Switch to SpeakEasy.net DSL

The Modular Manual Browser

Home Page
Manual: (OpenBSD-3.6)
Apropos / Subsearch:
optional field

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       I18N::LangTags::List -- tags and names for human languages

         use I18N::LangTags::List;
         print "Parlez-vous... ", join(', ',
             I18N::LangTags::List::name('elx') || 'unknown_language',
             I18N::LangTags::List::name('ar-Kw') || 'unknown_language',
             I18N::LangTags::List::name('en') || 'unknown_language',
             I18N::LangTags::List::name('en-CA') || 'unknown_language',
           ), "?\n";


         Parlez-vous... Elamite, Kuwait Arabic, English, Canadian English?

       This module provides a function "I18N::Lang-
       Tags::List::name( langtag ) " that takes a language tag
       (see I18N::LangTags) and returns the best attempt at an
       English name for it, or undef if it can't make sense of
       the tag.

       The function I18N::LangTags::List::name(...) is not

       This module also provides a function "I18N::Lang-
       Tags::List::is_decent( langtag )" that returns true iff
       the language tag is syntactically valid and is for general
       use (like "fr" or "fr-ca", below).  That is, it returns
       false for tags that are syntactically invalid and for
       tags, like "aus", that are listed in brackets below.  This
       function is not exported.

       The map of tags-to-names that it uses is accessable as
       %I18N::LangTags::List::Name, and it's the same as the list
       that follows in this documentation, which should be useful
       to you even if you don't use this module.

       Internet language tags, as defined in RFC 3066, are a for-
       malism for denoting human languages.  The two-letter ISO
       639-1 language codes are well known (as "en" for English),
       as are their forms when qualified by a country code
       ("en-US").  Less well-known are the arbitrary-length non-
       ISO codes (like "i-mingo"), and the recently (in 2001)
       introduced three-letter ISO-639-2 codes.

       Remember these important facts:

       o   Language tags are not locale IDs.  A locale ID is
           written with a "_" instead of a "-", (almost?) always
           matches "m/^\w\w_\w\w\b/", and means something differ-
           ent than a language tag.  A language tag denotes a

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          1

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

           language.  A locale ID denotes a language as used in a
           particular place, in combination with non-linguistic
           location-specific information such as what currency is
           used there.  Locales also often denote character set
           information, as in "en_US.ISO8859-1".

       o   Language tags are not for computer languages.

       o   "Dialect" is not a useful term, since there is no
           objective criterion for establishing when two lan-
           guage-forms are dialects of eachother, or are separate

       o   Language tags are not case-sensitive.  en-US, en-us,
           En-Us, etc., are all the same tag, and denote the same

       o   Not every language tag really refers to a single lan-
           guage.  Some language tags refer to conditions:
           i-default (system-message text in English plus maybe
           other languages), und (undetermined language).  Others
           (notably lots of the three-letter codes) are biblio-
           graphic tags that classify whole groups of languages,
           as with cus "Cushitic (Other)" (i.e., a language that
           has been classed as Cushtic, but which has no more
           specific code) or the even less linguistically coher-
           ent sai for "South American Indian (Other)".  Though
           useful in bibliography, SUCH TAGS ARE NOT FOR GENERAL
           USE.  For further guidance, email me.

       o   Language tags are not country codes.  In fact, they
           are often distinct codes, as with language tag ja for
           Japanese, and ISO 3166 country code ".jp" for Japan.

       The first part of each item is the language tag, between
       {...}.  It is followed by an English name for the language
       or language-group.  Language tags that I judge to be not
       for general use, are bracketed.

       This list is in alphabetical order by English name of the

       {ab} : Abkhazian
           eq Abkhaz

       {ace} : Achinese
       {ach} : Acoli
       {ada} : Adangme
       {ady} : Adyghe
           eq Adygei

       {aa} : Afar

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          2

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       {afh} : Afrihili

       {af} : Afrikaans
       [{afa} : Afro-Asiatic (Other)]
       {ak} : Akan
           (Formerly "aka".)

       {akk} : Akkadian

       {sq} : Albanian
       {ale} : Aleut
       [{alg} : Algonquian languages]
           NOT Algonquin!

       [{tut} : Altaic (Other)]
       {am} : Amharic
           NOT Aramaic!

       {i-ami} : Ami
           eq Amis.  eq 'Amis.  eq Pangca.

       [{apa} : Apache languages]
       {ar} : Arabic
           Many forms are mutually un-intelligible in spoken
           media.  Notable forms: {ar-ae} UAE Arabic; {ar-bh}
           Bahrain Arabic; {ar-dz} Algerian Arabic; {ar-eg} Egyp-
           tian Arabic; {ar-iq} Iraqi Arabic; {ar-jo} Jordanian
           Arabic; {ar-kw} Kuwait Arabic; {ar-lb} Lebanese Ara-
           bic; {ar-ly} Libyan Arabic; {ar-ma} Moroccan Arabic;
           {ar-om} Omani Arabic; {ar-qa} Qatari Arabic; {ar-sa}
           Sauda Arabic; {ar-sy} Syrian Arabic; {ar-tn} Tunisian
           Arabic; {ar-ye} Yemen Arabic.

       {arc} : Aramaic
           NOT Amharic!  NOT Samaritan Aramaic!

       {arp} : Arapaho
       {arn} : Araucanian
       {arw} : Arawak
       {hy} : Armenian
       {an} : Aragonese
       [{art} : Artificial (Other)]
       {ast} : Asturian
           eq Bable.

       {as} : Assamese
       [{ath} : Athapascan languages]
           eq Athabaskan.  eq Athapaskan.  eq Athabascan.

       [{aus} : Australian languages]
       [{map} : Austronesian (Other)]

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          3

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       {av} : Avaric
           (Formerly "ava".)

       {ae} : Avestan
           eq Zend

       {awa} : Awadhi
       {ay} : Aymara
       {az} : Azerbaijani
           eq Azeri

           Notable forms: {az-Arab} Azerbaijani in Arabic script;
           {az-Cyrl} Azerbaijani in Cyrillic script; {az-Latn}
           Azerbaijani in Latin script.

       {ban} : Balinese
       [{bat} : Baltic (Other)]
       {bal} : Baluchi
       {bm} : Bambara
           (Formerly "bam".)

       [{bai} : Bamileke languages]
       {bad} : Banda
       [{bnt} : Bantu (Other)]
       {bas} : Basa
       {ba} : Bashkir
       {eu} : Basque
       {btk} : Batak (Indonesia)
       {bej} : Beja
       {be} : Belarusian
           eq Belarussian.  eq Byelarussian.  eq Belorussian.  eq
           Byelorussian.  eq White Russian.  eq White Ruthenian.
           NOT Ruthenian!

       {bem} : Bemba
       {bn} : Bengali
           eq Bangla.

       [{ber} : Berber (Other)]
       {bho} : Bhojpuri
       {bh} : Bihari
       {bik} : Bikol
       {bin} : Bini
       {bi} : Bislama
           eq Bichelamar.

       {bs} : Bosnian
       {bra} : Braj
       {br} : Breton
       {bug} : Buginese
       {bg} : Bulgarian
       {i-bnn} : Bunun
       {bua} : Buriat

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          4

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       {my} : Burmese
       {cad} : Caddo
       {car} : Carib
       {ca} : Catalan
           eq Catalan.  eq Catalonian.

       [{cau} : Caucasian (Other)]
       {ceb} : Cebuano
       [{cel} : Celtic (Other)]
           Notable forms: {cel-gaulish} Gaulish (Historical)

       [{cai} : Central American Indian (Other)]
       {chg} : Chagatai

       [{cmc} : Chamic languages]
       {ch} : Chamorro
       {ce} : Chechen
       {chr} : Cherokee
           eq Tsalagi

       {chy} : Cheyenne
       {chb} : Chibcha
           (Historical)  NOT Chibchan (which is a language fam-

       {ny} : Chichewa
           eq Nyanja.  eq Chinyanja.

       {zh} : Chinese
           Many forms are mutually un-intelligible in spoken
           media.  Notable forms: {zh-Hans} Chinese, in simpli-
           fied script; {zh-Hant} Chinese, in traditional script;
           {zh-tw} Taiwan Chinese; {zh-cn} PRC Chinese; {zh-sg}
           Singapore Chinese; {zh-mo} Macau Chinese; {zh-hk} Hong
           Kong Chinese; {zh-guoyu} Mandarin [Putonghua/Guoyu];
           {zh-hakka} Hakka [formerly "i-hakka"]; {zh-min}
           Hokkien; {zh-min-nan} Southern Hokkien; {zh-wuu}
           Shanghaiese; {zh-xiang} Hunanese; {zh-gan} Gan;
           {zh-yue} Cantonese.

       {chn} : Chinook Jargon
           eq Chinook Wawa.

       {chp} : Chipewyan
       {cho} : Choctaw
       {cu} : Church Slavic
           eq Old Church Slavonic.

       {chk} : Chuukese
           eq Trukese.  eq Chuuk.  eq Truk.  eq Ruk.

       {cv} : Chuvash

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          5

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       {cop} : Coptic
       {kw} : Cornish
       {co} : Corsican
           eq Corse.

       {cr} : Cree
           NOT Creek!  (Formerly "cre".)

       {mus} : Creek
           NOT Cree!

       [{cpe} : English-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
       [{cpf} : French-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
       [{cpp} : Portuguese-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
       [{crp} : Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
       {hr} : Croatian
           eq Croat.

       [{cus} : Cushitic (Other)]
       {cs} : Czech
       {dak} : Dakota
           eq Nakota.  eq Latoka.

       {da} : Danish
       {dar} : Dargwa
       {day} : Dayak
       {i-default} : Default (Fallthru) Language
           Defined in RFC 2277, this is for tagging text (which
           must include English text, and might/should include
           text in other appropriate languages) that is emitted
           in a context where language-negotiation wasn't possi-
           ble -- in SMTP mail failure messages, for example.

       {del} : Delaware
       {din} : Dinka
       {dv} : Divehi
           eq Maldivian.  (Formerly "div".)

       {doi} : Dogri
           NOT Dogrib!

       {dgr} : Dogrib
           NOT Dogri!

       [{dra} : Dravidian (Other)]
       {dua} : Duala
       {nl} : Dutch
           eq Netherlander.  Notable forms: {nl-nl} Netherlands
           Dutch; {nl-be} Belgian Dutch.

       {dum} : Middle Dutch (ca.1050-1350)

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          6

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       {dyu} : Dyula
       {dz} : Dzongkha
       {efi} : Efik
       {egy} : Ancient Egyptian

       {eka} : Ekajuk
       {elx} : Elamite

       {en} : English
           Notable forms: {en-au} Australian English; {en-bz}
           Belize English; {en-ca} Canadian English; {en-gb} UK
           English; {en-ie} Irish English; {en-jm} Jamaican
           English; {en-nz} New Zealand English; {en-ph} Philip-
           pine English; {en-tt} Trinidad English; {en-us} US
           English; {en-za} South African English; {en-zw} Zim-
           babwe English.

       {enm} : Old English (1100-1500)

       {ang} : Old English (ca.450-1100)
           eq Anglo-Saxon.  (Historical)

       {i-enochian} : Enochian (Artificial)
       {myv} : Erzya
       {eo} : Esperanto

       {et} : Estonian
       {ee} : Ewe
           (Formerly "ewe".)

       {ewo} : Ewondo
       {fan} : Fang
       {fat} : Fanti
       {fo} : Faroese
       {fj} : Fijian
       {fi} : Finnish
       [{fiu} : Finno-Ugrian (Other)]
           eq Finno-Ugric.  NOT Ugaritic!

       {fon} : Fon
       {fr} : French
           Notable forms: {fr-fr} France French; {fr-be} Belgian
           French; {fr-ca} Canadian French; {fr-ch} Swiss French;
           {fr-lu} Luxembourg French; {fr-mc} Monaco French.

       {frm} : Middle French (ca.1400-1600)

       {fro} : Old French (842-ca.1400)

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          7

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       {fy} : Frisian
       {fur} : Friulian
       {ff} : Fulah
           (Formerly "ful".)

       {gaa} : Ga
       {gd} : Scots Gaelic
           NOT Scots!

       {gl} : Gallegan
           eq Galician

       {lg} : Ganda
           (Formerly "lug".)

       {gay} : Gayo
       {gba} : Gbaya
       {gez} : Geez
           eq Ge'ez

       {ka} : Georgian
       {de} : German
           Notable forms: {de-at} Austrian German; {de-be} Bel-
           gian German; {de-ch} Swiss German; {de-de} Germany
           German; {de-li} Liechtenstein German; {de-lu} Luxem-
           bourg German.

       {gmh} : Middle High German (ca.1050-1500)

       {goh} : Old High German (ca.750-1050)

       [{gem} : Germanic (Other)]
       {gil} : Gilbertese
       {gon} : Gondi
       {gor} : Gorontalo
       {got} : Gothic

       {grb} : Grebo
       {grc} : Ancient Greek
           (Historical)  (Until 15th century or so.)

       {el} : Modern Greek
           (Since 15th century or so.)

       {gn} : Guarani

       {gu} : Gujarati
       {gwi} : Gwich'in
           eq Gwichin

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          8

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       {hai} : Haida
       {ht} : Haitian
           eq Haitian Creole

       {ha} : Hausa
       {haw} : Hawaiian

       {he} : Hebrew
           (Formerly "iw".)

       {hz} : Herero
       {hil} : Hiligaynon
       {him} : Himachali
       {hi} : Hindi
       {ho} : Hiri Motu
       {hit} : Hittite

       {hmn} : Hmong
       {hu} : Hungarian
       {hup} : Hupa
       {iba} : Iban
       {is} : Icelandic
       {io} : Ido

       {ig} : Igbo
           (Formerly "ibo".)

       {ijo} : Ijo
       {ilo} : Iloko
       [{inc} : Indic (Other)]
       [{ine} : Indo-European (Other)]
       {id} : Indonesian
           (Formerly "in".)

       {inh} : Ingush
       {ia} : Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Asso-
           (Artificial)  NOT Interlingue!

       {ie} : Interlingue
           (Artificial)  NOT Interlingua!

       {iu} : Inuktitut
           A subform of "Eskimo".

       {ik} : Inupiaq
           A subform of "Eskimo".

       [{ira} : Iranian (Other)]
       {ga} : Irish

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          9

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       {mga} : Middle Irish (900-1200)

       {sga} : Old Irish (to 900)

       [{iro} : Iroquoian languages]
       {it} : Italian
           Notable forms: {it-it} Italy Italian; {it-ch} Swiss

       {ja} : Japanese
           (NOT "jp"!)

       {jv} : Javanese
           (Formerly "jw" because of a typo.)

       {jrb} : Judeo-Arabic
       {jpr} : Judeo-Persian
       {kbd} : Kabardian
       {kab} : Kabyle
       {kac} : Kachin
       {kl} : Kalaallisut
           eq Greenlandic "Eskimo"

       {xal} : Kalmyk
       {kam} : Kamba
       {kn} : Kannada
           eq Kanarese.  NOT Canadian!

       {kr} : Kanuri
           (Formerly "kau".)

       {krc} : Karachay-Balkar
       {kaa} : Kara-Kalpak
       {kar} : Karen
       {ks} : Kashmiri
       {csb} : Kashubian
           eq Kashub

       {kaw} : Kawi
       {kk} : Kazakh
       {kha} : Khasi
       {km} : Khmer
           eq Cambodian.  eq Kampuchean.

       [{khi} : Khoisan (Other)]
       {kho} : Khotanese
       {ki} : Kikuyu
           eq Gikuyu.

       {kmb} : Kimbundu
       {rw} : Kinyarwanda

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                         10

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       {ky} : Kirghiz
       {i-klingon} : Klingon
       {kv} : Komi
       {kg} : Kongo
           (Formerly "kon".)

       {kok} : Konkani
       {ko} : Korean
       {kos} : Kosraean
       {kpe} : Kpelle
       {kro} : Kru
       {kj} : Kuanyama
       {kum} : Kumyk
       {ku} : Kurdish
       {kru} : Kurukh
       {kut} : Kutenai
       {lad} : Ladino
           eq Judeo-Spanish.  NOT Ladin (a minority language in

       {lah} : Lahnda
           NOT Lamba!

       {lam} : Lamba
           NOT Lahnda!

       {lo} : Lao
           eq Laotian.

       {la} : Latin
           (Historical)  NOT Ladin!  NOT Ladino!

       {lv} : Latvian
           eq Lettish.

       {lb} : Letzeburgesch
           eq Luxemburgian, eq Luxemburger.  (Formerly "i-lux".)

       {lez} : Lezghian
       {li} : Limburgish
           eq Limburger, eq Limburgan.  NOT Letzeburgesch!

       {ln} : Lingala
       {lt} : Lithuanian
       {nds} : Low German
           eq Low Saxon.  eq Low German.  eq Low Saxon.

       {art-lojban} : Lojban (Artificial)
       {loz} : Lozi
       {lu} : Luba-Katanga
           (Formerly "lub".)

       {lua} : Luba-Lulua

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                         11

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       {lui} : Luiseno
           eq Luisen~o.

       {lun} : Lunda
       {luo} : Luo (Kenya and Tanzania)
       {lus} : Lushai
       {mk} : Macedonian
           eq the modern Slavic language spoken in what was
           Yugoslavia.  NOT the form of Greek spoken in Greek

       {mad} : Madurese
       {mag} : Magahi
       {mai} : Maithili
       {mak} : Makasar
       {mg} : Malagasy
       {ms} : Malay
           NOT Malayalam!

       {ml} : Malayalam
           NOT Malay!

       {mt} : Maltese
       {mnc} : Manchu
       {mdr} : Mandar
           NOT Mandarin!

       {man} : Mandingo
       {mni} : Manipuri
           eq Meithei.

       [{mno} : Manobo languages]
       {gv} : Manx
       {mi} : Maori
           NOT Mari!

       {mr} : Marathi
       {chm} : Mari
           NOT Maori!

       {mh} : Marshall
           eq Marshallese.

       {mwr} : Marwari
       {mas} : Masai
       [{myn} : Mayan languages]
       {men} : Mende
       {mic} : Micmac
       {min} : Minangkabau
       {i-mingo} : Mingo
           eq the Irquoian language West Virginia Seneca.  NOT
           New York Seneca!

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                         12

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       [{mis} : Miscellaneous languages]
           Don't use this.

       {moh} : Mohawk
       {mdf} : Moksha
       {mo} : Moldavian
           eq Moldovan.

       [{mkh} : Mon-Khmer (Other)]
       {lol} : Mongo
       {mn} : Mongolian
           eq Mongol.

       {mos} : Mossi
       [{mul} : Multiple languages]
           Not for normal use.

       [{mun} : Munda languages]
       {nah} : Nahuatl
       {nap} : Neapolitan
       {na} : Nauru
       {nv} : Navajo
           eq Navaho.  (Formerly "i-navajo".)

       {nd} : North Ndebele
       {nr} : South Ndebele
       {ng} : Ndonga
       {ne} : Nepali
           eq Nepalese.  Notable forms: {ne-np} Nepal Nepali;
           {ne-in} India Nepali.

       {new} : Newari
       {nia} : Nias
       [{nic} : Niger-Kordofanian (Other)]
       [{ssa} : Nilo-Saharan (Other)]
       {niu} : Niuean
       {nog} : Nogai
       {non} : Old Norse

       [{nai} : North American Indian]
           Do not use this.

       {no} : Norwegian
           Note the two following forms:

       {nb} : Norwegian Bokmal
           eq Bokmaal, (A form of Norwegian.)  (Formerly

       {nn} : Norwegian Nynorsk
           (A form of Norwegian.)  (Formerly "no-nyn".)

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                         13

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       [{nub} : Nubian languages]
       {nym} : Nyamwezi
       {nyn} : Nyankole
       {nyo} : Nyoro
       {nzi} : Nzima
       {oc} : Occitan (post 1500)
           eq Provencal, eq Provencal

       {oj} : Ojibwa
           eq Ojibwe.  (Formerly "oji".)

       {or} : Oriya
       {om} : Oromo
       {osa} : Osage
       {os} : Ossetian; Ossetic
       [{oto} : Otomian languages]
           Group of languages collectively called "Otomi".

       {pal} : Pahlavi
           eq Pahlevi

       {i-pwn} : Paiwan
           eq Pariwan

       {pau} : Palauan
       {pi} : Pali

       {pam} : Pampanga
       {pag} : Pangasinan
       {pa} : Panjabi
           eq Punjabi

       {pap} : Papiamento
           eq Papiamentu.

       [{paa} : Papuan (Other)]
       {fa} : Persian
           eq Farsi.  eq Iranian.

       {peo} : Old Persian (ca.600-400 B.C.)
       [{phi} : Philippine (Other)]
       {phn} : Phoenician

       {pon} : Pohnpeian
           NOT Pompeiian!

       {pl} : Polish
       {pt} : Portuguese
           eq Portugese.  Notable forms: {pt-pt} Portugal Por-
           tuguese; {pt-br} Brazilian Portuguese.

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                         14

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       [{pra} : Prakrit languages]
       {pro} : Old Provencal (to 1500)
           eq Old Provencal.  (Historical.)

       {ps} : Pushto
           eq Pashto.  eq Pushtu.

       {qu} : Quechua
           eq Quecha.

       {rm} : Raeto-Romance
           eq Romansh.

       {raj} : Rajasthani
       {rap} : Rapanui
       {rar} : Rarotongan
       [{qaa - qtz} : Reserved for local use.]
       [{roa} : Romance (Other)]
           NOT Romanian!  NOT Romany!  NOT Romansh!

       {ro} : Romanian
           eq Rumanian.  NOT Romany!

       {rom} : Romany
           eq Rom.  NOT Romanian!

       {rn} : Rundi
       {ru} : Russian
           NOT White Russian!  NOT Rusyn!

       [{sal} : Salishan languages]
           Large language group.

       {sam} : Samaritan Aramaic
           NOT Aramaic!

       {se} : Northern Sami
           eq Lappish.  eq Lapp.  eq (Northern) Saami.

       {sma} : Southern Sami
       {smn} : Inari Sami
       {smj} : Lule Sami
       {sms} : Skolt Sami
       [{smi} : Sami languages (Other)]
       {sm} : Samoan
       {sad} : Sandawe
       {sg} : Sango
       {sa} : Sanskrit

       {sat} : Santali
       {sc} : Sardinian
           eq Sard.

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                         15

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       {sas} : Sasak
       {sco} : Scots
           NOT Scots Gaelic!

       {sel} : Selkup
       [{sem} : Semitic (Other)]
       {sr} : Serbian
           eq Serb.  NOT Sorbian.

           Notable forms: {sr-Cyrl} : Serbian in Cyrillic script;
           {sr-Latn} : Serbian in Latin script.

       {srr} : Serer
       {shn} : Shan
       {sn} : Shona
       {sid} : Sidamo
       {sgn-...} : Sign Languages
           Always use with a subtag.  Notable forms: {sgn-gb}
           British Sign Language (BSL); {sgn-ie} Irish Sign Lan-
           guage (ESL); {sgn-ni} Nicaraguan Sign Language (ISN);
           {sgn-us} American Sign Language (ASL).

           (And so on with other country codes as the subtag.)

       {bla} : Siksika
           eq Blackfoot.  eq Pikanii.

       {sd} : Sindhi
       {si} : Sinhalese
           eq Sinhala.

       [{sit} : Sino-Tibetan (Other)]
       [{sio} : Siouan languages]
       {den} : Slave (Athapascan)
           ("Slavey" is a subform.)

       [{sla} : Slavic (Other)]
       {sk} : Slovak
           eq Slovakian.

       {sl} : Slovenian
           eq Slovene.

       {sog} : Sogdian
       {so} : Somali
       {son} : Songhai
       {snk} : Soninke
       {wen} : Sorbian languages
           eq Wendish.  eq Sorb.  eq Lusatian.  eq Wend.  NOT
           Venda!  NOT Serbian!

       {nso} : Northern Sotho
       {st} : Southern Sotho
           eq Sutu.  eq Sesotho.

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                         16

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       [{sai} : South American Indian (Other)]
       {es} : Spanish
           Notable forms: {es-ar} Argentine Spanish; {es-bo}
           Bolivian Spanish; {es-cl} Chilean Spanish; {es-co}
           Colombian Spanish; {es-do} Dominican Spanish; {es-ec}
           Ecuadorian Spanish; {es-es} Spain Spanish; {es-gt}
           Guatemalan Spanish; {es-hn} Honduran Spanish; {es-mx}
           Mexican Spanish; {es-pa} Panamanian Spanish; {es-pe}
           Peruvian Spanish; {es-pr} Puerto Rican Spanish;
           {es-py} Paraguay Spanish; {es-sv} Salvadoran Spanish;
           {es-us} US Spanish; {es-uy} Uruguayan Spanish; {es-ve}
           Venezuelan Spanish.

       {suk} : Sukuma
       {sux} : Sumerian

       {su} : Sundanese
       {sus} : Susu
       {sw} : Swahili
           eq Kiswahili

       {ss} : Swati
       {sv} : Swedish
           Notable forms: {sv-se} Sweden Swedish; {sv-fi} Finland

       {syr} : Syriac
       {tl} : Tagalog
       {ty} : Tahitian
       [{tai} : Tai (Other)]
           NOT Thai!

       {tg} : Tajik
       {tmh} : Tamashek
       {ta} : Tamil
       {i-tao} : Tao
           eq Yami.

       {tt} : Tatar
       {i-tay} : Tayal
           eq Atayal.  eq Atayan.

       {te} : Telugu
       {ter} : Tereno
       {tet} : Tetum
       {th} : Thai
           NOT Tai!

       {bo} : Tibetan
       {tig} : Tigre
       {ti} : Tigrinya
       {tem} : Timne
           eq Themne.  eq Timene.

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                         17

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       {tiv} : Tiv
       {tli} : Tlingit
       {tpi} : Tok Pisin
       {tkl} : Tokelau
       {tog} : Tonga (Nyasa)
           NOT Tsonga!

       {to} : Tonga (Tonga Islands)
           (Pronounced "Tong-a", not "Tong-ga")

           NOT Tsonga!

       {tsi} : Tsimshian
           eq Sm'algyax

       {ts} : Tsonga
           NOT Tonga!

       {i-tsu} : Tsou
       {tn} : Tswana
           Same as Setswana.

       {tum} : Tumbuka
       [{tup} : Tupi languages]
       {tr} : Turkish
           (Typically in Roman script)

       {ota} : Ottoman Turkish (1500-1928)
           (Typically in Arabic script)  (Historical)

       {crh} : Crimean Turkish
           eq Crimean Tatar

       {tk} : Turkmen
           eq Turkmeni.

       {tvl} : Tuvalu
       {tyv} : Tuvinian
           eq Tuvan.  eq Tuvin.

       {tw} : Twi
       {udm} : Udmurt
       {uga} : Ugaritic
           NOT Ugric!

       {ug} : Uighur
       {uk} : Ukrainian
       {umb} : Umbundu
       {und} : Undetermined
           Not a tag for normal use.

       {ur} : Urdu
       {uz} : Uzbek
           eq Oezbek

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                         18

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

           Notable forms: {uz-Cyrl} Uzbek in Cyrillic script;
           {uz-Latn} Uzbek in Latin script.

       {vai} : Vai
       {ve} : Venda
           NOT Wendish!  NOT Wend!  NOT Avestan!  (Formerly

       {vi} : Vietnamese
           eq Viet.

       {vo} : Volapuk
           eq Volapuek.  (Artificial)

       {vot} : Votic
           eq Votian.  eq Vod.

       [{wak} : Wakashan languages]
       {wa} : Walloon
       {wal} : Walamo
           eq Wolaytta.

       {war} : Waray
           Presumably the Philippine language Waray-Waray
           (Samaren~o), not the smaller Philippine language Waray
           Sorsogon, nor the extinct Australian language Waray.

       {was} : Washo
           eq Washoe

       {cy} : Welsh
       {wo} : Wolof
       {x-...} : Unregistered (Semi-Private Use)
           "x-" is a prefix for language tags that are not regis-
           tered with ISO or IANA.  Example, x-double-dutch

       {xh} : Xhosa
       {sah} : Yakut
       {yao} : Yao
           (The Yao in Malawi?)

       {yap} : Yapese
           eq Yap

       {ii} : Sichuan Yi
       {yi} : Yiddish
           Formerly "ji".  Usually in Hebrew script.

           Notable forms: {yi-latn} Yiddish in Latin script

       {yo} : Yoruba
       [{ypk} : Yupik languages]
           Several "Eskimo" languages.

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                         19

I18N::LangTags::LPerl3Programmers ReferenI18N::LangTags::List(3p)

       {znd} : Zande
       [{zap} : Zapotec]
           (A group of languages.)

       {zen} : Zenaga
           NOT Zend.

       {za} : Zhuang
       {zu} : Zulu
       {zun} : Zuni
           eq Zun~i

       I18N::LangTags and its "See Also" section.

       Copyright (c) 2001,2002,2003 Sean M. Burke. All rights

       You can redistribute and/or modify this document under the
       same terms as Perl itself.

       This document is provided in the hope that it will be use-
       ful, but without any warranty; without even the implied
       warranty of accuracy, authoritativeness, completeness,
       merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose.

       Email any corrections or questions to me.

       Sean M. Burke, sburkeATcpan.org

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                         20