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File::Glob(3p)   Perl Programmers Reference Guide  File::Glob(3p)


NAME
       File::Glob - Perl extension for BSD glob routine

SYNOPSIS
         use File::Glob ':glob';
         @list = bsd_glob('*.[ch]');
         $homedir = bsd_glob('~gnat', GLOB_TILDE | GLOB_ERR);
         if (GLOB_ERROR) {
           # an error occurred reading $homedir
         }

         ## override the core glob (CORE::glob() does this automatically
         ## by default anyway, since v5.6.0)
         use File::Glob ':globally';
         my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>

         ## override the core glob, forcing case sensitivity
         use File::Glob qw(:globally :case);
         my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>

         ## override the core glob forcing case insensitivity
         use File::Glob qw(:globally :nocase);
         my @sources = <*.{c,h,y}>

DESCRIPTION
       File::Glob::bsd_glob() implements the FreeBSD glob(3) rou-
       tine, which is a superset of the POSIX glob() (described
       in IEEE Std 1003.2 "POSIX.2").  bsd_glob() takes a manda-
       tory "pattern" argument, and an optional "flags" argument,
       and returns a list of filenames matching the pattern, with
       interpretation of the pattern modified by the "flags"
       variable.

       Since v5.6.0, Perl's CORE::glob() is implemented in terms
       of bsd_glob().  Note that they don't share the same proto-
       type--CORE::glob() only accepts a single argument.  Due to
       historical reasons, CORE::glob() will also split its argu-
       ment on whitespace, treating it as multiple patterns,
       whereas bsd_glob() considers them as one pattern.

       The POSIX defined flags for bsd_glob() are:

       "GLOB_ERR"
           Force bsd_glob() to return an error when it encounters
           a directory it cannot open or read.  Ordinarily
           bsd_glob() continues to find matches.

       "GLOB_LIMIT"
           Make bsd_glob() return an error (GLOB_NOSPACE) when
           the pattern expands to a size bigger than the system
           constant "ARG_MAX" (usually found in limits.h).  If
           your system does not define this constant, bsd_glob()
           uses "sysconf(_SC_ARG_MAX)" or "_POSIX_ARG_MAX" where
           available (in that order).  You can inspect these



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File::Glob(3p)   Perl Programmers Reference Guide  File::Glob(3p)


           values using the standard "POSIX" extension.

       "GLOB_MARK"
           Each pathname that is a directory that matches the
           pattern has a slash appended.

       "GLOB_NOCASE"
           By default, file names are assumed to be case sensi-
           tive; this flag makes bsd_glob() treat case differ-
           ences as not significant.

       "GLOB_NOCHECK"
           If the pattern does not match any pathname, then
           bsd_glob() returns a list consisting of only the pat-
           tern.  If "GLOB_QUOTE" is set, its effect is present
           in the pattern returned.

       "GLOB_NOSORT"
           By default, the pathnames are sorted in ascending
           ASCII order; this flag prevents that sorting (speeding
           up bsd_glob()).

       The FreeBSD extensions to the POSIX standard are the fol-
       lowing flags:

       "GLOB_BRACE"
           Pre-process the string to expand "{pat,pat,...}"
           strings like csh(1).  The pattern '{}' is left unex-
           panded for historical reasons (and csh(1) does the
           same thing to ease typing of find(1) patterns).

       "GLOB_NOMAGIC"
           Same as "GLOB_NOCHECK" but it only returns the pattern
           if it does not contain any of the special characters
           "*", "?" or "[".  "NOMAGIC" is provided to simplify
           implementing the historic csh(1) globbing behaviour
           and should probably not be used anywhere else.

       "GLOB_QUOTE"
           Use the backslash ('\') character for quoting: every
           occurrence of a backslash followed by a character in
           the pattern is replaced by that character, avoiding
           any special interpretation of the character.  (But see
           below for exceptions on DOSISH systems).

       "GLOB_TILDE"
           Expand patterns that start with '~' to user name home
           directories.

       "GLOB_CSH"
           For convenience, "GLOB_CSH" is a synonym for
           "GLOB_BRACE | GLOB_NOMAGIC | GLOB_QUOTE | GLOB_TILDE |
           GLOB_ALPHASORT".




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File::Glob(3p)   Perl Programmers Reference Guide  File::Glob(3p)


       The POSIX provided "GLOB_APPEND", "GLOB_DOOFFS", and the
       FreeBSD extensions "GLOB_ALTDIRFUNC", and "GLOB_MAGCHAR"
       flags have not been implemented in the Perl version
       because they involve more complex interaction with the
       underlying C structures.

       The following flag has been added in the Perl implementa-
       tion for csh compatibility:

       "GLOB_ALPHASORT"
           If "GLOB_NOSORT" is not in effect, sort filenames is
           alphabetical order (case does not matter) rather than
           in ASCII order.

DIAGNOSTICS
       bsd_glob() returns a list of matching paths, possibly zero
       length.  If an error occurred, &File::Glob::GLOB_ERROR
       will be non-zero and $! will be set.
       &File::Glob::GLOB_ERROR is guaranteed to be zero if no
       error occurred, or one of the following values otherwise:

       "GLOB_NOSPACE"
           An attempt to allocate memory failed.

       "GLOB_ABEND"
           The glob was stopped because an error was encountered.

       In the case where bsd_glob() has found some matching
       paths, but is interrupted by an error, it will return a
       list of filenames and set &File::Glob::ERROR.

       Note that bsd_glob() deviates from POSIX and FreeBSD
       glob(3) behaviour by not considering "ENOENT" and "ENOT-
       DIR" as errors - bsd_glob() will continue processing
       despite those errors, unless the "GLOB_ERR" flag is set.

       Be aware that all filenames returned from File::Glob are
       tainted.

NOTES
       o   If you want to use multiple patterns, e.g. "bsd_glob
           "a* b*"", you should probably throw them in a set as
           in "bsd_glob "{a*,b*}"".  This is because the argument
           to bsd_glob() isn't subjected to parsing by the C
           shell.  Remember that you can use a backslash to
           escape things.

       o   On DOSISH systems, backslash is a valid directory sep-
           arator character.  In this case, use of backslash as a
           quoting character (via GLOB_QUOTE) interferes with the
           use of backslash as a directory separator. The best
           (simplest, most portable) solution is to use forward
           slashes for directory separators, and backslashes for
           quoting. However, this does not match "normal



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           practice" on these systems. As a concession to user
           expectation, therefore, backslashes (under GLOB_QUOTE)
           only quote the glob metacharacters '[', ']', '{', '}',
           '-', '~', and backslash itself.  All other backslashes
           are passed through unchanged.

       o   Win32 users should use the real slash.  If you really
           want to use backslashes, consider using Sarathy's
           File::DosGlob, which comes with the standard Perl dis-
           tribution.

       o   Mac OS (Classic) users should note a few differences.
           Since Mac OS is not Unix, when the glob code encoun-
           ters a tilde glob (e.g.  ~user) and the "GLOB_TILDE"
           flag is used, it simply returns that pattern without
           doing any expansion.

           Glob on Mac OS is case-insensitive by default (if you
           don't use any flags). If you specify any flags at all
           and still want glob to be case-insensitive, you must
           include "GLOB_NOCASE" in the flags.

           The path separator is ':' (aka colon), not '/' (aka
           slash). Mac OS users should be careful about specify-
           ing relative pathnames. While a full path always
           begins with a volume name, a relative pathname should
           always begin with a ':'.  If specifying a volume name
           only, a trailing ':' is required.

           The specification of pathnames in glob patterns
           adheres to the usual Mac OS conventions: The path sep-
           arator is a colon ':', not a slash '/'. A full path
           always begins with a volume name. A relative pathname
           on Mac OS must always begin with a ':', except when
           specifying a file or directory name in the current
           working directory, where the leading colon is
           optional. If specifying a volume name only, a trailing
           ':' is required. Due to these rules, a glob like <*:>
           will find all mounted volumes, while a glob like <*>
           or <:*> will find all files and directories in the
           current directory.

           Note that updirs in the glob pattern are resolved
           before the matching begins, i.e. a pattern like
           "*HD:t?p::a*" will be matched as "*HD:a*". Note also,
           that a single trailing ':' in the pattern is ignored
           (unless it's a volume name pattern like "*HD:"), i.e.
           a glob like <:*:> will find both directories and files
           (and not, as one might expect, only directories).  You
           can, however, use the "GLOB_MARK" flag to distinguish
           (without a file test) directory names from file names.

           If the "GLOB_MARK" flag is set, all directory paths
           will have a ':' appended.  Since a directory like



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File::Glob(3p)   Perl Programmers Reference Guide  File::Glob(3p)


           'lib:' is not a valid relative path on Mac OS, both a
           leading and a trailing colon will be added, when the
           directory name in question doesn't contain any colons
           (e.g. 'lib' becomes ':lib:').

AUTHOR
       The Perl interface was written by Nathan Torkington
       <gnatATfrii.com>, and is released under the artistic
       license.  Further modifications were made by Greg Bacon
       <gbaconATcs.edu>, Gurusamy Sarathy <gsar@actives-
       tate.com>, and Thomas Wegner <wegner_thomasATyahoo.com>.
       The C glob code has the following copyright:

           Copyright (c) 1989, 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
           All rights reserved.

           This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
           Guido van Rossum.

           Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
           modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
           are met:

           1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
              notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
           2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
              notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
              documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
           3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
              may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
              without specific prior written permission.

           THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
           ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
           IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
           ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
           FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
           DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
           OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
           HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
           LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
           OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
           SUCH DAMAGE.














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