STRTOL(3) BSD Programmer's Manual STRTOL(3)
strtol, strtoq - convert string value to a long or quad_t integer
strtol(char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);
strtoq(char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);
The strtol() function converts the string in nptr to a long value. The
strtoq() function converts the string in nptr to a quad_t value. The
conversion is done according to the given base, which must be between 2
and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.
The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as deter-
mined by isspace(3)) followed by a single optional `+' or `-' sign. If
base is zero or 16, the string may then include a `0x' prefix, and the
number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken as 10
(decimal) unless the next character is `0', in which case it is taken as
The remainder of the string is converted to a long value in the obvious
manner, stopping at the first character which is not a valid digit in the
given base. (In bases above 10, the letter `A' in either upper or lower
case represents 10, `B' represents 11, and so forth, with `Z' represent-
If endptr is non nil, strtol() stores the address of the first invalid
character in *endptr. If there were no digits at all, however, strtol()
stores the original value of nptr in *endptr. (Thus, if *nptr is not `\0'
but **endptr is `\0' on return, the entire string was valid.)
The strtol() function returns the result of the conversion, unless the
value would underflow or overflow. If an underflow occurs, strtol() re-
turns LONG_MIN. If an overflow occurs, strtol() returns LONG_MAX. In both
cases, errno is set to ERANGE.
[ERANGE] The given string was out of range; the value converted has been
atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtod(3), strtoul(3)
The strtol() function conforms to ANSI C X3.159-1989 (``ANSI C '').
Ignores the current locale.
4.4BSD June 4, 1993 1