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CTIME(3)                   Library Functions Manual                   CTIME(3)



NAME
       ctime, localtime, gmtime, asctime, timezone -  convert date and time to
       ASCII

SYNOPSIS
       char *ctime(clock)
       long *clock;

       #include <&lt;time.h>&gt;

       struct tm *localtime(clock)
       long *clock;

       struct tm *gmtime(clock)
       long *clock;

       char *asctime(tm)
       struct tm *tm;

       char *timezone(zone, dst)

DESCRIPTION
       Ctime converts a time pointed to by clock such as returned  by  time(2)
       into  ASCII  and returns a pointer to a 26-character string in the fol-
       lowing form.  All the fields have constant width.

           Sun Sep 16 01:03:52 1973\n\0

       Localtime and gmtime return pointers to structures containing the  bro-
       ken-down  time.  Localtime corrects for the time zone and possible day-
       light savings time; gmtime converts directly to GMT, which is the  time
       UNIX  uses.  Asctime converts a broken-down time to ASCII and returns a
       pointer to a 26-character string.

       The structure declaration from the include file is:

              /* Copyright (C) 1991-2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
                 This file is part of the GNU C Library.

                 The GNU C Library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
                 modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
                 License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
                 version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

                 The GNU C Library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
                 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
                 MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
                 Lesser General Public License for more details.

                 You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
                 License along with the GNU C Library; if not, see
                 <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>;.  */

              /*
               *   ISO C99 Standard: 7.23 Date and time    <time.h>
               */

              #ifndef   _TIME_H

              #if (! defined __need_time_t && !defined __need_clock_t &&      ! defined __need_timespec)
              # define _TIME_H    1
              # include <features.h>

              __BEGIN_DECLS

              #endif

              #ifdef    _TIME_H
              /* Get size_t and NULL from <stddef.h>.  */
              # define __need_size_t
              # define __need_NULL
              # include <stddef.h>

              /* This defines CLOCKS_PER_SEC, which is the number of processor clock
                 ticks per second.  */
              # include <bits/time.h>

              /* This is the obsolete POSIX.1-1988 name for the same constant.  */
              # if !defined __STRICT_ANSI__ && !defined __USE_XOPEN2K
              #  ifndef CLK_TCK
              #   define CLK_TCK  CLOCKS_PER_SEC
              #  endif
              # endif

              #endif /* <time.h> included.  */

              #if !defined __clock_t_defined && (defined _TIME_H || defined __need_clock_t)
              # define __clock_t_defined    1

              # include <bits/types.h>

              __BEGIN_NAMESPACE_STD
              /* Returned by `clock'.  */
              typedef __clock_t clock_t;
              __END_NAMESPACE_STD
              #if defined __USE_XOPEN || defined __USE_POSIX
              __USING_NAMESPACE_STD(clock_t)
              #endif

              #endif /* clock_t not defined and <time.h> or need clock_t.  */
              #undef    __need_clock_t

              #if !defined __time_t_defined && (defined _TIME_H || defined __need_time_t)
              # define __time_t_defined     1

              # include <bits/types.h>

              __BEGIN_NAMESPACE_STD
              /* Returned by `time'.  */
              typedef __time_t time_t;
              __END_NAMESPACE_STD
              #ifdef __USE_POSIX
              __USING_NAMESPACE_STD(time_t)
              #endif

              #endif /* time_t not defined and <time.h> or need time_t.  */
              #undef    __need_time_t

              #if !defined __clockid_t_defined &&    ((defined _TIME_H && defined __USE_POSIX199309) || defined __need_clockid_t)
              # define __clockid_t_defined  1

              # include <bits/types.h>

              /* Clock ID used in clock and timer functions.  */
              typedef __clockid_t clockid_t;

              #endif /* clockid_t not defined and <time.h> or need clockid_t.  */
              #undef    __clockid_time_t

              #if !defined __timer_t_defined &&     ((defined _TIME_H && defined __USE_POSIX199309) || defined __need_timer_t)
              # define __timer_t_defined    1

              # include <bits/types.h>

              /* Timer ID returned by `timer_create'.  */
              typedef __timer_t timer_t;

              #endif /* timer_t not defined and <time.h> or need timer_t.  */
              #undef    __need_timer_t


              #if (!defined __timespec_defined                            && ((defined _TIME_H                                     && (defined __USE_POSIX199309                                   || defined __USE_ISOC11))                              || defined __need_timespec))
              # define __timespec_defined   1

              # include <bits/types.h> /* This defines __time_t for us.  */

              /* POSIX.1b structure for a time value.  This is like a `struct timeval' but
                 has nanoseconds instead of microseconds.  */
              struct timespec
                {
                  __time_t tv_sec;          /* Seconds.  */
                  __syscall_slong_t tv_nsec;     /* Nanoseconds.  */
                };

              #endif /* timespec not defined and <time.h> or need timespec.  */
              #undef    __need_timespec


              #ifdef    _TIME_H
              __BEGIN_NAMESPACE_STD
              /* Used by other time functions.  */
              struct tm
              {
                int tm_sec;            /* Seconds.    [0-60] (1 leap second) */
                int tm_min;            /* Minutes.    [0-59] */
                int tm_hour;           /* Hours. [0-23] */
                int tm_mday;           /* Day.        [1-31] */
                int tm_mon;            /* Month. [0-11] */
                int tm_year;           /* Year   - 1900.  */
                int tm_wday;           /* Day of week.     [0-6] */
                int tm_yday;           /* Days in year.[0-365]  */
                int tm_isdst;               /* DST.        [-1/0/1]*/

              # ifdef   __USE_MISC
                long int tm_gmtoff;         /* Seconds east of UTC.  */
                const char *tm_zone;        /* Timezone abbreviation.  */
              # else
                long int __tm_gmtoff;       /* Seconds east of UTC.  */
                const char *__tm_zone; /* Timezone abbreviation.  */
              # endif
              };
              __END_NAMESPACE_STD
              #if defined __USE_XOPEN || defined __USE_POSIX
              __USING_NAMESPACE_STD(tm)
              #endif


              # ifdef __USE_POSIX199309
              /* POSIX.1b structure for timer start values and intervals.  */
              struct itimerspec
                {
                  struct timespec it_interval;
                  struct timespec it_value;
                };

              /* We can use a simple forward declaration.  */
              struct sigevent;

              # endif   /* POSIX.1b */

              # ifdef __USE_XOPEN2K
              #  ifndef __pid_t_defined
              typedef __pid_t pid_t;
              #   define __pid_t_defined
              #  endif
              # endif


              # ifdef __USE_ISOC11
              /* Time base values for timespec_get.  */
              # define TIME_UTC 1
              # endif


              __BEGIN_NAMESPACE_STD
              /* Time used by the program so far (user time + system time).
                 The result / CLOCKS_PER_SECOND is program time in seconds.  */
              extern clock_t clock (void) __THROW;

              /* Return the current time and put it in *TIMER if TIMER is not NULL.  */
              extern time_t time (time_t *__timer) __THROW;

              /* Return the difference between TIME1 and TIME0.  */
              extern double difftime (time_t __time1, time_t __time0)
                   __THROW __attribute__ ((__const__));

              /* Return the `time_t' representation of TP and normalize TP.  */
              extern time_t mktime (struct tm *__tp) __THROW;


              /* Format TP into S according to FORMAT.
                 Write no more than MAXSIZE characters and return the number
                 of characters written, or 0 if it would exceed MAXSIZE.  */
              extern size_t strftime (char *__restrict __s, size_t __maxsize,
                             const char *__restrict __format,
                             const struct tm *__restrict __tp) __THROW;
              __END_NAMESPACE_STD

              # ifdef __USE_XOPEN
              /* Parse S according to FORMAT and store binary time information in TP.
                 The return value is a pointer to the first unparsed character in S.  */
              extern char *strptime (const char *__restrict __s,
                               const char *__restrict __fmt, struct tm *__tp)
                   __THROW;
              # endif

              # ifdef __USE_XOPEN2K8
              /* Similar to the two functions above but take the information from
                 the provided locale and not the global locale.  */
              # include <xlocale.h>

              extern size_t strftime_l (char *__restrict __s, size_t __maxsize,
                               const char *__restrict __format,
                               const struct tm *__restrict __tp,
                               __locale_t __loc) __THROW;
              # endif

              # ifdef __USE_GNU
              extern char *strptime_l (const char *__restrict __s,
                              const char *__restrict __fmt, struct tm *__tp,
                              __locale_t __loc) __THROW;
              # endif


              __BEGIN_NAMESPACE_STD
              /* Return the `struct tm' representation of *TIMER
                 in Universal Coordinated Time (aka Greenwich Mean Time).  */
              extern struct tm *gmtime (const time_t *__timer) __THROW;

              /* Return the `struct tm' representation
                 of *TIMER in the local timezone.  */
              extern struct tm *localtime (const time_t *__timer) __THROW;
              __END_NAMESPACE_STD

              # ifdef __USE_POSIX
              /* Return the `struct tm' representation of *TIMER in UTC,
                 using *TP to store the result.  */
              extern struct tm *gmtime_r (const time_t *__restrict __timer,
                                 struct tm *__restrict __tp) __THROW;

              /* Return the `struct tm' representation of *TIMER in local time,
                 using *TP to store the result.  */
              extern struct tm *localtime_r (const time_t *__restrict __timer,
                                    struct tm *__restrict __tp) __THROW;
              # endif   /* POSIX */

              __BEGIN_NAMESPACE_STD
              /* Return a string of the form "Day Mon dd hh:mm:ss yyyy0
                 that is the representation of TP in this format.  */
              extern char *asctime (const struct tm *__tp) __THROW;

              /* Equivalent to `asctime (localtime (timer))'.  */
              extern char *ctime (const time_t *__timer) __THROW;
              __END_NAMESPACE_STD

              # ifdef __USE_POSIX
              /* Reentrant versions of the above functions.  */

              /* Return in BUF a string of the form "Day Mon dd hh:mm:ss yyyy0
                 that is the representation of TP in this format.  */
              extern char *asctime_r (const struct tm *__restrict __tp,
                             char *__restrict __buf) __THROW;

              /* Equivalent to `asctime_r (localtime_r (timer, *TMP*), buf)'.  */
              extern char *ctime_r (const time_t *__restrict __timer,
                              char *__restrict __buf) __THROW;
              # endif   /* POSIX */


              /* Defined in localtime.c.  */
              extern char *__tzname[2];     /* Current timezone names.  */
              extern int __daylight;        /* If daylight-saving time is ever in use.  */
              extern long int __timezone;   /* Seconds west of UTC.  */


              # ifdef   __USE_POSIX
              /* Same as above.  */
              extern char *tzname[2];

              /* Set time conversion information from the TZ environment variable.
                 If TZ is not defined, a locale-dependent default is used.  */
              extern void tzset (void) __THROW;
              # endif

              # if defined __USE_MISC || defined __USE_XOPEN
              extern int daylight;
              extern long int timezone;
              # endif

              # ifdef __USE_MISC
              /* Set the system time to *WHEN.
                 This call is restricted to the superuser.  */
              extern int stime (const time_t *__when) __THROW;
              # endif


              /* Nonzero if YEAR is a leap year (every 4 years,
                 except every 100th isn't, and every 400th is).  */
              # define __isleap(year)    ((year) % 4 == 0 && ((year) % 100 != 0 || (year) % 400 == 0))


              # ifdef __USE_MISC
              /* Miscellaneous functions many Unices inherited from the public domain
                 localtime package.  These are included only for compatibility.  */

              /* Like `mktime', but for TP represents Universal Time, not local time.  */
              extern time_t timegm (struct tm *__tp) __THROW;

              /* Another name for `mktime'.  */
              extern time_t timelocal (struct tm *__tp) __THROW;

              /* Return the number of days in YEAR.  */
              extern int dysize (int __year) __THROW  __attribute__ ((__const__));
              # endif


              # ifdef __USE_POSIX199309
              /* Pause execution for a number of nanoseconds.

                 This function is a cancellation point and therefore not marked with
                 __THROW.  */
              extern int nanosleep (const struct timespec *__requested_time,
                              struct timespec *__remaining);


              /* Get resolution of clock CLOCK_ID.  */
              extern int clock_getres (clockid_t __clock_id, struct timespec *__res) __THROW;

              /* Get current value of clock CLOCK_ID and store it in TP.  */
              extern int clock_gettime (clockid_t __clock_id, struct timespec *__tp) __THROW;

              /* Set clock CLOCK_ID to value TP.  */
              extern int clock_settime (clockid_t __clock_id, const struct timespec *__tp)
                   __THROW;

              #  ifdef __USE_XOPEN2K
              /* High-resolution sleep with the specified clock.

                 This function is a cancellation point and therefore not marked with
                 __THROW.  */
              extern int clock_nanosleep (clockid_t __clock_id, int __flags,
                                 const struct timespec *__req,
                                 struct timespec *__rem);

              /* Return clock ID for CPU-time clock.  */
              extern int clock_getcpuclockid (pid_t __pid, clockid_t *__clock_id) __THROW;
              #  endif


              /* Create new per-process timer using CLOCK_ID.  */
              extern int timer_create (clockid_t __clock_id,
                              struct sigevent *__restrict __evp,
                              timer_t *__restrict __timerid) __THROW;

              /* Delete timer TIMERID.  */
              extern int timer_delete (timer_t __timerid) __THROW;

              /* Set timer TIMERID to VALUE, returning old value in OVALUE.  */
              extern int timer_settime (timer_t __timerid, int __flags,
                               const struct itimerspec *__restrict __value,
                               struct itimerspec *__restrict __ovalue) __THROW;

              /* Get current value of timer TIMERID and store it in VALUE.  */
              extern int timer_gettime (timer_t __timerid, struct itimerspec *__value)
                   __THROW;

              /* Get expiration overrun for timer TIMERID.  */
              extern int timer_getoverrun (timer_t __timerid) __THROW;
              # endif


              # ifdef __USE_ISOC11
              /* Set TS to calendar time based in time base BASE.  */
              extern int timespec_get (struct timespec *__ts, int __base)
                   __THROW __nonnull ((1));
              # endif


              # ifdef __USE_XOPEN_EXTENDED
              /* Set to one of the following values to indicate an error.
                   1  the DATEMSK environment variable is null or undefined,
                   2  the template file cannot be opened for reading,
                   3  failed to get file status information,
                   4  the template file is not a regular file,
                   5  an error is encountered while reading the template file,
                   6  memory allication failed (not enough memory available),
                   7  there is no line in the template that matches the input,
                   8  invalid input specification Example: February 31 or a time is
                   specified that can not be represented in a time_t (representing
                   the time in seconds since 00:00:00 UTC, January 1, 1970) */
              extern int getdate_err;

              /* Parse the given string as a date specification and return a value
                 representing the value.  The templates from the file identified by
                 the environment variable DATEMSK are used.  In case of an error
                 `getdate_err' is set.

                 This function is a possible cancellation point and therefore not
                 marked with __THROW.  */
              extern struct tm *getdate (const char *__string);
              # endif

              # ifdef __USE_GNU
              /* Since `getdate' is not reentrant because of the use of `getdate_err'
                 and the static buffer to return the result in, we provide a thread-safe
                 variant.  The functionality is the same.  The result is returned in
                 the buffer pointed to by RESBUFP and in case of an error the return
                 value is != 0 with the same values as given above for `getdate_err'.

                 This function is not part of POSIX and therefore no official
                 cancellation point.  But due to similarity with an POSIX interface
                 or due to the implementation it is a cancellation point and
                 therefore not marked with __THROW.  */
              extern int getdate_r (const char *__restrict __string,
                              struct tm *__restrict __resbufp);
              # endif

              __END_DECLS

              #endif /* <time.h> included.  */

              #endif /* <time.h> not already included.  */

       These quantities give the time on a 24-hour clock, day of month (1-31),
       month  of  year  (0-11),  day of week (Sunday = 0), year - 1900, day of
       year (0-365), and a flag that is nonzero if daylight saving time is  in
       effect.

       When  local  time  is  called  for,  the program consults the system to
       determine the time zone and whether the standard U.S.A. daylight saving
       time adjustment is appropriate.  The program knows about the peculiari-
       ties of this conversion in 1974 and 1975; if  necessary,  a  table  for
       these years can be extended.

       Timezone  returns  the  name of the time zone associated with its first
       argument, which is measured in minutes westward from Greenwich.  If the
       second argument is 0, the standard name is used, otherwise the Daylight
       Saving version.  If the required name does not appear in a table  built
       into  the  routine,  the  difference  from  GMT  is  produced; e.g.  in
       Afghanistan timezone(-(60*4+30), 0) is appropriate because it  is  4:30
       ahead of GMT and the string GMT+4:30 is produced.

SEE ALSO
       time(2)

BUGS
       The  return values point to static data whose content is overwritten by
       each call.



                                                                      CTIME(3)