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ExtUtils::MM_UnixPerl Programmers Reference ExtUtils::MM_Unix(3p)


NAME
       ExtUtils::MM_Unix - methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker

SYNOPSIS
       "require ExtUtils::MM_Unix;"

DESCRIPTION
       The methods provided by this package are designed to be
       used in conjunction with ExtUtils::MakeMaker. When Make-
       Maker writes a Makefile, it creates one or more objects
       that inherit their methods from a package "MM". MM itself
       doesn't provide any methods, but it ISA ExtUtils::MM_Unix
       class. The inheritance tree of MM lets operating specific
       packages take the responsibility for all the methods pro-
       vided by MM_Unix. We are trying to reduce the number of
       the necessary overrides by defining rather primitive oper-
       ations within ExtUtils::MM_Unix.

       If you are going to write a platform specific MM package,
       please try to limit the necessary overrides to primitive
       methods, and if it is not possible to do so, let's work
       out how to achieve that gain.

       If you are overriding any of these methods in your Make-
       file.PL (in the MY class), please report that to the make-
       maker mailing list. We are trying to minimize the neces-
       sary method overrides and switch to data driven Make-
       file.PLs wherever possible. In the long run less methods
       will be overridable via the MY class.

METHODS
       The following description of methods is still under devel-
       opment. Please refer to the code for not suitably docu-
       mented sections and complain loudly to the make-
       makerATperl.org mailing list.  Better yet, provide a patch.

       Not all of the methods below are overridable in a Make-
       file.PL. Overridable methods are marked as (o). All meth-
       ods are overridable by a platform specific MM_*.pm file
       (See ExtUtils::MM_VMS) and ExtUtils::MM_OS2).

       Methods


       os_flavor (o)
           Simply says that we're Unix.

       c_o (o)
           Defines the suffix rules to compile different flavors
           of C files to object files.

       cflags (o)
           Does very much the same as the cflags script in the
           perl distribution. It doesn't return the whole



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           compiler command line, but initializes all of its
           parts. The const_cccmd method then actually returns
           the definition of the CCCMD macro which uses these
           parts.

       clean (o)
           Defines the clean target.

       clean_subdirs_target
             my $make_frag = $MM->clean_subdirs_target;

           Returns the clean_subdirs target.  This is used by the
           clean target to call clean on any subdirectories which
           contain Makefiles.

       const_cccmd (o)
           Returns the full compiler call for C programs and
           stores the definition in CONST_CCCMD.

       const_config (o)
           Defines a couple of constants in the Makefile that are
           imported from %Config.

       const_loadlibs (o)
           Defines EXTRALIBS, LDLOADLIBS, BSLOADLIBS,
           LD_RUN_PATH. See ExtUtils::Liblist for details.

       constants (o)
             my $make_frag = $mm->constants;

           Prints out macros for lots of constants.

       depend (o)
           Same as macro for the depend attribute.

       dir_target (o)
           Takes an array of directories that need to exist and
           returns a Makefile entry for a .exists file in these
           directories. Returns nothing, if the entry has already
           been processed. We're helpless though, if the same
           directory comes as $(FOO) _and_ as "bar". Both of them
           get an entry, that's why we use "::".

       init_DEST
             $mm->init_DEST

           Defines the DESTDIR and DEST* variables paralleling
           the INSTALL*.

       init_dist
             $mm->init_dist;

           Defines a lot of macros for distribution support.




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             macro         description                     default

             TAR           tar command to use              tar
             TARFLAGS      flags to pass to TAR            cvf

             ZIP           zip command to use              zip
             ZIPFLAGS      flags to pass to ZIP            -r

             COMPRESS      compression command to          gzip --best
                           use for tarfiles
             SUFFIX        suffix to put on                .gz
                           compressed files

             SHAR          shar command to use             shar

             PREOP         extra commands to run before
                           making the archive
             POSTOP        extra commands to run after
                           making the archive

             TO_UNIX       a command to convert linefeeds
                           to Unix style in your archive

             CI            command to checkin your         ci -u
                           sources to version control
             RCS_LABEL     command to label your sources   rcs -Nv$(VERSION_SYM): -q
                           just after CI is run

             DIST_CP       $how argument to manicopy()     best
                           when the distdir is created

             DIST_DEFAULT  default target to use to        tardist
                           create a distribution

             DISTVNAME     name of the resulting archive   $(DISTNAME)-$(VERSION)
                           (minus suffixes)

       dist (o)
             my $dist_macros = $mm->dist(%overrides);

           Generates a make fragment defining all the macros ini-
           tialized in init_dist.

           %overrides can be used to override any of the above.

       dist_basics (o)
           Defines the targets distclean, distcheck, skipcheck,
           manifest, veryclean.

       dist_ci (o)
           Defines a check in target for RCS.

       dist_core (o)
             my $dist_make_fragment = $MM->dist_core;



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           Puts the targets necessary for 'make dist' together
           into one make fragment.

       dist_target
             my $make_frag = $MM->dist_target;

           Returns the 'dist' target to make an archive for dis-
           tribution.  This target simply checks to make sure the
           Makefile is up-to-date and depends on $(DIST_DEFAULT).

       tardist_target
             my $make_frag = $MM->tardist_target;

           Returns the 'tardist' target which is simply so 'make
           tardist' works.  The real work is done by the dynami-
           cally named tardistfile_target() method, tardist
           should have that as a dependency.

       zipdist_target
             my $make_frag = $MM->zipdist_target;

           Returns the 'zipdist' target which is simply so 'make
           zipdist' works.  The real work is done by the dynami-
           cally named zipdistfile_target() method, zipdist
           should have that as a dependency.

       tarfile_target
             my $make_frag = $MM->tarfile_target;

           The name of this target is the name of the tarball
           generated by tardist.  This target does the actual
           work of turning the distdir into a tarball.

       zipfile_target
             my $make_frag = $MM->zipfile_target;

           The name of this target is the name of the zip file
           generated by zipdist.  This target does the actual
           work of turning the distdir into a zip file.

       uutardist_target
             my $make_frag = $MM->uutardist_target;

           Converts the tarfile into a uuencoded file

       shdist_target
             my $make_frag = $MM->shdist_target;

           Converts the distdir into a shell archive.

       distdir
           Defines the scratch directory target that will hold
           the distribution before tar-ing (or shar-ing).




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       dist_test
           Defines a target that produces the distribution in the
           scratchdirectory, and runs 'perl Makefile.PL; make
           ;make test' in that subdirectory.

       dlsyms (o)
           Used by AIX and VMS to define DL_FUNCS and DL_VARS and
           write the *.exp files.

       dynamic (o)
           Defines the dynamic target.

       dynamic_bs (o)
           Defines targets for bootstrap files.

       dynamic_lib (o)
           Defines how to produce the *.so (or equivalent) files.

       exescan
           Deprecated method. Use libscan instead.

       extliblist
           Called by init_others, and calls ext ExtUtils::Lib-
           list. See ExtUtils::Liblist for details.

       find_perl
           Finds the executables PERL and FULLPERL

       find_tests
             my $test = $mm->find_tests;

           Returns a string suitable for feeding to the shell to
           return all tests in t/*.t.

       Methods to actually produce chunks of text for the Make-
       file

       The methods here are called for each MakeMaker object in
       the order specified by @ExtUtils::MakeMaker::MM_Sections.

       fixin
           $mm->fixin(@files);

         Inserts the sharpbang or equivalent magic number to a
         set of @files.

       force (o)
         Just writes FORCE:

       guess_name
         Guess the name of this package by examining the working
         directory's name. MakeMaker calls this only if the
         developer has not supplied a NAME attribute.




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       has_link_code
         Returns true if C, XS, MYEXTLIB or similar objects exist
         within this object that need a compiler. Does not
         descend into subdirectories as needs_linking() does.

       init_dirscan
         Scans the directory structure and initializes DIR, XS,
         XS_FILES, PM, C, C_FILES, O_FILES, H, H_FILES, PL_FILES,
         MAN*PODS, EXE_FILES.

         Called by init_main.

       init_DIRFILESEP
         Using / for Unix.  Called by init_main.

       init_main
         Initializes AR, AR_STATIC_ARGS, BASEEXT, CONFIG, DIST-
         NAME, DLBASE, EXE_EXT, FULLEXT, FULLPERL, FULLPERLRUN,
         FULLPERLRUNINST, INST_*, INSTALL*, INSTALLDIRS, LIB_EXT,
         LIBPERL_A, MAP_TARGET, NAME, OBJ_EXT, PARENT_NAME, PERL,
         PERL_ARCHLIB, PERL_INC, PERL_LIB, PERL_SRC, PERLRUN,
         PERLRUNINST, PREFIX, VERSION, VERSION_SYM, XS_VERSION.

       init_others
         Initializes EXTRALIBS, BSLOADLIBS, LDLOADLIBS, LIBS,
         LD_RUN_PATH, LD, OBJECT, BOOTDEP, PERLMAINCC, LDFROM,
         LINKTYPE, SHELL, NOOP, FIRST_MAKEFILE, MAKEFILE_OLD,
         NOECHO, RM_F, RM_RF, TEST_F, TOUCH, CP, MV, CHMOD,
         UMASK_NULL, ECHO, ECHO_N

       init_INST
             $mm->init_INST;

         Called by init_main.  Sets up all INST_* variables
         except those related to XS code.  Those are handled in
         init_xs.

       init_INSTALL
             $mm->init_INSTALL;

         Called by init_main.  Sets up all INSTALL_* variables
         (except INSTALLDIRS) and *PREFIX.

       init_linker
         Unix has no need of special linker flags.

       init_PERL
             $mm->init_PERL;

         Called by init_main.  Sets up ABSPERL, PERL, FULLPERL
         and all the *PERLRUN* permutations.

             PERL is allowed to be miniperl
             FULLPERL must be a complete perl



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             ABSPERL is PERL converted to an absolute path

             *PERLRUN contains everything necessary to run perl, find it's
                  libraries, etc...

             *PERLRUNINST is *PERLRUN + everything necessary to find the
                  modules being built.

       init_platform (o)
         Add MM_Unix_VERSION.

       platform_constants (o)
       init_PERM
           $mm->init_PERM

         Called by init_main.  Initializes PERL_*

       init_xs
             $mm->init_xs

         Sets up macros having to do with XS code.  Currently
         just INST_STATIC, INST_DYNAMIC and INST_BOOT.

       install (o)
         Defines the install target.

       installbin (o)
         Defines targets to make and to install EXE_FILES.

       linkext (o)
         Defines the linkext target which in turn defines the
         LINKTYPE.

       lsdir
         Takes as arguments a directory name and a regular
         expression. Returns all entries in the directory that
         match the regular expression.

       macro (o)
         Simple subroutine to insert the macros defined by the
         macro attribute into the Makefile.

       makeaperl (o)
         Called by staticmake. Defines how to write the Makefile
         to produce a static new perl.

         By default the Makefile produced includes all the static
         extensions in the perl library. (Purified versions of
         library files, e.g., DynaLoader_pure_p1_c0_032.a are
         automatically ignored to avoid link errors.)

       makefile (o)
         Defines how to rewrite the Makefile.




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       maybe_command
         Returns true, if the argument is likely to be a command.

       needs_linking (o)
         Does this module need linking? Looks into subdirectory
         objects (see also has_link_code())

       nicetext
         misnamed method (will have to be changed). The MM_Unix
         method just returns the argument without further pro-
         cessing.

         On VMS used to insure that colons marking targets are
         preceded by space - most Unix Makes don't need this, but
         it's necessary under VMS to distinguish the target
         delimiter from a colon appearing as part of a filespec.

       parse_abstract
         parse a file and return what you think is the ABSTRACT

       parse_version
         parse a file and return what you think is $VERSION in
         this file set to.  It will return the string "undef" if
         it can't figure out what $VERSION is. $VERSION should be
         for all to see, so our $VERSION or plain $VERSION are
         okay, but my $VERSION is not.

       pasthru (o)
         Defines the string that is passed to recursive make
         calls in subdirectories.

       perl_script
         Takes one argument, a file name, and returns the file
         name, if the argument is likely to be a perl script. On
         MM_Unix this is true for any ordinary, readable file.

       perldepend (o)
         Defines the dependency from all *.h files that come with
         the perl distribution.

       perm_rw (o)
         Returns the attribute "PERM_RW" or the string 644.  Used
         as the string that is passed to the "chmod" command to
         set the permissions for read/writeable files.  MakeMaker
         chooses 644 because it has turned out in the past that
         relying on the umask provokes hard-to-track bug reports.
         When the return value is used by the perl function
         "chmod", it is interpreted as an octal value.

       perm_rwx (o)
         Returns the attribute "PERM_RWX" or the string 755, i.e.
         the string that is passed to the "chmod" command to set
         the permissions for executable files.  See also perl_rw.




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       pm_to_blib
         Defines target that copies all files in the hash PM to
         their destination and autosplits them. See "DESCRIPTION"
         in ExtUtils::Install

       post_constants (o)
         Returns an empty string per default. Dedicated to over-
         rides from within Makefile.PL after all constants have
         been defined.

       post_initialize (o)
         Returns an empty string per default. Used in Make-
         file.PLs to add some chunk of text to the Makefile after
         the object is initialized.

       postamble (o)
         Returns an empty string. Can be used in Makefile.PLs to
         write some text to the Makefile at the end.

       ppd
         Defines target that creates a PPD (Perl Package Descrip-
         tion) file for a binary distribution.

       prefixify
           $MM->prefixify($var, $prefix, $new_prefix, $default);

         Using either $MM->{uc $var} || $Config{lc $var}, it will
         attempt to replace it's $prefix with a $new_prefix.

         Should the $prefix fail to match AND a PREFIX was given
         as an argument to WriteMakefile() it will set it to the
         $new_prefix + $default.  This is for systems whose file
         layouts don't neatly fit into our ideas of prefixes.

         This is for heuristics which attempt to create directory
         structures that mirror those of the installed perl.

         For example:

             $MM->prefixify('installman1dir', '/usr', '/home/foo', 'man/man1');

         this will attempt to remove '/usr' from the front of the
         $MM->{INSTALLMAN1DIR} path (initializing it to $Con-
         fig{installman1dir} if necessary) and replace it with
         '/home/foo'.  If this fails it will simply use
         '/home/foo/man/man1'.

       processPL (o)
         Defines targets to run *.PL files.

       quote_paren
         Backslashes parentheses "()" in command line arguments.
         Doesn't handle recursive Makefile "$(...)" constructs,
         but handles simple ones.



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       realclean (o)
         Defines the realclean target.

       realclean_subdirs_target
           my $make_frag = $MM->realclean_subdirs_target;

         Returns the realclean_subdirs target.  This is used by
         the realclean target to call realclean on any subdirec-
         tories which contain Makefiles.

       replace_manpage_separator
           my $man_name = $MM->replace_manpage_separator($file_path);

         Takes the name of a package, which may be a nested pack-
         age, in the form 'Foo/Bar.pm' and replaces the slash
         with "::" or something else safe for a man page file
         name.  Returns the replacement.

       oneliner (o)
       quote_literal
       escape_newlines
       max_exec_len
         Using POSIX::ARG_MAX.  Otherwise falling back to 4096.

       static (o)
         Defines the static target.

       static_lib (o)
         Defines how to produce the *.a (or equivalent) files.

       staticmake (o)
         Calls makeaperl.

       subdir_x (o)
         Helper subroutine for subdirs

       subdirs (o)
         Defines targets to process subdirectories.

       test (o)
         Defines the test targets.

       test_via_harness (override)
         For some reason which I forget, Unix machines like to
         have PERL_DL_NONLAZY set for tests.

       test_via_script (override)
         Again, the PERL_DL_NONLAZY thing.

       tools_other (o)
             my $make_frag = $MM->tools_other;

         Returns a make fragment containing definitions for:




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         SHELL, CHMOD, CP, MV, NOOP, NOECHO, RM_F, RM_RF, TEST_F,
         TOUCH, DEV_NULL, UMASK_NULL, MKPATH, EQUALIZE_TIMESTAMP,
         WARN_IF_OLD_PACKLIST, UNINST, VERBINST, MOD_INSTALL,
         DOC_INSTALL and UNINSTALL

         init_others() initializes all these values.

       tool_xsubpp (o)
         Determines typemaps, xsubpp version, prototype
         behaviour.

       all_target
         Build man pages, too

       top_targets (o)
         Defines the targets all, subdirs, config, and O_FILES

       writedoc
         Obsolete, deprecated method. Not used since Version
         5.21.

       xs_c (o)
         Defines the suffix rules to compile XS files to C.

       xs_cpp (o)
         Defines the suffix rules to compile XS files to C++.

       xs_o (o)
         Defines suffix rules to go from XS to object files
         directly. This is only intended for broken make imple-
         mentations.

SEE ALSO
       ExtUtils::MakeMaker























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