IP(3) Library Functions Manual IP(3)
ip - TCP, UDP, IL network protocols over IP
bind -a #Itcp /net
bind -a #Iudp /net
bind -a #Iil /net
The IP device provides the interface for several protocols that run
over IP on an Ethernet. TCP and UDP provide the standard Internet pro-
tocols for reliable stream and unreliable datagram communication. IL
provides a reliable datagram service for communication between Plan 9
machines. IL is the protocol of choice for most Plan 9 services.
Each of the protocols is served by the IP device, which represents each
connection by a set of device files. The top level directory of each
protocol contains a clone file and subdirectories numbered from zero to
the number of connections configured for this protocol.
Opening the clone file reserves a connection. The file descriptor
returned from the open(2) will point to the control file, ctl, of the
newly allocated connection. Reading the ctl file returns a text string
representing the number of the connection. Connections may be used
either to listen for incoming calls or to initiate calls to other
A connection is controlled by writing text strings to the associated
ctl file. After a connection has been established data may be read
from and written to the data file. For the datagram services, IL and
UDP, a read of less than the length of a datagram will cause the entire
datagram to be consumed. Each write to the data file will send a sin-
gle datagram on the network. The TCP protocol provides a stream con-
nection that does not preserve read/write boundaries.
Prior to sending data, remote and local addresses must be set for the
connection. For outgoing calls the local port number will be allocated
randomly if none is set. Addresses are set by writing control messages
to the ctl file of the connection. The connection is not established
until the data file is opened. For IL and TCP the process will block
until the remote host has acknowledged the connection. UDP opens
The following control messages are supported:
Set the remote IP address and port number for the connection.
If the r flag is supplied and no local address has been speci-
fied the system will allocate a restricted port number (less
than 1024) for the connection to allow communication with Unix
machines' login and exec services.
(UDP only) Clear the remote address of a UDP connection.
X is a decimal port number or Set the local port number to X and
accept calls to X. If X is accept calls for any port that no
process has explicitly announced. The local IP address cannot
be set. Announce fails if the connection is already announced
bind X X is a decimal port number or Set the local port number to X.
This exists to support library emulation of BSD sockets and is
not otherwise used.
(IL and TCP only) Set the maximum number of pending requests for
a given service to n. By default n is set to five. If more
than n connections are pending, further requests for a service
will be rejected.
Port numbers must be in the range 1 to 32767. If a local port has not
been announced prior to a connect a local port number will be allocated
automatically. Local ports are allocated from 5000 up.
Several files report the status of a connection. The remote and local
files contain the IP address and port number for the remote and local
side of the connection. The status file contains protocol-dependent
information to help debug network connections.
A process may accept incoming connections by calling open on the listen
file. The open will block until a new connection request arrives.
Then open will return an open file descriptor which points to the con-
trol file of the newly accepted connection. This procedure will accept
all calls for the given protocol.
listen(8), dial(2), ndb(6)