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INTRO(3)                    BSD Programmer's Manual                   INTRO(3)

     intro - introduction to the C libraries

     This section provides an overview of the C library functions, their error
     returns and other common definitions and concepts.  Most of these func-
     tions are available from the C library, libc. Other libraries, such as
     the math library, libm, must be indicated at compile time with the -l op-
     tion of the compiler.

     A subset of the libc(functions) are available from Fortran; they are de-
     scribed separately in intro(3f).

     The various libraries (followed by the loader flag):

     libc(-lc)   Standard C library functions.  When using the C compiler
                 cc(1),  it is not necessary to supply the loader flag -lc for
                 these functions.  There are several `libraries' or groups of
                 functions included inside of libc: the standard  I/O rou-
                 tines, database routines, bit operators, string operators,
                 character tests and character operators, des encryption rou-
                 tines, storage allocation, time functions, signal handling
                 and more.

     libcurses( -lcurses -ltermcap)
                 Terminal independent screen management routines for two di-
                 mensional non-bitmap display terminals.  (See curses(3).)

                 Functions which are obsolete but are available for compati-
                 bility with 4.3BSD. In particular, a number of system call
                 interfaces provided in previous releases of BSD have been in-
                 cluded for source code compatibility.  Use of these routines
                 should, for the most part, be avoided.  The manual page entry
                 for each compatibility routine indicates the proper interface
                 to use.

     libl(-ll)   The library for lex(1).

     libm(-lm)   The math library, libm. The math library is loaded as needed
                 by the Pascal compiler pc(1),  but not by the C compiler
                 which requires the -lm flag.  (See math(3).)


                 Device independent plotting functions.  (See plot(3).)

                 The device independent plotting functions for fortran.  (See

                 The terminal independent operation library package. (See

     liby(-ly)   The library for yacc(1).

     /usr/lib/libc.a    the C library
     /usr/lib/libm.a    the math library

     /usr/lib/libc_p.a  the C library compiled for profiling
     /usr/lib/libm_p.a  the math library compiled for profiling

     stdio(3),  math(3),  intro(2),  cc(1),  ld(1),  nm(1)

     An intro manual appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

4th Berkeley Distribution       April 28, 1995                               2