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Mail::Message::ConstruUserFContributed PMail::Message::Construct::Forward(3pm)

       Mail::Message::Construct::Forward - forwarding a Mail::Message

        my Mail::Message $forward = $message->forward(To => 'you');

       Complex functionality on Mail::Message objects is implemented in
       different files which are autoloaded.  This file implements the
       functionality related to creating forwarded messages.

       Constructing a message


           Forward the content of this message.  The body of the message to be
           forwarded is encapsulated in some accompanying text (if you have no
           wish for that, than "bounce" is your choice).  A Mail::Message
           object is returned on success.

           You may forward a whole message, but also message parts.  You may
           wish to overrule some of the default header settings for the reply
           immediately, or you may do that later with "set" on the header.

           When a multi-part body is encountered, and the message is included
           to ATTACH, the parts which look like signatures will be removed.
           If only one message remains, it will be the added as single
           attachment, otherwise a nested multipart will be the result.  The
           value of this option does not matter, as long as it is present.
           See "Mail::Message::Body::Multipart".

            Option    --Default
            Bcc         undef
            Cc          undef
            Date        <now>
            From        <'to' in current>
            Message-ID  <uniquely generated>
            Subject     forwardSubject()
            To          <required>
            body        undef
            include     <if body then 'NO' else C<'INLINE'>>
            preamble    constructed from prelude and postlude
            signature   undef

           . Bcc => ADDRESSES

               Receivers of blind carbon copies: their names will not be
               published to other message receivers.

           . Cc => ADDRESSES

               The carbon-copy receivers, by default none.

           . Date => DATE

               The date to be used in the message sent.

           . From => ADDRESSES

               Your identification, by default taken from the "To" field of
               the source message.

           . Message-ID => STRING

               Supply a STRING as specific message-id for the forwarded
               message.  By default, one is generated for you.  If there are
               no angles around your id, they will be added.

           . Subject => STRING|CODE

               Force the subject line to the specific STRING, or the result of
               the subroutine specified by CODE.  The subroutine will be
               called passing the subject of the original message as only
               argument.  By default, the forwardSubject() method is used.

           . To => ADDRESSES

               The destination of your message. Obligatory.  The ADDRESSES may
               be specified as string, a Mail::Address object, or as array of
               Mail::Address objects.

           . body => OBJECT

               If you specify a fully prepared body OBJECT, it will be used as
               forwarded message contents.  In this case, only the headers are
               constructed for you.

           . include => 'NO'|'INLINE'|'ATTACH'|'ENCAPSULATE'

               Must the message where this is a reply to be included in the
               message?  When "INLINE" is given, you may pass the options of
               forwardInline() as well.

               In many applications, the forward option "as attachment"
               results in a structure which is produced when this option is
               set to "ENCAPSULATE".  Their default behavior is usually

               It is only possible to inline textual messages, therefore
               binary or multi-part messages will always be enclosed as
               attachment.  Read the details in section "Creating a forward"..

           . preamble => STRING|BODY

               Part which is attached before the forwarded message.  If no
               preamble is given, then it is constructed from the prelude and
               postlude.  When these are also not present, you will still get
               a one liner: the result of forwardPrelude()

           . signature => BODY|MESSAGE

               The signature to be added in case of a multi-part forward.  The
               mime-type of the signature body should indicate this is a used
               as such.  However, in INLINE mode, the body will be taken, a
               line containing '-- ' added before it, and added behind the


           Forward the message as flat attachment to the specified "preamble".
           You can specify all options available to "forward()", although a
           "preamble" which is provided as body object is required, and any
           specified "body" is ignored.

            Option  --Default
            preamble  <required>

           . preamble => BODY|PART


           Like forwardAttach(), but in this case the original message is
           first encapsulated as nested message in a
           Mail::Message::Body::Nested, and then joint into a multipart.

           You can specify all options available to "forward()", although a
           "preamble" which is provided as body object is required, and any
           specified "body" is ignored.  Signatures are not stripped.
           Signatures are not stripped.

            Option  --Default
            preamble  <required>

           . preamble => BODY|PART


           This method is equivalent in behavior to forward() with the option
           "include" set to 'INLINE'.  You can specify most of the fields
           which are available to forward() except "include" and "body".

            Option         --Default
            is_attached      "[The forwarded message is attached]\n"
            max_signature    10
            postlude         undef
            prelude          undef
            quote            undef
            strip_signature  qr/^--\s/

           . is_attached => STRING

               A forward on binary messages can not be inlined.  Therefore,
               they are automatically translated into an attachment, as made
               by forwardAttach().  The obligatory preamble option to that
               method may be specified as option to this method, to be used in
               case of such a forward of a binary, but is otherwise
               constructed from the prelude, the value of this option, and the

           . max_signature => INTEGER

               Passed to Mail::Message::Body::stripSignature(max_lines).  Only
               effective for single-part messages.

           . postlude => BODY

               The line(s) which to be added after the quoted reply lines.
               Create a body for it first.  This should not include the
               signature, which has its own option.  The signature will be
               added after the postlude when the forwarded message is

           . prelude => BODY

               The line(s) which will be added before the quoted forwarded
               lines.  If nothing is specified, the result of the
               forwardPrelude() method is used.  When "undef" is specified, no
               prelude will be added.

           . quote => CODE|STRING

               Mangle the lines of an "INLINE"d reply with CODE, or by
               prepending a STRING to each line.  The routine specified by
               CODE is called when the line is in $_.

               By default, nothing is added before each line.  This option is
               processed after the body has been decoded.

           . strip_signature => REGEXP|STRING|CODE

               Remove the signature of the sender.  The value of this
               parameter is passed to
               Mail::Message::Body::stripSignature(pattern), unless the source
               text is not included.  The signature is stripped from the
               message before quoting.


           Construct a forward, where the whole body of the message is already
           constructed.  That complex body is usually produced in
           forwardInline(), forwardAttach(), or forwardEncapsulate().

           The OPTIONS are the same as for "forward()" except that "body" is
           required.  Some other options, like "preamble", are ignored.

            body    <required>

           . body => BODY


           Added after the forwarded message.


            ---- END forwarded message


           Create a few lines to be included before the forwarded message
           content.  The return is an array of lines.


            ---- BEGIN forwarded message
            From: himATsomewhere.nl (Original Sender)
            To: meATexample.com (Me the receiver)
            Cc: the.restATworld.net
            Date: Wed, 9 Feb 2000 15:44:05 -0500
            <blank line>


           Create a subject for a message which is a forward from this one.
           This routine tries to count the level of reply in subject field,
           and transform it into a standard form.  Please contribute


            subject                 --> Forw: subject
            Re: subject             --> Forw: Re: subject
            Re[X]: subject          --> Forw: Re[X]: subject
            <blank>                 --> Forwarded

       Creating a forward

       The main difference between bounce() and forward() is the reason for
       message processing.  The bounce has no intention to modify the content
       of message: the same information is passed-on to someplace else.  This
       may mean some conversions, but for instance, the Message-ID does not
       need to be changed.

       The purpose of forward() is to pass on information which is modified:
       annotated or reduced.  The information is not sent back to the author
       of the original message (which is implemented by reply()), but to
       someone else.

       So: some information comes in, is modified, and than forwarded to
       someone else.  Currently, there are four ways to get the original
       information included, which are explained in the next sections.

       After the creation of the forward, you may want to rebuild() the
       message to remove unnecessary complexities.  Of course, that is not

       forward, specify a body

       When you specify forward(body), you have created your own body object
       to be used as content of the forwarded message.  This implies that
       forward(include) is 'NO': no automatic generation of the forwarded

       forward, inline the original

       The forward(include) is set to 'INLINE' (the default) This is the most
       complicated situation, but most often used by MUAs: the original
       message is inserted textually in the new body.  You can set-up
       automatic stripping of signatures, the way of encapsulation, and texts
       which should be added before and after the encapsulated part.

       However, the result may not always be what you expect.  For instance,
       some people use very long signatures which will not be automatically
       stripped because the pass the threshold.  So, you probably need some
       manual intervention after the message is created and before it is sent.

       When a binary message is encountered, inlining is impossible.  In that
       case, the message is treated as if 'ENCAPSULATE' was requested.

       forward, attach the original

       When forward(include) is explicitly set to 'ATTACH' the result will be
       a multipart which contains two parts.  The first part will be your
       message, and the second the body of the original message.

       This means that the headers of the forwarded message are used for the
       new message, and detached from the part which now contains the original
       body information.  Content related headers will (of course) still be
       part of that part, but lines line "To" and "Subject" will not be stored
       with that part.

       As example of the structural transformation:

        # code: $original->printStructure;
        multipart/alternative: The source message
          text/plain: content in raw text
          text/html: content as html

        # code: $fwd = $original->forward(include => 'ATTACH');
        # code: $fwd->printStructure
        multipart/mixed: The source message
          text/plain: prelude/postlude/signature
            text/plain: content in raw text
            text/html: content as html

       forward, encapsulate the original

       When forward(include) is explicitly set to 'ENCAPSULATE', then the
       original message is left in-tact as good as possible.  The lines of the
       original message are used in the main message header but also enclosed
       in the part header.

       The encapsulation is implemented using a nested message, content type
       "message/rfc822".  As example of the structural transformation:

        # code: $original->printStructure;
        multipart/alternative: The source message
          text/plain: content in raw text
          text/html: content as html

        # code: $fwd = $original->forward(include => 'ENCAPSULATE');
        # code: $fwd->printStructure
        multipart/mixed: The source message
          text/plain: prelude/postlude/signature
             multipart/alternative: The source message
                text/plain: content in raw text
                text/html: content as html

       The message structure is much more complex, but no information is lost.
       This is probably the reason why many MUAs use this when the forward an
       original message as attachment.

       Error: Cannot include forward source as $include.

           Unknown alternative for the forward(include).  Valid choices are
           "NO", "INLINE", "ATTACH", and "ENCAPSULATE".

       Error: Method forwardAttach requires a preamble

       Error: Method forwardEncapsulate requires a preamble

       Error: No address to create forwarded to.

           If a forward message is created, a destination address must be

       This module is part of Mail-Box distribution version 2.082, built on
       April 28, 2008. Website: http://perl.overmeer.net/mailbox/

       Copyrights 2001-2008 by Mark Overmeer. For other contributors see

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.  See

perl v5.10.0                      2008-0Mail::Message::Construct::Forward(3pm)