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ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker - Create a module Makefile

         use ExtUtils::MakeMaker;

         WriteMakefile( ATTRIBUTE => VALUE [, ...] );

       This utility is designed to write a Makefile for an exten-
       sion module from a Makefile.PL. It is based on the Make-
       file.SH model provided by Andy Dougherty and the

       It splits the task of generating the Makefile into several
       subroutines that can be individually overridden.  Each
       subroutine returns the text it wishes to have written to
       the Makefile.

       MakeMaker is object oriented. Each directory below the
       current directory that contains a Makefile.PL is treated
       as a separate object. This makes it possible to write an
       unlimited number of Makefiles with a single invocation of

       How To Write A Makefile.PL

       See ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Tutorial.

       The long answer is the rest of the manpage :-)

       Default Makefile Behaviour

       The generated Makefile enables the user of the extension
       to invoke

         perl Makefile.PL # optionally "perl Makefile.PL verbose"
         make test        # optionally set TEST_VERBOSE=1
         make install     # See below

       The Makefile to be produced may be altered by adding argu-
       ments of the form "KEY=VALUE". E.g.

         perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/tmp/myperl5

       Other interesting targets in the generated Makefile are

         make config     # to check if the Makefile is up-to-date
         make clean      # delete local temp files (Makefile gets renamed)
         make realclean  # delete derived files (including ./blib)
         make ci         # check in all the files in the MANIFEST file
         make dist       # see below the Distribution Support section

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          1

ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)

       make test

       MakeMaker checks for the existence of a file named test.pl
       in the current directory and if it exists it execute the
       script with the proper set of perl "-I" options.

       MakeMaker also checks for any files matching
       glob("t/*.t"). It will execute all matching files in
       alphabetical order via the Test::Harness module with the
       "-I" switches set correctly.

       If you'd like to see the raw output of your tests, set the
       "TEST_VERBOSE" variable to true.

         make test TEST_VERBOSE=1

       make testdb

       A useful variation of the above is the target "testdb". It
       runs the test under the Perl debugger (see perldebug). If
       the file test.pl exists in the current directory, it is
       used for the test.

       If you want to debug some other testfile, set the
       "TEST_FILE" variable thusly:

         make testdb TEST_FILE=t/mytest.t

       By default the debugger is called using "-d" option to
       perl. If you want to specify some other option, set the
       "TESTDB_SW" variable:

         make testdb TESTDB_SW=-Dx

       make install

       make alone puts all relevant files into directories that
       are named by the macros INST_LIB, INST_ARCHLIB,
       default to something below ./blib if you are not building
       below the perl source directory. If you are building below
       the perl source, INST_LIB and INST_ARCHLIB default to
       ../../lib, and INST_SCRIPT is not defined.

       The install target of the generated Makefile copies the
       files found below each of the INST_* directories to their
       INSTALL* counterparts. Which counterparts are chosen
       depends on the setting of INSTALLDIRS according to the
       following table:

                                        INSTALLDIRS set to
                                  perl        site          vendor

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          2

ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)

                        PERLPREFIX      SITEPREFIX          VENDORPREFIX

       The INSTALL... macros in turn default to their %Config
       ($Config{installprivlib}, $Config{installarchlib}, etc.)

       You can check the values of these variables on your system

           perl '-V:install.*'

       And to check the sequence in which the library directories
       are searched by perl, run

           perl -le 'print join $/, @INC'

       PREFIX and LIB attribute

       PREFIX and LIB can be used to set several INSTALL*
       attributes in one go. The quickest way to install a module
       in a non-standard place might be

           perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=~

       This will install all files in the module under your home
       directory, with man pages and libraries going into an
       appropriate place (usually ~/man and ~/lib).

       Another way to specify many INSTALL directories with a
       single parameter is LIB.

           perl Makefile.PL LIB=~/lib

       This will install the module's architecture-independent
       files into ~/lib, the architecture-dependent files into

       Note, that in both cases the tilde expansion is done by
       MakeMaker, not by perl by default, nor by make.

       Conflicts between parameters LIB, PREFIX and the various
       INSTALL* arguments are resolved so that:

       o   setting LIB overrides any setting of INSTALLPRIVLIB,
           they are not affected by PREFIX);

       o   without LIB, setting PREFIX replaces the initial

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          3

ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)

           $Config{prefix} part of those INSTALL* arguments, even
           if the latter are explicitly set (but are set to still
           start with $Config{prefix}).

       If the user has superuser privileges, and is not working
       on AFS or relatives, then the defaults for INSTALLPRIVLIB,
       INSTALLARCHLIB, INSTALLSCRIPT, etc. will be appropriate,
       and this incantation will be the best:

           perl Makefile.PL;
           make test
           make install

       make install per default writes some documentation of what
       has been done into the file "$(INSTALLARCHLIB)/perllo-
       cal.pod". This feature can be bypassed by calling make

       AFS users

       will have to specify the installation directories as these
       most probably have changed since perl itself has been
       installed. They will have to do this by calling

           perl Makefile.PL INSTALLSITELIB=/afs/here/today \
               INSTALLSCRIPT=/afs/there/now INSTALLMAN3DIR=/afs/for/manpages

       Be careful to repeat this procedure every time you recom-
       pile an extension, unless you are sure the AFS installa-
       tion directories are still valid.

       Static Linking of a new Perl Binary

       An extension that is built with the above steps is ready
       to use on systems supporting dynamic loading. On systems
       that do not support dynamic loading, any newly created
       extension has to be linked together with the available
       resources. MakeMaker supports the linking process by cre-
       ating appropriate targets in the Makefile whenever an
       extension is built. You can invoke the corresponding sec-
       tion of the makefile with

           make perl

       That produces a new perl binary in the current directory
       with all extensions linked in that can be found in
       MakeMaker writes a new Makefile, on UNIX, this is called
       Makefile.aperl (may be system dependent). If you want to
       force the creation of a new perl, it is recommended, that
       you delete this Makefile.aperl, so the directories are
       searched-through for linkable libraries again.

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          4

ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)

       The binary can be installed into the directory where perl
       normally resides on your machine with

           make inst_perl

       To produce a perl binary with a different name than
       "perl", either say

           perl Makefile.PL MAP_TARGET=myperl
           make myperl
           make inst_perl

       or say

           perl Makefile.PL
           make myperl MAP_TARGET=myperl
           make inst_perl MAP_TARGET=myperl

       In any case you will be prompted with the correct invoca-
       tion of the "inst_perl" target that installs the new
       binary into INSTALLBIN.

       make inst_perl per default writes some documentation of
       what has been done into the file "$(INSTALLARCHLIB)/perl-
       local.pod". This can be bypassed by calling make

       Warning: the inst_perl: target will most probably over-
       write your existing perl binary. Use with care!

       Sometimes you might want to build a statically linked perl
       although your system supports dynamic loading. In this
       case you may explicitly set the linktype with the invoca-
       tion of the Makefile.PL or make:

           perl Makefile.PL LINKTYPE=static    # recommended


           make LINKTYPE=static                # works on most systems

       Determination of Perl Library and Installation Locations

       MakeMaker needs to know, or to guess, where certain things
       are located.  Especially INST_LIB and INST_ARCHLIB (where
       to put the files during the make(1) run), PERL_LIB and
       PERL_ARCHLIB (where to read existing modules from), and
       PERL_INC (header files and "libperl*.*").

       Extensions may be built either using the contents of the
       perl source directory tree or from the installed perl
       library. The recommended way is to build extensions after
       you have run 'make install' on perl itself. You can do
       that in any directory on your hard disk that is not below

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          5

ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)

       the perl source tree. The support for extensions below the
       ext directory of the perl distribution is only good for
       the standard extensions that come with perl.

       If an extension is being built below the "ext/" directory
       of the perl source then MakeMaker will set PERL_SRC auto-
       matically (e.g., "../..").  If PERL_SRC is defined and the
       extension is recognized as a standard extension, then
       other variables default to the following:

         PERL_INC     = PERL_SRC
         PERL_LIB     = PERL_SRC/lib
         PERL_ARCHLIB = PERL_SRC/lib
         INST_LIB     = PERL_LIB

       If an extension is being built away from the perl source
       then MakeMaker will leave PERL_SRC undefined and default
       to using the installed copy of the perl library. The other
       variables default to the following:

         PERL_INC     = $archlibexp/CORE
         PERL_LIB     = $privlibexp
         PERL_ARCHLIB = $archlibexp
         INST_LIB     = ./blib/lib
         INST_ARCHLIB = ./blib/arch

       If perl has not yet been installed then PERL_SRC can be
       defined on the command line as shown in the previous sec-

       Which architecture dependent directory?

       If you don't want to keep the defaults for the INSTALL*
       macros, MakeMaker helps you to minimize the typing needed:
       the usual relationship between INSTALLPRIVLIB and INSTAL-
       LARCHLIB is determined by Configure at perl compilation
       time. MakeMaker supports the user who sets INSTALLPRIVLIB.
       If INSTALLPRIVLIB is set, but INSTALLARCHLIB not, then
       MakeMaker defaults the latter to be the same subdirectory
       of INSTALLPRIVLIB as Configure decided for the counter-
       parts in %Config , otherwise it defaults to INSTALL-
       PRIVLIB. The same relationship holds for INSTALLSITELIB

       MakeMaker gives you much more freedom than needed to con-
       figure internal variables and get different results. It is
       worth to mention, that make(1) also lets you configure
       most of the variables that are used in the Makefile. But
       in the majority of situations this will not be necessary,
       and should only be done if the author of a package recom-
       mends it (or you know what you're doing).

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          6

ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)

       Using Attributes and Parameters

       The following attributes may be specified as arguments to
       WriteMakefile() or as NAME=VALUE pairs on the command

         One line description of the module. Will be included in
         PPD file.

         Name of the file that contains the package description.
         MakeMaker looks for a line in the POD matching /^($pack-
         age\s-\s)(.*)/. This is typically the first line in the
         "=head1 NAME" section. $2 becomes the abstract.

         String containing name (and email address) of package
         author(s). Is used in PPD (Perl Package Description)
         files for PPM (Perl Package Manager).

         Used when creating PPD files for binary packages.  It
         can be set to a full or relative path or URL to the
         binary archive for a particular architecture.  For exam-

                 perl Makefile.PL BINARY_LOCATION=x86/Agent.tar.gz

         builds a PPD package that references a binary of the
         "Agent" package, located in the "x86" directory relative
         to the PPD itself.

       C Ref to array of *.c file names. Initialised from a
         directory scan and the values portion of the XS
         attribute hash. This is not currently used by MakeMaker
         but may be handy in Makefile.PLs.

         String that will be included in the compiler call com-
         mand line between the arguments INC and OPTIMIZE.

         Arrayref. E.g. [qw(archname manext)] defines ARCHNAME &
         MANEXT from config.sh. MakeMaker will add to CONFIG the
         following values anyway: ar cc cccdlflags ccdlflags
         dlext dlsrc ld lddlflags ldflags libc lib_ext obj_ext
         ranlib sitelibexp sitearchexp so

         CODE reference. The subroutine should return a hash ref-
         erence. The hash may contain further attributes, e.g.
         {LIBS => ...}, that have to be determined by some evalu-
         ation method.

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          7

ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)

         Something like "-DHAVE_UNISTD_H"

         This is the root directory into which the code will be
         installed.  It prepends itself to the normal prefix.
         For example, if your code would normally go into
         /usr/local/lib/perl you could set DESTDIR=/tmp/ and
         installation would go into /tmp/usr/local/lib/perl.

         This is primarily of use for people who repackage Perl

         NOTE: Due to the nature of make, it is important that
         you put the trailing slash on your DESTDIR.  "/tmp/" not

         Ref to array of subdirectories containing Makefile.PLs
         e.g. [ 'sdbm' ] in ext/SDBM_File

         A safe filename for the package.

         Defaults to NAME above but with :: replaced with -.

         For example, Foo::Bar becomes Foo-Bar.

         Your name for distributing the package with the version
         number included.  This is used by 'make dist' to name
         the resulting archive file.

         Defaults to DISTNAME-VERSION.

         For example, version 1.04 of Foo::Bar becomes

         On some OS's where . has special meaning VERSION_SYM may
         be used in place of VERSION.

         Hashref of symbol names for routines to be made avail-
         able as universal symbols.  Each key/value pair consists
         of the package name and an array of routine names in
         that package.  Used only under AIX, OS/2, VMS and Win32
         at present.  The routine names supplied will be expanded
         in the same way as XSUB names are expanded by the XS()
         macro.  Defaults to

           {"$(NAME)" => ["boot_$(NAME)" ] }


perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          8

ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)

           {"RPC" => [qw( boot_rpcb rpcb_gettime getnetconfigent )],
            "NetconfigPtr" => [ 'DESTROY'] }

         Please see the ExtUtils::Mksymlists documentation for
         more information about the DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS and FUN-
         CLIST attributes.

         Array of symbol names for variables to be made available
         as universal symbols.  Used only under AIX, OS/2, VMS
         and Win32 at present.  Defaults to [].  (e.g. [
         qw(Foo_version Foo_numstreams Foo_tree ) ])

         Array of extension names to exclude when doing a static
         build.  This is ignored if INCLUDE_EXT is present.  Con-
         sult INCLUDE_EXT for more details.  (e.g.  [ qw( Socket
         POSIX ) ] )

         This attribute may be most useful when specified as a
         string on the command line:  perl Makefile.PL
         EXCLUDE_EXT='Socket Safe'

         Ref to array of executable files. The files will be
         copied to the INST_SCRIPT directory. Make realclean will
         delete them from there again.

         If your executables start with something like #!perl or
         #!/usr/bin/perl MakeMaker will change this to the path
         of the perl 'Makefile.PL' was invoked with so the pro-
         grams will be sure to run properly even if perl is not
         in /usr/bin/perl.

         The name of the Makefile to be produced.  This is used
         for the second Makefile that will be produced for the

         Defaults to 'Makefile' or 'Descrip.MMS' on VMS.

         (Note: we couldn't use MAKEFILE because dmake uses this
         for something else).

         Perl binary able to run this extension, load XS modules,

         Like PERLRUN, except it uses FULLPERL.

         Like PERLRUNINST, except it uses FULLPERL.

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                          9

ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)

         This provides an alternate means to specify function
         names to be exported from the extension.  Its value is a
         reference to an array of function names to be exported
         by the extension.  These names are passed through unal-
         tered to the linker options file.

       H Ref to array of *.h file names. Similar to C.

         This attribute is used to specify names to be imported
         into the extension. Takes a hash ref.

         It is only used on OS/2 and Win32.

         Include file dirs eg: "-I/usr/5include -I/path/to/inc"

         Array of extension names to be included when doing a
         static build.  MakeMaker will normally build with all of
         the installed extensions when doing a static build, and
         that is usually the desired behavior.  If INCLUDE_EXT is
         present then MakeMaker will build only with those exten-
         sions which are explicitly mentioned. (e.g.  [ qw(
         Socket POSIX ) ])

         It is not necessary to mention DynaLoader or the current
         extension when filling in INCLUDE_EXT.  If the
         INCLUDE_EXT is mentioned but is empty then only
         DynaLoader and the current extension will be included in
         the build.

         This attribute may be most useful when specified as a
         string on the command line:  perl Makefile.PL
         INCLUDE_EXT='POSIX Socket Devel::Peek'

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from
         INST_ARCHLIB to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to

         Directory to install binary files (e.g. tkperl) into if

         Determines which of the sets of installation directories
         to choose: perl, site or vendor.  Defaults to site.

         These directories get the man pages at 'make install'
         time if INSTALLDIRS=perl.  Defaults to

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                         10

ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)


         If set to 'none', no man pages will be installed.

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB
         to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to perl.

         Defaults to $Config{installprivlib}.

         Used by 'make install' which copies files from
         INST_SCRIPT to this directory.

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from
         INST_ARCHLIB to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to
         site (default).

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_BIN
         to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to site

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB
         to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to site

         These directories get the man pages at 'make install'
         time if INSTALLDIRS=site (default).  Defaults to

         If set to 'none', no man pages will be installed.

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from
         INST_ARCHLIB to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_BIN
         to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to vendor.

         Used by 'make install', which copies files from INST_LIB
         to this directory if INSTALLDIRS is set to vendor.

         These directories get the man pages at 'make install'
         time if INSTALLDIRS=vendor.  Defaults to

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                         11

ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)


         If set to 'none', no man pages will be installed.

         Same as INST_LIB for architecture dependent files.

         Directory to put real binary files during 'make'. These
         will be copied to INSTALLBIN during 'make install'

         Directory where we put library files of this extension
         while building it.

         Directory to hold the man pages at 'make' time

         Directory to hold the man pages at 'make' time

         Directory, where executable files should be installed
         during 'make'. Defaults to "./blib/script", just to have
         a dummy location during testing. make install will copy
         the files in INST_SCRIPT to INSTALLSCRIPT.

         Program to be used to link libraries for dynamic load-

         Defaults to $Config{ld}.

         Any special flags that might need to be passed to ld to
         create a shared library suitable for dynamic loading.
         It is up to the makefile to use it.  (See "lddlflags" in

         Defaults to $Config{lddlflags}.

         Defaults to "$(OBJECT)" and is used in the ld command to
         specify what files to link/load from (also see
         dynamic_lib below for how to specify ld flags)

         LIB should only be set at "perl Makefile.PL" time but is
         allowed as a MakeMaker argument. It has the effect of
         setting both INSTALLPRIVLIB and INSTALLSITELIB to that
         value regardless any explicit setting of those arguments
         set to the corresponding architecture subdirectory.

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ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)

         The filename of the perllibrary that will be used
         together with this extension. Defaults to libperl.a.

         An anonymous array of alternative library specifications
         to be searched for (in order) until at least one library
         is found. E.g.

           'LIBS' => ["-lgdbm", "-ldbm -lfoo", "-L/path -ldbm.nfs"]

         Mind, that any element of the array contains a complete
         set of arguments for the ld command. So do not specify

           'LIBS' => ["-ltcl", "-ltk", "-lX11"]

         See ODBM_File/Makefile.PL for an example, where an array
         is needed. If you specify a scalar as in

           'LIBS' => "-ltcl -ltk -lX11"

         MakeMaker will turn it into an array with one element.

         'static' or 'dynamic' (default unless usedl=undef in
         config.sh). Should only be used to force static linking
         (also see linkext below).

         Boolean which tells MakeMaker, that it should include
         the rules to make a perl. This is handled automatically
         as a switch by MakeMaker. The user normally does not
         need it.

         When 'make clean' or similar is run, the $(FIRST_MAKE-
         FILE) will be backed up at this location.

         Defaults to $(FIRST_MAKEFILE).old or $(FIRST_MAKE-
         FILE)_old on VMS.

         Hashref of pod-containing files. MakeMaker will default
         this to all EXE_FILES files that include POD directives.
         The files listed here will be converted to man pages and
         installed as was requested at Configure time.

         Hashref that assigns to *.pm and *.pod files the files
         into which the manpages are to be written. MakeMaker
         parses all *.pod and *.pm files for POD directives.
         Files that contain POD will be the default keys of the
         MAN3PODS hashref. These will then be converted to man
         pages during "make" and will be installed during "make

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                         13

ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)


         If it is intended, that a new perl binary be produced,
         this variable may hold a name for that binary. Defaults
         to perl

         If the extension links to a library that it builds set
         this to the name of the library (see SDBM_File)

         Perl module name for this extension (DBD::Oracle). This
         will default to the directory name but should be explic-
         itly defined in the Makefile.PL.

         MakeMaker will figure out if an extension contains link-
         able code anywhere down the directory tree, and will set
         this variable accordingly, but you can speed it up a
         very little bit if you define this boolean variable

         Command so make does not print the literal commands its

         By setting it to an empty string you can generate a
         Makefile that prints all commands. Mainly used in debug-
         ging MakeMaker itself.

         Defaults to "@".

         Boolean.  Attribute to inhibit descending into subdirec-

         When true, suppresses the generation and addition to the
         MANIFEST of the META.yml module meta-data file during
         'make distdir'.

         Defaults to false.

         In general, any generated Makefile checks for the cur-
         rent version of MakeMaker and the version the Makefile
         was built under. If NO_VC is set, the version check is
         neglected. Do not write this into your Makefile.PL, use
         it interactively instead.

         List of object files, defaults to '$(BASE-
         EXT)$(OBJ_EXT)', but can be a long string containing all

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ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)

         object files, e.g. "tkpBind.o tkpButton.o tkpCanvas.o"

         (Where BASEEXT is the last component of NAME, and
         OBJ_EXT is $Config{obj_ext}.)

         Defaults to "-O". Set it to "-g" to turn debugging on.
         The flag is passed to subdirectory makes.

         Perl binary for tasks that can be done by miniperl

         Set only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of
         the Perl core distribution.

         The call to the program that is able to compile perl-
         main.c. Defaults to $(CC).

         Same as for PERL_LIB, but for architecture dependent

         Used only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of
         the Perl core distribution (because normally
         $(PERL_ARCHLIB) is automatically in @INC, and adding it
         would get in the way of PERL5LIB).

         Directory containing the Perl library to use.

         Used only when MakeMaker is building the extensions of
         the Perl core distribution (because normally $(PERL_LIB)
         is automatically in @INC, and adding it would get in the
         way of PERL5LIB).

         defaults to 0.  Should be set to TRUE if the extension
         can work with the memory allocation routines substituted
         by the Perl malloc() subsystem.  This should be applica-
         ble to most extensions with exceptions of those

         *   with bugs in memory allocations which are caught by
             Perl's malloc();

         *   which interact with the memory allocator in other
             ways than via malloc(), realloc(), free(), calloc(),
             sbrk() and brk();

         *   which rely on special alignment which is not pro-
             vided by Perl's malloc().

         NOTE.  Negligence to set this flag in any one of loaded

perl v5.8.5                 2002-11-06                         15

ExtUtils::MakeMakPerlpProgrammers ReferencExtUtils::MakeMaker(3p)

         extension nullifies many advantages of Perl's malloc(),
         such as better usage of system resources, error detec-
         tion, memory usage reporting, catchable failure of mem-
         ory allocations, etc.

         Directory under which core modules are to be installed.

         Defaults to $Config{installprefixexp} falling back to
         $Config{installprefix}, $Config{prefixexp} or $Con-
         fig{prefix} should $Config{installprefixexp} not exist.

         Overridden by PREFIX.

         Use this instead of $(PERL) when you wish to run perl.
         It will set up extra necessary flags for you.

         Use this instead of $(PERL) when you wish to run perl to
         work with modules.  It will add things like
         -I$(INST_ARCH) and other necessary flags so perl can see
         the modules you're about to install.

         Directory containing the Perl source code (use of this
         should be avoided, it may be undefined)

         Desired permission for read/writable files. Defaults to
         644.  See also "perm_rw" in MM_Unix.

         Desired permission for executable files. Defaults to
         755.  See also "perm_rwx" in MM_Unix.

         Ref to hash of files to be processed as perl programs.
         MakeMaker will default to any found *.PL file (except
         Makefile.PL) being keys and the basename of the file
         being the value. E.g.

           {'foobar.PL' => 'foobar'}

         The *.PL files are expected to produce output to the
         target files themselves. If multiple files can be gener-
         ated from the same *.PL file then the value in the hash
         can be a reference to an array of target file names.

           {'foobar.PL' => ['foobar1','foobar2']}

         Hashref of .pm files and *.pl files to be installed.

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           {'name_of_file.pm' => '$(INST_LIBDIR)/install_as.pm'}

         By default this will include *.pm and *.pl and the files
         found in the PMLIBDIRS directories.  Defining PM in the
         Makefile.PL will override PMLIBDIRS.

         Ref to array of subdirectories containing library files.
         Defaults to [ 'lib', $(BASEEXT) ]. The directories will
         be scanned and any files they contain will be installed
         in the corresponding location in the library.  A lib-
         scan() method can be used to alter the behaviour.
         Defining PM in the Makefile.PL will override PMLIBDIRS.

         (Where BASEEXT is the last component of NAME.)

         A filter program, in the traditional Unix sense (input
         from stdin, output to stdout) that is passed on each .pm
         file during the build (in the pm_to_blib() phase).  It
         is empty by default, meaning no filtering is done.

         Great care is necessary when defining the command if
         quoting needs to be done.  For instance, you would need
         to say:

           {'PM_FILTER' => 'grep -v \\"^\\#\\"'}

         to remove all the leading coments on the fly during the
         build.  The extra \\ are necessary, unfortunately,
         because this variable is interpolated within the context
         of a Perl program built on the command line, and double
         quotes are what is used with the -e switch to build that
         command line.  The # is escaped for the Makefile, since
         what is going to be generated will then be:

           PM_FILTER = grep -v \"^\#\"

         Without the \\ before the #, we'd have the start of a
         Makefile comment, and the macro would be incorrectly

         Release 5.005 grandfathered old global symbol names by
         providing preprocessor macros for extension source com-
         patibility.  As of release 5.6, these preprocessor defi-
         nitions are not available by default.  The POLLUTE flag
         specifies that the old names should still be defined:

           perl Makefile.PL POLLUTE=1

         Please inform the module author if this is necessary to

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         successfully install a module under 5.6 or later.

         Name of the executable used to run "PPM_INSTALL_SCRIPT"
         below. (e.g. perl)

         Name of the script that gets executed by the Perl Pack-
         age Manager after the installation of a package.

         This overrides all the default install locations.  Man
         pages, libraries, scripts, etc...  MakeMaker will try to
         make an educated guess about where to place things under
         the new PREFIX based on your Config defaults.  Failing
         that, it will fall back to a structure which should be
         sensible for your platform.

         If you specify LIB or any INSTALL* variables they will
         not be effected by the PREFIX.

         Bool. If this parameter is true, failing to have the
         required modules (or the right versions thereof) will be
         fatal. perl Makefile.PL will die with the proper mes-

         Note: see Test::Harness for a shortcut for stopping
         tests early if you are missing dependencies.

         Do not use this parameter for simple requirements, which
         could be resolved at a later time, e.g. after an unsuc-
         cessful make test of your module.

         It is extremely rare to have to use "PREREQ_FATAL" at

         Hashref: Names of modules that need to be available to
         run this extension (e.g. Fcntl for SDBM_File) are the
         keys of the hash and the desired version is the value.
         If the required version number is 0, we only check if
         any version is installed already.

         Bool.  If this parameter is true, the prerequisites will
         be printed to stdout and MakeMaker will exit.  The out-
         put format is an evalable hash ref.

         $PREREQ_PM = {
                        'A::B' => Vers1,
                        'C::D' => Vers2,

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         RedHatism for "PREREQ_PRINT".  The output format is dif-
         ferent, though:

             perl(A::B)>=Vers1 perl(C::D)>=Vers2 ...

         Like PERLPREFIX, but only for the site install loca-

         Defaults to $Config{siteprefixexp}.  Perls prior to
         5.6.0 didn't have an explicit siteprefix in the Config.
         In those cases $Config{installprefix} will be used.

         Overridable by PREFIX

         Arrayref. E.g. [qw(name1 name2)] skip (do not write)
         sections of the Makefile. Caution! Do not use the SKIP
         attribute for the negligible speedup. It may seriously
         damage the resulting Makefile. Only use it if you really
         need it.

         Ref to array of typemap file names.  Use this when the
         typemaps are in some directory other than the current
         directory or when they are not named typemap.  The last
         typemap in the list takes precedence.  A typemap in the
         current directory has highest precedence, even if it
         isn't listed in TYPEMAPS.  The default system typemap
         has lowest precedence.

         Like PERLPREFIX, but only for the vendor install loca-

         Defaults to $Config{vendorprefixexp}.

         Overridable by PREFIX

         If true, make install will be verbose

         Your version number for distributing the package.  This
         defaults to 0.1.

         Instead of specifying the VERSION in the Makefile.PL you
         can let MakeMaker parse a file to determine the version
         number. The parsing routine requires that the file named
         by VERSION_FROM contains one single line to compute the
         version number. The first line in the file that contains
         the regular expression

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         will be evaluated with eval() and the value of the named
         variable after the eval() will be assigned to the VER-
         SION attribute of the MakeMaker object. The following
         lines will be parsed o.k.:

             $VERSION = '1.00';
             *VERSION = \'1.01';
             $VERSION = sprintf "%d.%03d", q$Revision: 1.7 $ =~ /(\d+)/g;
             $FOO::VERSION = '1.10';
             *FOO::VERSION = \'1.11';
             our $VERSION = 1.2.3;       # new for perl5.6.0

         but these will fail:

             my $VERSION = '1.01';
             local $VERSION = '1.02';
             local $FOO::VERSION = '1.30';

         (Putting "my" or "local" on the preceding line will work

         The file named in VERSION_FROM is not added as a depen-
         dency to Makefile. This is not really correct, but it
         would be a major pain during development to have to
         rewrite the Makefile for any smallish change in that
         file. If you want to make sure that the Makefile con-
         tains the correct VERSION macro after any change of the
         file, you would have to do something like

             depend => { Makefile => '$(VERSION_FROM)' }

         See attribute "depend" below.

         A sanitized VERSION with . replaced by _.  For places
         where . has special meaning (some filesystems, RCS
         labels, etc...)

         Hashref of .xs files. MakeMaker will default this.  e.g.

           {'name_of_file.xs' => 'name_of_file.c'}

         The .c files will automatically be included in the list
         of files deleted by a make clean.

         String of options to pass to xsubpp.  This might include
         "-C++" or "-extern".  Do not include typemaps here; the
         TYPEMAP parameter exists for that purpose.

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         May be set to an empty string, which is identical to
         "-prototypes", or "-noprototypes". See the xsubpp docu-
         mentation for details. MakeMaker defaults to the empty

         Your version number for the .xs file of this package.
         This defaults to the value of the VERSION attribute.

       Additional lowercase attributes

       can be used to pass parameters to the methods which imple-
       ment that part of the Makefile.  Parameters are specified
       as a hash ref but are passed to the method as a hash.

           {FILES => "*.xyz foo"}

           {ANY_TARGET => ANY_DEPENDECY, ...}

         (ANY_TARGET must not be given a double-colon rule by

           {TARFLAGS => 'cvfF', COMPRESS => 'gzip', SUFFIX => '.gz',
           SHAR => 'shar -m', DIST_CP => 'ln', ZIP => '/bin/zip',
           ZIPFLAGS => '-rl', DIST_DEFAULT => 'private tardist' }

         If you specify COMPRESS, then SUFFIX should also be
         altered, as it is needed to tell make the target file of
         the compression. Setting DIST_CP to ln can be useful, if
         you need to preserve the timestamps on your files.
         DIST_CP can take the values 'cp', which copies the file,
         'ln', which links the file, and 'best' which copies sym-
         bolic links and links the rest. Default is 'best'.

           {ARMAYBE => 'ar', OTHERLDFLAGS => '...', INST_DYNAMIC_DEP => '...'}

           {LINKTYPE => 'static', 'dynamic' or ''}

         NB: Extensions that have nothing but *.pm files had to

           {LINKTYPE => ''}

         with Pre-5.0 MakeMakers. Since version 5.00 of MakeMaker
         such a line can be deleted safely. MakeMaker recognizes
         when there's nothing to be linked.

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           {ANY_MACRO => ANY_VALUE, ...}

         Anything put here will be passed to MY::postamble() if
         you have one.

           {FILES => '$(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/*.xyz'}

           {TESTS => 't/*.t'}

           {MAXLEN => 8}

       Overriding MakeMaker Methods

       If you cannot achieve the desired Makefile behaviour by
       specifying attributes you may define private subroutines
       in the Makefile.PL.  Each subroutine returns the text it
       wishes to have written to the Makefile. To override a sec-
       tion of the Makefile you can either say:

               sub MY::c_o { "new literal text" }

       or you can edit the default by saying something like:

               package MY; # so that "SUPER" works right
               sub c_o {
                   my $inherited = shift->SUPER::c_o(@_);
                   $inherited =~ s/old text/new text/;

       If you are running experiments with embedding perl as a
       library into other applications, you might find MakeMaker
       is not sufficient. You'd better have a look at ExtU-
       tils::Embed which is a collection of utilities for embed-

       If you still need a different solution, try to develop
       another subroutine that fits your needs and submit the
       diffs to makemaker@perl.org

       For a complete description of all MakeMaker methods see

       Here is a simple example of how to add a new target to the
       generated Makefile:

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           sub MY::postamble {
               return <<'MAKE_FRAG';
           $(MYEXTLIB): sdbm/Makefile
                   cd sdbm && $(MAKE) all


       The End Of Cargo Cult Programming

       WriteMakefile() now does some basic sanity checks on its
       parameters to protect against typos and malformatted val-
       ues.  This means some things which happened to work in the
       past will now throw warnings and possibly produce internal

       Some of the most common mistakes:

       "<MAN3PODS =" ' '>>
         This is commonly used to supress the creation of man
         pages.  MAN3PODS takes a hash ref not a string, but the
         above worked by accident in old versions of MakeMaker.

         The correct code is "<MAN3PODS =" { }>>.

       Hintsfile support

       MakeMaker.pm uses the architecture specific information
       from Config.pm. In addition it evaluates architecture spe-
       cific hints files in a "hints/" directory. The hints files
       are expected to be named like their counterparts in
       "PERL_SRC/hints", but with an ".pl" file name extension
       (eg. "next_3_2.pl"). They are simply "eval"ed by MakeMaker
       within the WriteMakefile() subroutine, and can be used to
       execute commands as well as to include special variables.
       The rules which hintsfile is chosen are the same as in

       The hintsfile is eval()ed immediately after the arguments
       given to WriteMakefile are stuffed into a hash reference
       $self but before this reference becomes blessed. So if you
       want to do the equivalent to override or create an
       attribute you would say something like

           $self->{LIBS} = ['-ldbm -lucb -lc'];

       Distribution Support

       For authors of extensions MakeMaker provides several Make-
       file targets. Most of the support comes from the ExtU-
       tils::Manifest module, where additional documentation can
       be found.

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       make distcheck
           reports which files are below the build directory but
           not in the MANIFEST file and vice versa. (See ExtU-
           tils::Manifest::fullcheck() for details)

       make skipcheck
           reports which files are skipped due to the entries in
           the "MANIFEST.SKIP" file (See ExtUtils::Mani-
           fest::skipcheck() for details)

       make distclean
           does a realclean first and then the distcheck. Note
           that this is not needed to build a new distribution as
           long as you are sure that the MANIFEST file is ok.

       make manifest
           rewrites the MANIFEST file, adding all remaining files
           found (See ExtUtils::Manifest::mkmanifest() for

       make distdir
           Copies all the files that are in the MANIFEST file to
           a newly created directory with the name "$(DIST-
           NAME)-$(VERSION)". If that directory exists, it will
           be removed first.

           Additionally, it will create a META.yml module meta-
           data file and add this to your MANFIEST.  You can shut
           this behavior off with the NO_META flag.

       make disttest
           Makes a distdir first, and runs a "perl Makefile.PL",
           a make, and a make test in that directory.

       make tardist
           First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which
           defaults to a null command, followed by $(TOUNIX),
           which defaults to a null command under UNIX, and will
           convert files in distribution directory to UNIX format
           otherwise. Next it runs "tar" on that directory into a
           tarfile and deletes the directory. Finishes with a
           command $(POSTOP) which defaults to a null command.

       make dist
           Defaults to $(DIST_DEFAULT) which in turn defaults to

       make uutardist
           Runs a tardist first and uuencodes the tarfile.

       make shdist
           First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which
           defaults to a null command. Next it runs "shar" on
           that directory into a sharfile and deletes the

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           intermediate directory again. Finishes with a command
           $(POSTOP) which defaults to a null command.  Note: For
           shdist to work properly a "shar" program that can han-
           dle directories is mandatory.

       make zipdist
           First does a distdir. Then a command $(PREOP) which
           defaults to a null command. Runs "$(ZIP) $(ZIPFLAGS)"
           on that directory into a zipfile. Then deletes that
           directory. Finishes with a command $(POSTOP) which
           defaults to a null command.

       make ci
           Does a $(CI) and a $(RCS_LABEL) on all files in the
           MANIFEST file.

       Customization of the dist targets can be done by specify-
       ing a hash reference to the dist attribute of the
       WriteMakefile call. The following parameters are recog-

           CI           ('ci -u')
           COMPRESS     ('gzip --best')
           POSTOP       ('@ :')
           PREOP        ('@ :')
           TO_UNIX      (depends on the system)
           RCS_LABEL    ('rcs -q -Nv$(VERSION_SYM):')
           SHAR         ('shar')
           SUFFIX       ('.gz')
           TAR          ('tar')
           TARFLAGS     ('cvf')
           ZIP          ('zip')
           ZIPFLAGS     ('-r')

       An example:

           WriteMakefile( 'dist' => { COMPRESS=>"bzip2", SUFFIX=>".bz2" })

       Module Meta-Data

       Long plaguing users of MakeMaker based modules has been
       the problem of getting basic information about the module
       out of the sources without running the Makefile.PL and
       doing a bunch of messy heuristics on the resulting Make-
       file.  To this end a simple module meta-data file has been
       introduced, META.yml.

       META.yml is a YAML document (see http://www.yaml.org) con-
       taining basic information about the module (name, version,
       prerequisites...)  in an easy to read format.  The format
       is developed and defined by the Module::Build developers
       (see http://module-build.sourceforge.net/META-spec.html)

       MakeMaker will automatically generate a META.yml file for

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       you and add it to your MANIFEST as part of the 'distdir'
       target (and thus the 'dist' target).  This is intended to
       seamlessly and rapidly populate CPAN with module
       meta-data.  If you wish to shut this feature off, set the
       "NO_META" "WriteMakefile()" flag to true.

       Disabling an extension

       If some events detected in Makefile.PL imply that there is
       no way to create the Module, but this is a normal state of
       things, then you can create a Makefile which does nothing,
       but succeeds on all the "usual" build targets.  To do so,


       instead of WriteMakefile().

       This may be useful if other modules expect this module to
       be built OK, as opposed to work OK (say, this system-
       dependent module builds in a subdirectory of some other
       distribution, or is listed as a dependency in a CPAN::Bun-
       dle, but the functionality is supported by different means
       on the current architecture).

       Other Handy Functions

               my $value = prompt($message);
               my $value = prompt($message, $default);

           The "prompt()" function provides an easy way to
           request user input used to write a makefile.  It dis-
           plays the $message as a prompt for input.  If a
           $default is provided it will be used as a default.
           The function returns the $value selected by the user.

           If "prompt()" detects that it is not running interac-
           tively and there is nothing on STDIN or if the
           PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT environment variable is set to
           true, the $default will be used without prompting.
           This prevents automated processes from blocking on
           user input.

           If no $default is provided an empty string will be
           used instead.

           Command line options used by "MakeMaker->new()", and
           thus by "WriteMakefile()".  The string is split on
           whitespace, and the result is processed before any
           actual command line arguments are processed.

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           If set to a true value then MakeMaker's prompt func-
           tion will always return the default without waiting
           for user input.

       ExtUtils::MM_Unix, ExtUtils::Manifest ExtUtils::Install,

       Andy Dougherty <doughera@lafayette.edu>, Andreas Koenig
       <andreas.koenig@mind.de>, Tim Bunce <timb@cpan.org>.  VMS
       support by Charles Bailey <bailey@newman.upenn.edu>.  OS/2
       support by Ilya Zakharevich <ilya@math.ohio-state.edu>.

       Currently maintained by Michael G Schwern <schw-

       Send patches and ideas to <makemaker@perl.org>.

       Send bug reports via http://rt.cpan.org/.  Please send
       your generated Makefile along with your report.

       For more up-to-date information, see http://www.make-

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it
       and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

       See http://www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.html

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