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RANDOM(3)                  Library Functions Manual                  RANDOM(3)

       random,  srandom, initstate, setstate - better random number generator;
       routines for changing generators

       long random()

       int seed;

       char *initstate(seed, state, n)
       unsigned seed;
       char *state;
       int n;

       char *setstate(state)
       char *state;

       random() uses a non-linear additive feedback  random  number  generator
       employing a default table of size 31 long integers to return successive
       pseudo-random numbers in the range from 0 to (2**31)-1.  The period  of
       this   random   number   generator   is   very   large,   approximately

       random/srandom have (almost) the same calling sequence and  initializa-
       tion  properties  as  rand/srand.  The difference is that rand(3V) pro-
       duces a much less random sequence -- in fact, the low dozen bits gener-
       ated  by  rand  go through a cyclic pattern.  All the bits generated by
       random() are usable.  For example,


       will produce a random binary value.

       Unlike srand, srandom() does not return the old seed;  the  reason  for
       this  is  that the amount of state information used is much more than a
       single word.  (Two other routines are provided to  deal  with  restart-
       ing/changing  random  number generators).  Like rand(3V), however, ran-
       dom() will by default produce a sequence of numbers that can be  dupli-
       cated by calling srandom() with 1 as the seed.

       The initstate() routine allows a state array, passed in as an argument,
       to be initialized for future use.  The size  of  the  state  array  (in
       bytes) is used by initstate() to decide how sophisticated a random num-
       ber generator it should use -- the more state, the  better  the  random
       numbers  will  be.  (Current ``optimal'' values for the amount of state
       information are 8, 32, 64, 128, and 256 bytes; other  amounts  will  be
       rounded down to the nearest known amount.  Using less than 8 bytes will
       cause an error).  The seed for the initialization  (which  specifies  a
       starting  point  for  the  random  number  sequence,  and  provides for
       restarting at the same point) is also an argument.  initstate() returns
       a pointer to the previous state information array.

       Once  a state has been initialized, the setstate() routine provides for
       rapid switching between states.  setstate() returns a  pointer  to  the
       previous state array; its argument state array is used for further ran-
       dom number generation until the next call to initstate() or setstate().

       Once a state array has been initialized, it may be restarted at a  dif-
       ferent  point either by calling initstate() (with the desired seed, the
       state array, and its size) or by  calling  both  setstate()  (with  the
       state  array)  and srandom() (with the desired seed).  The advantage of
       calling both setstate() and srandom() is that the  size  of  the  state
       array does not have to be remembered after it is initialized.

       With  256  bytes  of state information, the period of the random number
       generator is greater than 2**69 which should  be  sufficient  for  most


              /* Initialize and array and pass it in to initstate. */
              static long state1[32] = {
                   0x9a319039, 0x32d9c024, 0x9b663182, 0x5da1f342,
                   0x7449e56b, 0xbeb1dbb0, 0xab5c5918, 0x946554fd,
                   0x8c2e680f, 0xeb3d799f, 0xb11ee0b7, 0x2d436b86,
                   0xda672e2a, 0x1588ca88, 0xe369735d, 0x904f35f7,
                   0xd7158fd6, 0x6fa6f051, 0x616e6b96, 0xac94efdc,
                   0xde3b81e0, 0xdf0a6fb5, 0xf103bc02, 0x48f340fb,
                   0x36413f93, 0xc622c298, 0xf5a42ab8, 0x8a88d77b,
                   0xf5ad9d0e, 0x8999220b, 0x27fb47b9
                   unsigned seed;
                   int n;
                   seed = 1;
                   n = 128;
                   initstate(seed, (char *) state1, n);

       If  initstate()  is called with less than 8 bytes of state information,
       or if setstate() detects that the state information has  been  garbled,
       error messages are printed on the standard error output.

       initstate() casts state to (long *), so state must be long-aligned.  If
       it is not long-aligned, on some architectures  the  program  will  dump

       random() is only 2/3 as fast as rand(3V).

                                6 October 1987                       RANDOM(3)