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IP(3pm)               User Contributed Perl Documentation              IP(3pm)



NAME
       Net::IP - Perl extension for manipulating IPv4/IPv6 addresses

SYNOPSIS
         use Net::IP;

         my $ip = new Net::IP ('193.0.1/24') or die (Net::IP::Error());
         print ("IP  : ".$ip->ip()."\n");
         print ("Sho : ".$ip->short()."\n");
         print ("Bin : ".$ip->binip()."\n");
         print ("Int : ".$ip->intip()."\n");
         print ("Mask: ".$ip->mask()."\n");
         print ("Last: ".$ip->last_ip()."\n");
         print ("Len : ".$ip->prefixlen()."\n");
         print ("Size: ".$ip->size()."\n");
         print ("Type: ".$ip->iptype()."\n");
         print ("Rev:  ".$ip->reverse_ip()."\n");

DESCRIPTION
       This module provides functions to deal with IPv4/IPv6 addresses. The
       module can be used as a class, allowing the user to instantiate IP
       objects, which can be single IP addresses, prefixes, or ranges of
       addresses. There is also a procedural way of accessing most of the
       functions. Most subroutines can take either IPv4 or IPv6 addresses
       transparently.

OBJECT-ORIENTED INTERFACE
       Object Creation

       A Net::IP object can be created from a single IP address:

         $ip = new Net::IP ('193.0.1.46') || die ...

       Or from a Classless Prefix (a /24 prefix is equivalent to a C class):

         $ip = new Net::IP ('195.114.80/24') || die ...

       Or from a range of addresses:

         $ip = new Net::IP ('20.34.101.207 - 201.3.9.99') || die ...

       Or from a address plus a number:

         $ip = new Net::IP ('20.34.10.0 + 255') || die ...

       The new() function accepts IPv4 and IPv6 addresses:

         $ip = new Net::IP ('dead:beef::/32') || die ...

       Optionnaly, the function can be passed the version of the IP. Other-
       wise, it tries to guess what the version is (see _is_ipv4() and
       _is_ipv6()).

         $ip = new Net::IP ('195/8',4); # Class A

OBJECT METHODS
       Most of these methods are front-ends for the real functions, which use
       a procedural interface. Most functions return undef on failure, and a
       true value on success. A detailed description of the procedural inter-
       face is provided below.

       set

       Set an IP address in an existing IP object. This method has the same
       functionality as the new() method, except that it reuses an existing
       object to store the new IP.

       "$ip->set('130.23.1/24',4);"

       Like new(), set() takes two arguments - a string used to build an IP
       address, prefix, or range, and optionally, the IP version of the con-
       sidered address.

       It returns an IP object on success, and undef on failure.

       error

       Return the current object error string. The error string is set when-
       ever one of the methods produces an error. Also, a global, class-wide
       Error() function is avaliable.

       "warn ($ip->error());"

       errno

       Return the current object error number. The error number is set when-
       ever one of the methods produces an error. Also, a global $ERRNO vari-
       able is set when an error is produced.

       "warn ($ip->errno());"

       ip

       Return the IP address (or first IP of the prefix or range) in quad for-
       mat, as a string.

       "print ($ip->ip());"

       binip

       Return the IP address as a binary string of 0s and 1s.

       "print ($ip->binip());"

       prefixlen

       Return the length in bits of the current prefix.

       "print ($ip->prefixlen());"

       version

       Return the version of the current IP object (4 or 6).

       "print ($ip->version());"

       size

       Return the number of IP addresses in the current prefix or range.  Use
       of this function requires Math::BigInt.

       "print ($ip->size());"

       binmask

       Return the binary mask of the current prefix, if applicable.

       "print ($ip->binmask());"

       mask

       Return the mask in quad format of the current prefix.

       "print ($ip->mask());"

       prefix

       Return the full prefix (ip+prefix length) in quad (standard) format.

       "print ($ip->prefix());"

       print

       Print the IP object (IP/Prefix or First - Last)

       "print ($ip->print());"

       intip

       Convert the IP in integer format and return it as a Math::BigInt
       object.

       "print ($ip->intip());"

       hexip

       Return the IP in hex format

       "print ($ip->hexip());"

       hexmask

       Return the mask in hex format

       "print ($ip->hexmask());"

       short

       Return the IP in short format:      IPv4 addresses: 194.5/16      IPv6
       addresses: ab32:f000::

       "print ($ip->short());"

       iptype

       Return the IP Type - this describes the type of an IP (Public, Private,
       Reserved, etc.)

       "print ($ip->iptype());"

       reverse_ip

       Return the reverse IP for a given IP address (in.addr. format).

       "print ($ip->reserve_ip());"

       last_ip

       Return the last IP of a prefix/range in quad format.

       "print ($ip->last_ip());"

       last_bin

       Return the last IP of a prefix/range in binary format.

       "print ($ip->last_bin());"

       last_int

       Return the last IP of a prefix/range in integer format.

       "print ($ip->last_int());"

       find_prefixes

       This function finds all the prefixes that can be found between the two
       addresses of a range. The function returns a list of prefixes.

       "@list = $ip->find_prefixes($other_ip));"

       bincomp

       Binary comparaison of two IP objects. The function takes an operation
       and an IP object as arguments. It returns a boolean value.

       The operation can be one of: lt: less than (smaller than) le: smaller
       or equal to gt: greater than ge: greater or equal to

       "if ($ip->bincomp('lt',$ip2) {...}"

       binadd

       Binary addition of two IP objects. The value returned is an IP object.

       "my $sum = $ip->binadd($ip2);"

       aggregate

       Aggregate 2 IPs - Append one range/prefix of IPs to another. The last
       address of the first range must be the one immediately preceding the
       first address of the second range. A new IP object is returned.

       "my $total = $ip->aggregate($ip2);"

       overlaps

       Check if two IP ranges/prefixes overlap each other. The value returned
       by the function should be one of:      $IP_PARTIAL_OVERLAP (ranges
       overlap)      $IP_NO_OVERLAP      (no overlap)      $IP_A_IN_B_OVERLAP
       (range2 contains range1)      $IP_B_IN_A_OVERLAP  (range1 contains
       range2)      $IP_IDENTICAL       (ranges are identical)      undef
       (problem)

       "if ($ip->overlaps($ip2)==$IP_A_IN_B_OVERLAP) {...};"

       looping

       The "+" operator is overloaded in order to allow looping though a whole
       range of IP addresses:

         my $ip = new Net::IP ('195.45.6.7 - 195.45.6.19') || die;
         # Loop
         do {
             print $ip->ip(), "\n";
         } while (++$ip);

       The ++ operator returns undef when the last address of the range is
       reached.

       auth

       Return IP authority information from the IP::Authority module

       "$auth = ip-"auth ();>

       Note: IPv4 only

PROCEDURAL INTERFACE
       These functions do the real work in the module. Like the OO methods,
       most of these return undef on failure. In order to access error codes
       and strings, instead of using $ip->error() and $ip->errno(), use the
       global functions "Error()" and "Errno()".

       The functions of the procedural interface are not exported by default.
       In order to import these functions, you need to modify the use state-
       ment for the module:

       "use Net::IP qw(:PROC);"

       Error

       Returns the error string corresponding to the last error generated in
       the module. This is also useful for the OO interface, as if the new()
       function fails, we cannot call $ip->error() and so we have to use
       Error().

       warn Error();

       Errno

       Returns a numeric error code corresponding to the error string returned
       by Error.

       ip_iptobin

       Transform an IP address into a bit string.

           Params  : IP address, IP version
           Returns : binary IP string on success, undef otherwise

       "$binip = ip_iptobin ($ip,6);"

       ip_bintoip

       Transform a bit string into an IP address

           Params  : binary IP, IP version
           Returns : IP address on success, undef otherwise

       "$ip = ip_bintoip ($binip,6);"

       ip_bintoint

       Transform a bit string into a BigInt.

           Params  : binary IP
           Returns : BigInt

       "$bigint = new Math::BigInt (ip_bintoint($binip));"

       ip_inttobin

       Transform a BigInt into a bit string.  Warning: sets warnings ("-w")
       off. This is necessary because Math::BigInt is not compliant.

           Params  : BigInt, IP version
           Returns : binary IP

       "$binip = ip_inttobin ($bigint);"

       ip_get_version

       Try to guess the IP version of an IP address.

           Params  : IP address
           Returns : 4, 6, undef(unable to determine)

       "$version = ip_get_version ($ip)"

       ip_is_ipv4

       Check if an IP address is of type 4.

           Params  : IP address
           Returns : 1 (yes) or 0 (no)

       "ip_is_ipv4($ip) and print "$ip is IPv4";"

       ip_is_ipv6

       Check if an IP address is of type 6.

           Params            : IP address
           Returns           : 1 (yes) or 0 (no)

       "ip_is_ipv6($ip) and print "$ip is IPv6";"

       ip_expand_address

       Expand an IP address from compact notation.

           Params  : IP address, IP version
           Returns : expanded IP address or undef on failure

       "$ip = ip_expand_address ($ip,4);"

       ip_get_mask

       Get IP mask from prefix length.

           Params  : Prefix length, IP version
           Returns : Binary Mask

       "$mask = ip_get_mask ($len,6);"

       ip_last_address_bin

       Return the last binary address of a prefix.

           Params  : First binary IP, prefix length, IP version
           Returns : Binary IP

       "$lastbin = ip_last_address_bin ($ip,$len,6);"

       ip_splitprefix

       Split a prefix into IP and prefix length.  If it was passed a simple
       IP, it just returns it.

           Params  : Prefix
           Returns : IP, optionnaly length of prefix

       "($ip,$len) = ip_splitprefix ($prefix)"

       ip_prefix_to_range

       Get a range of IPs from a prefix.

           Params  : Prefix, IP version
           Returns : First IP, last IP

       "($ip1,$ip2) = ip_prefix_to_range ($prefix,6);"

       ip_bincomp

       Compare binary Ips with <, >, <=, >=.
        Operators are lt(<), le(<=), gt(>), and ge(>=)

           Params  : First binary IP, operator, Last binary IP
           Returns : 1 (yes), 0 (no), or undef (problem)

       "ip_bincomp ($ip1,'lt',$ip2) == 1 or do {}"

       ip_binadd

       Add two binary IPs.

           Params  : First binary IP, Last binary IP
           Returns : Binary sum or undef (problem)

       "$binip = ip_binadd ($bin1,$bin2);"

       ip_get_prefix_length

       Get the prefix length for a given range of 2 IPs.

           Params  : First binary IP, Last binary IP
           Returns : Length of prefix or undef (problem)

       "$len = ip_get_prefix_length ($ip1,$ip2);"

       ip_range_to_prefix

       Return all prefixes between two IPs.

           Params  : First IP, Last IP, IP version
           Returns : List of Prefixes or undef (problem)

       The prefixes returned have the form q.q.q.q/nn.

       "@prefix = ip_range_to_prefix ($ip1,$ip2,6);"

       ip_compress_v4_prefix

       Compress an IPv4 Prefix.

           Params  : IP, Prefix length
           Returns : Compressed Prefix

       "$ip = ip_compress_v4_prefix ($ip, $len);"

       ip_compress_address

       Compress an IPv6 address. Just returns the IP if it is an IPv4.

           Params  : IP, IP version
           Returns : Compressed IP or undef (problem)

       "$ip = ip_compress_adress ($ip, $version);"

       ip_is_overlap

       Check if two ranges of IPs overlap.

           Params  : Four binary IPs (begin of range 1,end1,begin2,end2), IP version
               $IP_PARTIAL_OVERLAP (ranges overlap)
               $IP_NO_OVERLAP      (no overlap)
               $IP_A_IN_B_OVERLAP  (range2 contains range1)
               $IP_B_IN_A_OVERLAP  (range1 contains range2)
               $IP_IDENTICAL       (ranges are identical)
               undef               (problem)

       "(ip_is_overlap($rb1,$re1,$rb2,$re2,4) eq $IP_A_IN_B_OVERLAP) and do
       {};"

       ip_get_embedded_ipv4

       Get an IPv4 embedded in an IPv6 address

           Params  : IPv6
           Returns : IPv4 string or undef (not found)

       "$ip4 = ip_get_embedded($ip6);"

       ip_check_mask

       Check the validity of a binary IP mask

           Params  : Mask
           Returns : 1 or undef (invalid)

       "ip_check_mask($binmask) or do {};"

       Checks if mask has only 1s followed by 0s.

       ip_aggregate

       Aggregate 2 ranges of binary IPs

           Params  : 1st range (1st IP, Last IP), last range (1st IP, last IP), IP version
           Returns : prefix or undef (invalid)

       "$prefix = ip_aggregate ($bip1,$eip1,$bip2,$eip2) || die ..."

       ip_iptype

       Return the type of an IP (Public, Private, Reserved)

           Params  : IP to test, IP version
           Returns : type or undef (invalid)

       "$type = ip_iptype ($ip);"

       ip_check_prefix

       Check the validity of a prefix

           Params  : binary IP, length of prefix, IP version
           Returns : 1 or undef (invalid)

       Checks if the variant part of a prefix only has 0s, and the length is
       correct.

       "ip_check_prefix ($ip,$len,$ipv) or do {};"

       ip_reverse

       Get a reverse name from a prefix

           Params  : IP, length of prefix, IP version
           Returns : Reverse name or undef (error)

       "$reverse = ip_reverse ($ip);"

       ip_normalize

       Normalize data to a range/prefix of IP addresses

           Params  : Data String (Single IP, Range, Prefix)
           Returns : ip1, ip2 (if range/prefix) or undef (error)

       "($ip1,$ip2) = ip_normalize ($data);"

       ip_auth

       Return IP authority information from the IP::Authority module

           Params  : IP, version
           Returns : Auth info (RI for RIPE, AR for ARIN, etc)

       "$auth = ip_auth ($ip,4);"

       Note: IPv4 only

BUGS
       The Math::BigInt library is needed for functions that use integers.
       These are ip_inttobin, ip_bintoint, and the size method. In a next ver-
       sion, Math::BigInt will become optionnal.

AUTHORS
       Manuel Valente <manuel.valenteATgmail.com>.

       Original IPv4 code by Monica Cortes Sack <mcortesATripe.net>.

       Original IPv6 code by Lee Wilmot <leeATripe.net>.

BASED ON
       ipv4pack.pm, iplib.pm, iplibncc.pm.

SEE ALSO
       perl(1), IP::Authority



perl v5.8.8                       2006-05-22                           IP(3pm)