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INTRO(3)                   Library Functions Manual                   INTRO(3)



NAME
       intro - introduction to library functions

DESCRIPTION
       This   section  describes  functions  that  may  be  found  in  various
       libraries.  The library functions are those other  than  the  functions
       which  directly  invoke UNIX system primitives, described in section 2.
       This section has the libraries physically grouped together.  This is  a
       departure  from  older versions of the UNIX Programmer's Reference Man-
       ual, which did not group functions by library.  The functions described
       in this section are grouped into various libraries:

       (3) and (3S)
             The  straight  ``3''  functions  are the standard C library func-
             tions.  The C library also includes all the  functions  described
             in  section  2.   The  3S  functions  comprise  the  standard I/O
             library.  Together with the (3N), (3X), and (3C) routines,  these
             functions  constitute library libc, which is automatically loaded
             by the C compiler cc(1), the Pascal compiler pc(1), and the  For-
             tran  compiler  f77(1).   The  link  editor  ld(1)  searches this
             library under the `-lc' option.  Declarations for some  of  these
             functions  may  be  obtained  from include files indicated on the
             appropriate pages.

       (3F)  The 3F functions are all functions callable from FORTRAN.   These
             functions  perform  the  same jobs as do the straight ``3'' func-
             tions.

       (3M)  These functions constitute the  math  library,  libm.   They  are
             automatically  loaded  as needed by the Pascal compiler pc(1) and
             the Fortran compiler  f77(1).   The  link  editor  searches  this
             library under the `-lm' option.  Declarations for these functions
             may be obtained from the include file <math.h>.

       (3N)  These functions constitute the internet network library,

       (3S)  These  functions  constitute  the  `standard  I/O  package',  see
             intro(3S).   These functions are in the library libc already men-
             tioned.  Declarations for these functions may  be  obtained  from
             the include file <stdio.h>.

       (3X)  Various  specialized  libraries  have  not been given distinctive
             captions.  Files in which such libraries are found are  named  on
             appropriate pages.

       (3C)  Routines  included for compatibility with other systems.  In par-
             ticular, a number of system call interfaces provided in  previous
             releases  of  4BSD have been included for source code compatibil-
             ity.  The manual page entry for each compatibility routine  indi-
             cates the proper interface to use.

FILES
       /lib/libc.a
       /usr/lib/libm.a
       /usr/lib/libc_p.a
       /usr/lib/libm_p.a

SEE ALSO
       intro(3C),  intro(3S),  intro(3F),  intro(3M), intro(3N), nm(1), ld(1),
       cc(1), f77(1), intro(2)

DIAGNOSTICS
       Functions in the math library (3M) may return conventional values  when
       the  function is undefined for the given arguments or when the value is
       not representable.  In these cases the  external  variable  errno  (see
       intro(2))  is  set  to  the  value EDOM (domain error) or ERANGE (range
       error).  The values of EDOM and ERANGE are defined in the include  file
       <math.h>.

LIST OF FUNCTIONS
       Name              Appears on Page      Description
       abort               abort.3        generate a fault
       abort               abort.3f       terminate abruptly with memory image
       abs                 abs.3          integer absolute value
       access              access.3f      determine accessability of a file
       acos                sin.3m         trigonometric functions
       alarm               alarm.3c       schedule signal after specified time
       alarm               alarm.3f       execute a subroutine after a specified time
       alloca              malloc.3       memory allocator
       arc                 plot.3x        graphics interface
       asctime             ctime.3        convert date and time to ASCII
       asin                sin.3m         trigonometric functions
       assert              assert.3x      program verification
       atan                sin.3m         trigonometric functions
       atan2               sin.3m         trigonometric functions
       atof                atof.3         convert ASCII to numbers
       atoi                atof.3         convert ASCII to numbers
       atol                atof.3         convert ASCII to numbers
       bcmp                bstring.3      bit and byte string operations
       bcopy               bstring.3      bit and byte string operations
       bessel              bessel.3f      of two kinds for integer orders
       bit                 bit.3f         and, or, xor, not, rshift, lshift bitwise functions
       bzero               bstring.3      bit and byte string operations
       cabs                hypot.3m       Euclidean distance
       calloc              malloc.3       memory allocator
       ceil                floor.3m       absolute value, floor, ceiling functions
       chdir               chdir.3f       change default directory
       chmod               chmod.3f       change mode of a file
       circle              plot.3x        graphics interface
       clearerr            ferror.3s      stream status inquiries
       closedir            directory.3    directory operations
       closelog            syslog.3       control system log
       closepl             plot.3x        graphics interface
       cont                plot.3x        graphics interface
       cos                 sin.3m         trigonometric functions
       cosh                sinh.3m        hyperbolic functions
       crypt               crypt.3        DES encryption
       ctime               ctime.3        convert date and time to ASCII
       ctime               time.3f        return system time
       curses              curses.3x      screen functions with ``optimal'' cursor motion
       dbminit             dbm.3x         data base subroutines
       delete              dbm.3x         data base subroutines
       dffrac              flmin.3f       return extreme values
       dflmax              flmin.3f       return extreme values
       dflmax              range.3f       return extreme values
       dflmin              flmin.3f       return extreme values
       dflmin              range.3f       return extreme values
       drand               rand.3f        return random values
       dtime               etime.3f       return elapsed execution time
       ecvt                ecvt.3         output conversion
       edata               end.3          last locations in program
       encrypt             crypt.3        DES encryption
       end                 end.3          last locations in program
       endfsent            getfsent.3x    get file system descriptor file entry
       endgrent            getgrent.3     get group file entry
       endhostent          gethostent.3n  get network host entry
       endnetent           getnetent.3n   get network entry
       endprotoent         getprotoent.3n get protocol entry
       endpwent            getpwent.3     get password file entry
       endservent          getservent.3n  get service entry
       environ             execl.3        execute a file
       erase               plot.3x        graphics interface
       etext               end.3          last locations in program
       etime               etime.3f       return elapsed execution time
       exec                execl.3        execute a file
       exece               execl.3        execute a file
       execl               execl.3        execute a file
       execle              execl.3        execute a file
       execlp              execl.3        execute a file
       exect               execl.3        execute a file
       execv               execl.3        execute a file
       execvp              execl.3        execute a file
       exit                exit.3         terminate a process after flushing any pending output
       exit                exit.3f        terminate process with status
       exp                 exp.3m         exponential, logarithm, power, square root
       fabs                floor.3m       absolute value, floor, ceiling functions
       fclose              fclose.3s      close or flush a stream
       fcvt                ecvt.3         output conversion
       fdate               fdate.3f       return date and time in an ASCII string
       feof                ferror.3s      stream status inquiries
       ferror              ferror.3s      stream status inquiries
       fetch               dbm.3x         data base subroutines
       fflush              fclose.3s      close or flush a stream
       ffrac               flmin.3f       return extreme values
       ffs                 bstring.3      bit and byte string operations
       fgetc               getc.3f        get a character from a logical unit
       fgetc               getc.3s        get character or word from stream
       fgets               gets.3s        get a string from a stream
       fileno              ferror.3s      stream status inquiries
       firstkey            dbm.3x         data base subroutines
       flmax               flmin.3f       return extreme values
       flmax               range.3f       return extreme values
       flmin               flmin.3f       return extreme values
       flmin               range.3f       return extreme values
       floor               floor.3m       absolute value, floor, ceiling functions
       flush               flush.3f       flush output to a logical unit
       fork                fork.3f        create a copy of this process
       fpecnt              trpfpe.3f      trap and repair floating point faults
       fprintf             printf.3s      formatted output conversion
       fputc               putc.3f        write a character to a fortran logical unit
       fputc               putc.3s        put character or word on a stream
       fputs               puts.3s        put a string on a stream
       fread               fread.3s       buffered binary input/output
       free                malloc.3       memory allocator
       frexp               frexp.3        split into mantissa and exponent
       fscanf              scanf.3s       formatted input conversion
       fseek               fseek.3f       reposition a file on a logical unit
       fseek               fseek.3s       reposition a stream
       fstat               stat.3f        get file status
       ftell               fseek.3f       reposition a file on a logical unit
       ftell               fseek.3s       reposition a stream
       ftime               time.3c        get date and time
       fwrite              fread.3s       buffered binary input/output
       gamma               gamma.3m       log gamma function
       gcvt                ecvt.3         output conversion
       gerror              perror.3f      get system error messages
       getarg              getarg.3f      return command line arguments
       getc                getc.3f        get a character from a logical unit
       getc                getc.3s        get character or word from stream
       getchar             getc.3s        get character or word from stream
       getcwd              getcwd.3f      get pathname of current working directory
       getdiskbyname       getdisk.3x     get disk description by its name
       getenv              getenv.3       value for environment name
       getenv              getenv.3f      get value of environment variables
       getfsent            getfsent.3x    get file system descriptor file entry
       getfsfile           getfsent.3x    get file system descriptor file entry
       getfsspec           getfsent.3x    get file system descriptor file entry
       getfstype           getfsent.3x    get file system descriptor file entry
       getgid              getuid.3f      get user or group ID of the caller
       getgrent            getgrent.3     get group file entry
       getgrgid            getgrent.3     get group file entry
       getgrnam            getgrent.3     get group file entry
       gethostbyaddr       gethostent.3n  get network host entry
       gethostbyname       gethostent.3n  get network host entry
       gethostent          gethostent.3n  get network host entry
       getlog              getlog.3f      get user's login name
       getlogin            getlogin.3     get login name
       getnetbyaddr        getnetent.3n   get network entry
       getnetbyname        getnetent.3n   get network entry
       getnetent           getnetent.3n   get network entry
       getpass             getpass.3      read a password
       getpid              getpid.3f      get process id
       getprotobyname      getprotoent.3n get protocol entry
       getprotobynumber    getprotoent.3n get protocol entry
       getprotoent         getprotoent.3n get protocol entry
       getpw               getpw.3        get name from uid
       getpwent            getpwent.3     get password file entry
       getpwnam            getpwent.3     get password file entry
       getpwuid            getpwent.3     get password file entry
       gets                gets.3s        get a string from a stream
       getservbyname       getservent.3n  get service entry
       getservbyport       getservent.3n  get service entry
       getservent          getservent.3n  get service entry
       getuid              getuid.3f      get user or group ID of the caller
       getw                getc.3s        get character or word from stream
       getwd               getwd.3        get current working directory pathname
       gmtime              ctime.3        convert date and time to ASCII
       gmtime              time.3f        return system time
       gtty                stty.3c        set and get terminal state (defunct)
       hostnm              hostnm.3f      get name of current host
       htonl               byteorder.3n   convert values between host and network byte order
       htons               byteorder.3n   convert values between host and network byte order
       hypot               hypot.3m       Euclidean distance
       iargc               getarg.3f      return command line arguments
       idate               idate.3f       return date or time in numerical form
       ierrno              perror.3f      get system error messages
       index               index.3f       tell about character objects
       index               string.3       string operations
       inet_addr           inet.3n        Internet address manipulation routines
       inet_lnaof          inet.3n        Internet address manipulation routines
       inet_makeaddr       inet.3n        Internet address manipulation routines
       inet_netof          inet.3n        Internet address manipulation routines
       inet_network        inet.3n        Internet address manipulation routines
       initgroups          initgroups.3x  initialize group access list
       initstate           random.3       better random number generator
       inmax               flmin.3f       return extreme values
       inmax               range.3f       return extreme values
       insque              insque.3       insert/remove element from a queue
       ioinit              ioinit.3f      change f77 I/O initialization
       irand               rand.3f        return random values
       isalnum             ctype.3        character classification macros
       isalpha             ctype.3        character classification macros
       isascii             ctype.3        character classification macros
       isatty              ttynam.3f      find name of a terminal port
       isatty              ttyname.3      find name of a terminal
       iscntrl             ctype.3        character classification macros
       isdigit             ctype.3        character classification macros
       islower             ctype.3        character classification macros
       isprint             ctype.3        character classification macros
       ispunct             ctype.3        character classification macros
       isspace             ctype.3        character classification macros
       isupper             ctype.3        character classification macros
       itime               idate.3f       return date or time in numerical form
       j0                  j0.3m          bessel functions
       j1                  j0.3m          bessel functions
       jn                  j0.3m          bessel functions
       kill                kill.3f        send a signal to a process
       label               plot.3x        graphics interface
       ldexp               frexp.3        split into mantissa and exponent
       len                 index.3f       tell about character objects
       lib2648             lib2648.3x     subroutines for the HP 2648 graphics terminal
       line                plot.3x        graphics interface
       linemod             plot.3x        graphics interface
       link                link.3f        make a link to an existing file
       lnblnk              index.3f       tell about character objects
       loc                 loc.3f         return the address of an object
       localtime           ctime.3        convert date and time to ASCII
       log                 exp.3m         exponential, logarithm, power, square root
       log10               exp.3m         exponential, logarithm, power, square root
       long                long.3f        integer object conversion
       longjmp             setjmp.3       non-local goto
       lstat               stat.3f        get file status
       ltime               time.3f        return system time
       malloc              malloc.3       memory allocator
       mktemp              mktemp.3       make a unique file name
       modf                frexp.3        split into mantissa and exponent
       moncontrol          monitor.3      prepare execution profile
       monitor             monitor.3      prepare execution profile
       monstartup          monitor.3      prepare execution profile
       move                plot.3x        graphics interface
       nextkey             dbm.3x         data base subroutines
       nice                nice.3c        set program priority
       nlist               nlist.3        get entries from name list
       ntohl               byteorder.3n   convert values between host and network byte order
       ntohs               byteorder.3n   convert values between host and network byte order
       opendir             directory.3    directory operations
       openlog             syslog.3       control system log
       pause               pause.3c       stop until signal
       pclose              popen.3        initiate I/O to/from a process
       perror              perror.3       system error messages
       perror              perror.3f      get system error messages
       plot: openpl        plot.3x        graphics interface
       point               plot.3x        graphics interface
       popen               popen.3        initiate I/O to/from a process
       pow                 exp.3m         exponential, logarithm, power, square root
       printf              printf.3s      formatted output conversion
       psignal             psignal.3      system signal messages
       putc                putc.3f        write a character to a fortran logical unit
       putc                putc.3s        put character or word on a stream
       putchar             putc.3s        put character or word on a stream
       puts                puts.3s        put a string on a stream
       putw                putc.3s        put character or word on a stream
       qsort               qsort.3        quicker sort
       qsort               qsort.3f       quick sort
       rand                rand.3c        random number generator
       rand                rand.3f        return random values
       random              random.3       better random number generator
       rcmd                rcmd.3x        routines for returning a stream to a remote command
       re_comp             regex.3        regular expression handler
       re_exec             regex.3        regular expression handler
       readdir             directory.3    directory operations
       realloc             malloc.3       memory allocator
       remque              insque.3       insert/remove element from a queue
       rename              rename.3f      rename a file
       rewind              fseek.3s       reposition a stream
       rewinddir           directory.3    directory operations
       rexec               rexec.3x       return stream to a remote command
       rindex              index.3f       tell about character objects
       rindex              string.3       string operations
       rresvport           rcmd.3x        routines for returning a stream to a remote command
       ruserok             rcmd.3x        routines for returning a stream to a remote command
       scandir             scandir.3      scan a directory
       scanf               scanf.3s       formatted input conversion
       seekdir             directory.3    directory operations
       setbuf              setbuf.3s      assign buffering to a stream
       setbuffer           setbuf.3s      assign buffering to a stream
       setegid             setuid.3       set user and group ID
       seteuid             setuid.3       set user and group ID
       setfsent            getfsent.3x    get file system descriptor file entry
       setgid              setuid.3       set user and group ID
       setgrent            getgrent.3     get group file entry
       sethostent          gethostent.3n  get network host entry
       setjmp              setjmp.3       non-local goto
       setkey              crypt.3        DES encryption
       setlinebuf          setbuf.3s      assign buffering to a stream
       setnetent           getnetent.3n   get network entry
       setprotoent         getprotoent.3n get protocol entry
       setpwent            getpwent.3     get password file entry
       setrgid             setuid.3       set user and group ID
       setruid             setuid.3       set user and group ID
       setservent          getservent.3n  get service entry
       setstate            random.3       better random number generator
       setuid              setuid.3       set user and group ID
       short               long.3f        integer object conversion
       signal              signal.3       simplified software signal facilities
       signal              signal.3f      change the action for a signal
       sin                 sin.3m         trigonometric functions
       sinh                sinh.3m        hyperbolic functions
       sleep               sleep.3        suspend execution for interval
       sleep               sleep.3f       suspend execution for an interval
       space               plot.3x        graphics interface
       sprintf             printf.3s      formatted output conversion
       sqrt                exp.3m         exponential, logarithm, power, square root
       srand               rand.3c        random number generator
       srandom             random.3       better random number generator
       sscanf              scanf.3s       formatted input conversion
       stat                stat.3f        get file status
       stdio               intro.3s       standard buffered input/output package
       store               dbm.3x         data base subroutines
       strcat              string.3       string operations
       strcmp              string.3       string operations
       strcpy              string.3       string operations
       strlen              string.3       string operations
       strncat             string.3       string operations
       strncmp             string.3       string operations
       strncpy             string.3       string operations
       stty                stty.3c        set and get terminal state (defunct)
       swab                swab.3         swap bytes
       sys_errlist         perror.3       system error messages
       sys_nerr            perror.3       system error messages
       sys_siglist         psignal.3      system signal messages
       syslog              syslog.3       control system log
       system              system.3       issue a shell command
       system              system.3f      execute a UNIX command
       tan                 sin.3m         trigonometric functions
       tanh                sinh.3m        hyperbolic functions
       tclose              topen.3f       f77 tape I/O
       telldir             directory.3    directory operations
       tgetent             termcap.3x     terminal independent operation routines
       tgetflag            termcap.3x     terminal independent operation routines
       tgetnum             termcap.3x     terminal independent operation routines
       tgetstr             termcap.3x     terminal independent operation routines
       tgoto               termcap.3x     terminal independent operation routines
       time                time.3c        get date and time
       time                time.3f        return system time
       times               times.3c       get process times
       timezone            ctime.3        convert date and time to ASCII
       topen               topen.3f       f77 tape I/O
       tputs               termcap.3x     terminal independent operation routines
       traper              traper.3f      trap arithmetic errors
       trapov              trapov.3f      trap and repair floating point overflow
       tread               topen.3f       f77 tape I/O
       trewin              topen.3f       f77 tape I/O
       trpfpe              trpfpe.3f      trap and repair floating point faults
       tskipf              topen.3f       f77 tape I/O
       tstate              topen.3f       f77 tape I/O
       ttynam              ttynam.3f      find name of a terminal port
       ttyname             ttyname.3      find name of a terminal
       ttyslot             ttyname.3      find name of a terminal
       twrite              topen.3f       f77 tape I/O
       ungetc              ungetc.3s      push character back into input stream
       unlink              unlink.3f      remove a directory entry
       utime               utime.3c       set file times
       valloc              valloc.3       aligned memory allocator
       varargs             varargs.3      variable argument list
       vlimit              vlimit.3c      control maximum system resource consumption
       vtimes              vtimes.3c      get information about resource utilization
       wait                wait.3f        wait for a process to terminate
       y0                  j0.3m          bessel functions
       y1                  j0.3m          bessel functions
       yn                  j0.3m          bessel functions



4th Berkeley Distribution        2 April 1983                         INTRO(3)