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Mail::Message::ConstruUserBContributed PerMail::Message::Construct::Build(3pm)

       Mail::Message::Construct::Build - building a Mail::Message from

        my $msg3 = Mail::Message->build
          (From => 'me', data => "only two\nlines\n");

        my $msg4 = Mail::Message->buildFromBody($body);

       Complex functionality on Mail::Message objects is implemented in
       different files which are autoloaded.  This file implements the
       functionality related to building of messages from various components.

       Constructing a message

       Mail::Message->build([MESSAGE|PART|BODY], CONTENT)

           Simplified message object builder.  In case a MESSAGE or message
           PART is specified, a new message is created with the same body to
           start with, but new headers.  A BODY may be specified as well.
           However, there are more ways to add data simply.

           The CONTENT is a list of key-value pairs and header field objects.
           The keys which start with a capital are used as header-lines.
           Lower-cased fields are used for other purposes as listed below.
           Each field may be used more than once.  Pairs where the value is
           "undef" are ignored.

           If more than one "data", "file", and "attach" is specified, a
           multi-parted message is created.  Some "Content-" fields are
           treated separately: to enforce the content lines of the produced
           message body after it has been created.  For instance, to
           explicitly state that you wish a "multipart/alternative" in stead
           of the default "multipart/mixed".  If you wish to specify the type
           per datum, you need to start playing with Mail::Message::Body
           objects yourself.

           This "build" method will use buildFromBody() when the body object
           has been constructed.  Together, they produce your message.

            attach  undef
            data    undef
            file    undef
            files   [ ]
            head    undef

           . attach => BODY|PART|MESSAGE|ARRAY

               One attachment to the message.  Each attachment can be full
               MESSAGE, a PART, or a BODY.  Any MESSAGE will get encapsulated
               into a "message/rfc822" body.  You can specify many items (may
               be of different types) at once.

                attach => $folder->message(3)->decoded  # body
                attach => $folder->message(3)           # message
                attach => [ $msg1, $msg2->part(6), $msg3->body ];

           . data => STRING|ARRAY-OF-LINES

               The text for one part, specified as one STRING, or an ARRAY of
               lines.  Each line, including the last, must be terminated by a
               newline.  This argument is passed to
               Mail::Message::Body::new(data) to construct one.

                 data => [ "line 1\n", "line 2\n" ]     # array of lines
                 data => <<'TEXT'                       # string
                line 1
                line 2


               Create a body where the data is read from the specified
               FILENAME, FILEHANDLE, or object of type IO::Handle.  Also this
               body is used to create a Mail::Message::Body.

                my $in = IO::File->new('/etc/passwd', 'r');

                file => 'picture.jpg'                   # filename
                file => \*MYINPUTFILE                   # file handle
                file => $in                             # any IO::Handle

                open my $in, '<', '/etc/passwd';        # alternative for IO::File

           . files => ARRAY-OF-FILE

               See option file, but then an array reference collection more of

           . head => HEAD

               Start with a prepared header, otherwise one is created.


            my $msg = Mail::Message->build
             ( From   => 'meAThome.nl'
             , To     => Mail::Address->new('your name', 'youATyourplace.aq')
             , Cc     => 'everyoneATexample.com'
             , $other_message->get('Bcc')

             , data   => [ "This is\n", "the first part of\n", "the message\n" ]
             , file   => 'myself.gif'
             , file   => 'you.jpg'
             , attach => $signature

            my $msg = Mail::Message->build
             ( To     => 'you'
             , 'Content-Type' => 'text/html'
             , data   => "<html></html>"

       Mail::Message->buildFromBody(BODY, [HEAD], HEADERS)

           Shape a message around a BODY.  Bodies have information about their
           content in them, which is used to construct a header for the
           message.  You may specify a HEAD object which is pre-initialized,
           or one is created for you (also when HEAD is "undef").  Next to
           that, more HEADERS can be specified which are stored in that

           Header fields are added in order, and before the header lines as
           defined by the body are taken.  They may be supplied as key-value
           pairs or Mail::Message::Field objects.  In case of a key-value
           pair, the field's name is to be used as key and the value is a
           string, address (Mail::Address object), or array of addresses.

           A "Date", "Message-Id", and "MIME-Version" field are added unless


            my $type = Mail::Message::Field->new('Content-Type', 'text/html'
              , 'charset="us-ascii"');

            my @to   = ( Mail::Address->new('Your name', 'youATexample.com')
                       , 'worldATexample.info'

            my $msg  = Mail::Message->buildFromBody
              ( $body
              , From => 'meATexample.nl'
              , To   => \@to
              , $type

       Building a message

       Rapid building

       Most messages you need to construct are relatively simple.  Therefore,
       this module provides a method to prepare a message with only one method
       call: build().

       Compared to MIME::Entity::build()

       The "build" method in MailBox is modelled after the "build" method as
       provided by MIMETools, but with a few simplifications:

       When a keys starts with a capital, than it is always a header field
       When a keys is lower-cased, it is always something else
       You use the real field-names, not abbreviations
       All field names are accepted
       You may specify field objects between key-value pairs
       A lot of facts are auto-detected, like content-type and encoding
       You can create a multipart at once

       Hum, reading the list above... what is equivalent?  MIME::Entity is not
       that simple after all!  Let's look at an example from MIME::Entity's
       manual page:

        ### Create the top-level, and set up the mail headers:
        $top = MIME::Entity->build(Type     => "multipart/mixed",
                                   From     => 'meATmyhost.com',
                                   To       => 'youATyourhost.com',
                                   Subject  => "Hello, nurse!");

        ### Attachment #1: a simple text document:

        ### Attachment #2: a GIF file:
        $top->attach(Path        => "./docs/mime-sm.gif",
                     Type        => "image/gif",
                     Encoding    => "base64");

        ### Attachment #3: text we'll create with text we have on-hand:
        $top->attach(Data => $contents);

       The MailBox equivalent could be

        my $msg = Mail::Message->build
          ( From     => 'meATmyhost.com'
          , To       => 'youATyourhost.com'
          , Subject  => "Hello, nurse!"

          , file     => "./testin/short.txt"
          , file     => "./docs/mime-sm.gif"
          , data     => $contents

       One of the simplifications is that MIME::Types is used to lookup the
       right content type and optimal transfer encoding.  Good values for
       content-disposition and such are added as well.

       build, starting with nothing

       See build().

       buildFromBody, body becomes message

       See buildFromBody().

       The Content-* fields

       The various "Content-*" fields are not as harmless as they look.  For
       instance, the "Content-Type" field will have an effect on the default
       transfer encoding.

       When a message is built this way:

        my $msg = Mail::Message->build
         ( 'Content-Type' => 'video/mpeg3'
         , 'Content-Transfer-Encoding' => 'base64'
         , 'Content-Disposition' => 'attachment'
         , file => '/etc/passwd'

       then first a "text/plain" body is constructed (MIME::Types does not
       find an extension on the filename so defaults to "text/plain"), with no
       encoding.  Only when that body is ready, the new type and requested
       encodings are set.  The content of the body will get base64 encoded,
       because it is requested that way.

       What basically happens is this:

        my $head = ...other header lines...;
        my $body = Mail::Message::Body::Lines->new(file => '/etc/passwd');
        my $msg  = Mail::Message->buildFromBody($body, $head);

       A safer way to construct the message is:

        my $body = Mail::Message::Body::Lines->new
         ( file              => '/etc/passwd'
         , mime_type         => 'video/mpeg3'
         , transfer_encoding => 'base64'
         , disposition       => 'attachment'

        my $msg  = Mail::Message->buildFromBody
         ( $body
         , ...other header lines...

       In the latter program, you will immediately start with a body of the
       right type.

       Error: Only build() Mail::Message's; they are not in a folder yet

           You may wish to construct a message to be stored in a some kind of
           folder, but you need to do that in two steps.  First, create a
           normal Mail::Message, and then add it to the folder.  During this
           Mail::Box::addMessage() process, the message will get coerce()-d
           into the right message type, adding storage information and the

       This module is part of Mail-Box distribution version 2.082, built on
       April 28, 2008. Website: http://perl.overmeer.net/mailbox/

       Copyrights 2001-2008 by Mark Overmeer. For other contributors see

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.  See

perl v5.10.0                      2008-04-Mail::Message::Construct::Build(3pm)