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GETCWD(3)                   BSD Programmer's Manual                  GETCWD(3)

     getcwd - get working directory pathname

     #include <&lt;stdio.h>&gt;

     char *
     getcwd(char *buf, size_t size);

     char *
     getwd(char *buf);

     The getcwd() function copies the absolute pathname of the current working
     directory into the memory referenced by buf and returns a pointer to buf.
     The size argument is the size, in bytes, of the array referenced by buf.

     If buf is NULL, space is allocated as necessary to store the pathname.
     This space may later be free(3)'d.

     The function getwd() is a compatibility routine which calls getcwd() with
     its buf argument and a size of MAXPATHLEN (as defined in the include file
     <sys/param.h>). Obviously, buf should be at least MAXPATHLEN bytes in

     These routines have traditionally been used by programs to save the name
     of a working directory for the purpose of returning to it.  A much faster
     and less error-prone method of accomplishing this is to open the current
     directory (`.') and use the fchdir(2) function to return.

     Upon successful completion, a pointer to the pathname is returned.  Oth-
     erwise a NULL pointer is returned and the global variable errno is set to
     indicate the error.  In addition, getwd() copies the error message asso-
     ciated with errno into the memory referenced by buf.

     The getcwd() function will fail if:

     [EACCESS]  Read or search permission was denied for a component of the

     [EINVAL]   The size argument is zero.

     [ENOENT]   A component of the pathname no longer exists.

     [ENOMEM]   Insufficient memory is available.

     [ERANGE]   The size argument is greater than zero but smaller than the
                length of the pathname plus 1.

     chdir(2),  fchdir(2),  malloc(3),  strerror(3)

     The getcwd() function conforms to ANSI C X3.159-1989 (``ANSI C ''). The
     ability to specify a NULL pointer and have getcwd() allocate memory as
     necessary is an extension.

     The getwd() function appeared in 4.0BSD.

     The getwd() function does not do sufficient error checking and is not
     able to return very long, but valid, paths.  It is provided for compati-

4.2 Berkeley Distribution      December 11, 1993                             2