatters have a fixed-
       width font named CW.  If yours is called something else
       (like CR), use the "fixed" option to specify it.  This
       generally only matters for troff output for printing.
       Similarly, you can set the fonts used for bold, italic,
       and bold italic fixed-width output.

       Besides the obvious pod conversions, Pod::Man also takes
       care of formatting func(), func(3), and simple variable
       references like $foo or @bar so you don't have to use code
       escapes for them; complex expressions like $fred{'stuff'}
       will still need to be escaped, though.  It also translates

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Pod::Man(3p)     Perl Programmers Reference Guide    Pod::Man(3p)

       dashes that aren't used as hyphens into en dashes, makes
       long dashes--like this--into proper em dashes, fixes
       "paired quotes," makes C++ look right, puts a little space
       between double underbars, makes ALLCAPS a teeny bit
       smaller in troff, and escapes stuff that *roff treats as
       special so that you don't have to.

       The recognized options to new() are as follows.  All
       options take a single argument.

           Sets the centered page header to use instead of "User
           Contributed Perl Documentation".

           Sets the left-hand footer.  By default, the modifica-
           tion date of the input file will be used, or the cur-
           rent date if stat() can't find that file (the case if
           the input is from STDIN), and the date will be format-
           ted as YYYY-MM-DD.

           The fixed-width font to use for vertabim text and
           code.  Defaults to CW.  Some systems may want CR
           instead.  Only matters for troff output.

           Bold version of the fixed-width font.  Defaults to CB.
           Only matters for troff output.

           Italic version of the fixed-width font (actually,
           something of a misnomer, since most fixed-width fonts
           only have an oblique version, not an italic version).
           Defaults to CI.  Only matters for troff output.

           Bold italic (probably actually oblique) version of the
           fixed-width font.  Pod::Man doesn't assume you have
           this, and defaults to CB.  Some systems (such as
           Solaris) have this font available as CX.  Only matters
           for troff output.

           Set the name of the manual page.  Without this option,
           the manual name is set to the uppercased base name of
           the file being converted unless the manual section is
           3, in which case the path is parsed to see if it is a
           Perl module path.  If it is, a path like
           ".../lib/Pod/Man.pm" is converted into a name like
           "Pod::Man".  This option, if given, overrides any
           automatic determination of the name.

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           Sets the quote marks used to surround C<> text.  If
           the value is a single character, it is used as both
           the left and right quote; if it is two characters, the
           first character is used as the left quote and the sec-
           ond as the right quoted; and if it is four characters,
           the first two are used as the left quote and the sec-
           ond two as the right quote.

           This may also be set to the special value "none", in
           which case no quote marks are added around C<> text
           (but the font is still changed for troff output).

           Set the centered footer.  By default, this is the ver-
           sion of Perl you run Pod::Man under.  Note that some
           system an macro sets assume that the centered footer
           will be a modification date and will prepend something
           like "Last modified: "; if this is the case, you may
           want to set "release" to the last modified date and
           "date" to the version number.

           Set the section for the ".TH" macro.  The standard
           section numbering convention is to use 1 for user com-
           mands, 2 for system calls, 3 for functions, 4 for
           devices, 5 for file formats, 6 for games, 7 for mis-
           cellaneous information, and 8 for administrator com-
           mands.  There is a lot of variation here, however;
           some systems (like Solaris) use 4 for file formats, 5
           for miscellaneous information, and 7 for devices.
           Still others use 1m instead of 8, or some mix of both.
           About the only section numbers that are reliably con-
           sistent are 1, 2, and 3.

           By default, section 1 will be used unless the file
           ends in .pm in which case section 3 will be selected.

       The standard Pod::Parser method parse_from_filehandle()
       takes up to two arguments, the first being the file handle
       to read POD from and the second being the file handle to
       write the formatted output to.  The first defaults to
       STDIN if not given, and the second defaults to STDOUT.
       The method parse_from_file() is almost identical, except
       that its two arguments are the input and output disk files
       instead.  See Pod::Parser for the specific details.

       roff font should be 1 or 2 chars, not "%s"
           (F) You specified a *roff font (using "fixed", "fixed-
           bold", etc.) that wasn't either one or two characters.
           Pod::Man doesn't support *roff fonts longer than two
           characters, although some *roff extensions do (the
           canonical versions of nroff and troff don't either).

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       Invalid link %s
           (W) The POD source contained a "L<>" formatting code
           that Pod::Man was unable to parse.  You should never
           see this error message; it probably indicates a bug in

       Invalid quote specification "%s"
           (F) The quote specification given (the quotes option
           to the constructor) was invalid.  A quote specifica-
           tion must be one, two, or four characters long.

       %s:%d: Unknown command paragraph "%s".
           (W) The POD source contained a non-standard command
           paragraph (something of the form "=command args") that
           Pod::Man didn't know about.  It was ignored.

       %s:%d: Unknown escape E<%s>
           (W) The POD source contained an "E<>" escape that
           Pod::Man didn't know about.  "E<%s>" was printed ver-
           batim in the output.

       %s:%d: Unknown formatting code %s
           (W) The POD source contained a non-standard formatting
           code (something of the form "X<>") that Pod::Man
           didn't know about.  It was ignored.

       %s:%d: Unmatched =back
           (W) Pod::Man encountered a "=back" command that didn't
           correspond to an "=over" command.

       Eight-bit input data isn't handled at all well at present.
       The correct approach would be to map E<> escapes to the
       appropriate UTF-8 characters and then do a translation
       pass on the output according to the user-specified output
       character set.  Unfortunately, we can't send eight-bit
       data directly to the output unless the user says this is
       okay, since some vendor *roff implementations can't handle
       eight-bit data.  If the *roff implementation can, however,
       that's far superior to the current hacked characters that
       only work under troff.

       There is currently no way to turn off the guesswork that
       tries to format unmarked text appropriately, and sometimes
       it isn't wanted (particularly when using POD to document
       something other than Perl).

       The NAME section should be recognized specially and index
       entries emitted for everything in that section.  This
       would have to be deferred until the next section, since
       extraneous things in NAME tends to confuse various man
       page processors.

       Pod::Man doesn't handle font names longer than two

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       characters.  Neither do most troff implementations, but
       GNU troff does as an extension.  It would be nice to sup-
       port as an option for those who want to use it.

       The preamble added to each output file is rather verbose,
       and most of it is only necessary in the presence of E<>
       escapes for non-ASCII characters.  It would ideally be
       nice if all of those definitions were only output if
       needed, perhaps on the fly as the characters are used.

       Pod::Man is excessively slow.

       The handling of hyphens and em dashes is somewhat fragile,
       and one may get the wrong one under some circumstances.
       This should only matter for troff output.

       When and whether to use small caps is somewhat tricky, and
       Pod::Man doesn't necessarily get it right.

       Pod::Parser, perlpod(1), pod2man(1), nroff(1), troff(1),
       man(1), man(7)

       Ossanna, Joseph F., and Brian W. Kernighan.  "Troff User's
       Manual," Computing Science Technical Report No. 54, AT&T
       Bell Laboratories.  This is the best documentation of
       standard nroff and troff.  At the time of this writing,
       it's available at

       The man page documenting the man macro set may be man(5)
       instead of man(7) on your system.  Also, please see
       pod2man(1) for extensive documentation on writing manual
       pages if you've not done it before and aren't familiar
       with the conventions.

       The current version of this module is always available
       from its web site at <http://www.eyrie.org/~eagle/soft-
       ware/podlators/>.  It is also part of the Perl core dis-
       tribution as of 5.6.0.

       Russ Allbery <rraATstanford.edu>, based very heavily on the
       original pod2man by Tom Christiansen

       Copyright 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 by Russ Allbery

       This program is free software; you may redistribute it
       and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

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