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TSEARCH(3)                 Library Functions Manual                 TSEARCH(3)

       tsearch, tfind, tdelete, twalk - manage binary search trees

       #include <&lt;search.h>&gt;

       char *tsearch((char *) key, (char **) rootp, compar)
       int (*compar)( );

       char *tfind((char *) key, (char **) rootp, compar)
       int (*compar)( );

       char *tdelete((char *) key, (char **) rootp, compar)
       int (*compar)( );

       void twalk((char *) root, action)
       void (*action)( );

       tsearch(),  tfind(), tdelete(), and twalk() are routines for manipulat-
       ing binary search trees.  They are generalized from Knuth (6.2.2) Algo-
       rithms T and D.  All comparisons are done with a user-supplied routine.
       This routine is called with two arguments, the pointers to the elements
       being  compared.  It returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater
       than 0, according to whether the first argument  is  to  be  considered
       less  than, equal to or greater than the second argument.  The compari-
       son function need not compare every byte, so arbitrary data may be con-
       tained in the elements in addition to the values being compared.

       tsearch()  is used to build and access the tree.  key is a pointer to a
       datum to be accessed or stored.  If there is a datum in the tree  equal
       to *key (the value pointed to by key), a pointer to this found datum is
       returned.  Otherwise, *key is inserted, and a pointer to  it  returned.
       Only  pointers  are copied, so the calling routine must store the data.
       rootp points to a variable that points to the root of the tree.  A NULL
       value  for  the  variable pointed to by rootp denotes an empty tree; in
       this case, the variable will be set to point to the datum which will be
       at the root of the new tree.

       Like  tsearch(), tfind() will search for a datum in the tree, returning
       a pointer to it if found.  However, if it is not  found,  tfind()  will
       return  a  NULL pointer.  The arguments for tfind() are the same as for

       tdelete() deletes a node from a binary search tree.  The arguments  are
       the  same  as  for tsearch().  The variable pointed to by rootp will be
       changed if the deleted node  was  the  root  of  the  tree.   tdelete()
       returns  a pointer to the parent of the deleted node, or a NULL pointer
       if the node is not found.

       twalk() traverses a binary search tree.  root is the root of  the  tree
       to  be  traversed.   (Any  node in a tree may be used as the root for a
       walk below that node.)  action is the name of a routine to  be  invoked
       at  each  node.  This routine is, in turn, called with three arguments.
       The first argument is the address of the node being visited.  The  sec-
       ond  argument  is  a value from an enumeration data type typedef enum {
       preorder, postorder, endorder, leaf } VISIT; (defined in the <&lt;search.h>&gt;
       header  file),  depending on whether this is the first, second or third
       time that the node has been visited  (during  a  depth-first,  left-to-
       right traversal of the tree), or whether the node is a leaf.  The third
       argument is the level of the node in the  tree,  with  the  root  being
       level zero.

       The  pointers  to  the  key  and the root of the tree should be of type
       pointer-to-element, and cast to  type  pointer-to-pointer-to-character.
       Similarly,  although  declared  as type pointer-to-character, the value
       returned should be cast into type pointer-to-element.

       The following code reads in strings and stores structures containing  a
       pointer  to  each  string and a count of its length.  It then walks the
       tree, printing out the stored strings and their lengths in alphabetical
              #include <&lt;search.h>&gt;
              #include <&lt;stdio.h>&gt;
              void twalk();
              char *tsearch();
              struct node {       /* pointers to these are stored in the tree */
                   char *string;
                   int count;
              #define MAXNODES    12
              #define MAXSTRING   100
              #define MINSTRING   3         /* char, newline, eos */
              char string_space[MAXSTRING];      /* space to store strings */
              struct node node_space[MAXNODES];  /* nodes to store */
              struct node *root = NULL;          /* this points to the root */
                   char *strptr = string_space;
                   int maxstrlen = MAXSTRING;
                   struct node *nodeptr = node_space;
                   int node_compare();
                   void print_node();
                   struct node **found;
                   int length;
                   while (fgets(strptr, maxstrlen, stdin) != NULL) {
                        /* remove the trailing newline */
                        length = strlen(strptr);
                        strptr[length-1] = 0;
                        /* set node */
                        nodeptr->&gt;string = strptr;
                        /* locate node into the tree */
                        found = (struct node **)
                            tsearch((char *) nodeptr, (char **) &&amp;root, node_compare);
                        /* bump the count */
                        if (*found == nodeptr) {
                             /* node was inserted, so get a new one */
                             strptr += length;
                             maxstrlen -= length;
                             if (maxstrlen <&lt; MINSTRING)
                             if (++nodeptr >&gt;= &&amp;node_space[MAXNODES])
                   twalk((char *)root, print_node);
                   This routine compares two nodes, based on an
                   alphabetical ordering of the string field.
              int node_compare(node1, node2)
                   struct node *node1, *node2;
                   return strcmp(node1->&gt;string, node2->&gt;string);
              /* Print out nodes in alphabetical order */
              print_node(node, order, level)
                   struct node **node;
                   VISIT order;
                   int level;
                   if (order == postorder || order == leaf) {
                        (void) printf("string = %20s,  count = %d0,
                            (*node)->&gt;string, (*node)->&gt;count);

       bsearch(3), hsearch(3), lsearch(3)

       A  NULL  pointer  is returned by tsearch() if there is not enough space
       available to create a new node.

       A NULL pointer is returned by tsearch(), tfind() and tdelete() if rootp
       is NULL on entry.

       If  the  datum is found, both tsearch() and tfind() return a pointer to
       it.  If not, tfind() returns NULL, and tsearch() returns a  pointer  to
       the inserted item.

       The  root argument to twalk() is one level of indirection less than the
       rootp arguments to tsearch() and tdelete().

       There are two nomenclatures used to refer to the order  in  which  tree
       nodes  are visited.  tsearch() uses preorder, postorder and endorder to
       respectively refer to visting a node before any of its children,  after
       its  left child and before its right, and after both its children.  The
       alternate nomenclature uses preorder, inorder and postorder to refer to
       the  same visits, which could result in some confusion over the meaning
       of postorder.

       If the calling function alters the pointer to  the  root,  results  are

                                6 October 1987                      TSEARCH(3)