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Mail::Internet(3pm)   User Contributed Perl Documentation  Mail::Internet(3pm)

       Mail::Internet - manipulate email messages

         use Mail::Internet;
         my $msg = Mail::Internet->new(\*STDIN);

       This package implements reading, creating, manipulating, and writing
       email messages.  Sometimes, the implementation tries to be too smart,
       but in the general case it works as expected.

       If you start writing a new application, you should use the Mail::Box
       distribution, which has more features and handles messages much better
       according to the RFCs.  See <http://perl.overmeer.net/mailbox/>;.  You
       may also chose MIME::Entity, to get at least some multipart support in
       your application.



           Duplicate the message as a whole.  Both header and body will be
           deep-copied: a new Mail::Internet object is returned.


           Extract header and body from an ARRAY of message lines.  Requires
           an object already created with new(), which contents will get over-

       $obj->new([ARG], [OPTIONS])

       Mail::Internet->new([ARG], [OPTIONS])

           ARG is optional and may be either a file descriptor (reference to a
           GLOB) or a reference to an array. If given the new object will be
           initialized with headers and body either from the array of read
           from the file descriptor.

           The Mail::Header::new() OPTIONS "Modify", "MailFrom" and
           "FoldLength" may also be given.

            Body    []
            Header  undef

           . Body => ARRAY-of-LINES

               The value of this option should be a reference to an array
               which contains the lines for the body of the message. Each line
               should be terminated with "\n" (LF). If Body is given then
               "Mail::Internet" will not attempt to read the body from "ARG"
               (even if it is specified).

           . Header => Mail::Header

               The value of this option should be a Mail::Header object. If
               given then "Mail::Internet" will not attempt to read a mail
               header from "ARG", if it was specified.


           Read a message from the FILEHANDLE into an already existing message
           object.  Better use new() with the FILEHANDLE as first argument.



           Returns the body of the message. This is a reference to an array.
           Each entry in the array represents a single line in the message.

           If BODY is given, it can be a reference to an array or an array,
           then the body will be replaced. If a reference is passed, it is
           used directly and not copied, so any subsequent changes to the
           array will change the contents of the body.


           Returns the "Mail::Header" object which holds the headers for the
           current message

       Processing the message as a whole


           Returns the message as a string in mbox format.  "ALREADY_ESCAPED",
           if given and true, indicates that escape_from() has already been
           called on this object.


           Returns the message as a single string.


           Print the header, body or whole message to file descriptor FILEHAN-
           DLE.  $fd should be a reference to a GLOB. If FILEHANDLE is not
           given the output will be sent to STDOUT.


               $mail->print( \*STDOUT );  # Print message to STDOUT


           Print only the body to the FILEHANDLE (default STDOUT).


           Print only the header to the FILEHANDLE (default STDOUT).

       Processing the header

       Most of these methods are simply wrappers around methods provided by


           The PAIRS are field-name and field-content.  For each PAIR,
           Mail::Header::add() is called.  All fields are added after existing
           fields.  The last addition is returned.

       $obj->combine(TAG, [WITH])

           See Mail::Header::combine().

       $obj->delete(TAG, [TAGs])

           Delete all fields with the name TAG.  Mail::Header::delete() is
           doing the work.


           See Mail::Header::fold().

       $obj->fold_length([TAG], [LENGTH])

           See Mail::Header::fold_length().

       $obj->get(TAG, [TAGs])

           In LIST context, all fields with the name TAG are returned.  In
           SCALAR context, only the first field which matches the earliest TAG
           is returned.  Mail::Header::get() is called to collect the data.


           See Mail::Header::header().


           The PAIRS are field-name and field-content.  For each PAIR,
           Mail::Header::replace() is called with INDEX 0. If a FIELD is
           already in the header, it will be removed first.  Do not specified
           the same field-name twice.

       Processing the body


           Attempts to remove a users signature from the body of a message. It
           does this by looking for a line equal to '-- ' within the last
           "NLINES" of the message. If found then that line and all lines
           after it will be removed. If "NLINES" is not given a default value
           of 10 will be used. This would be of most use in auto-reply


           Add your signature to the body.  remove_sig() will strip existing
           signatures first.

            Option   --Default
            File       undef
            Signature  []

           . File => FILEHANDLE

               Take from the FILEHANDLE all lines starting from the first

           . Signature => STRING|ARRAY-of-LINES


           Removes all leading and trailing lines from the body that only con-
           tain white spaces.

       High-level functionality


           It can cause problems with some applications if a message contains
           a line starting with `From ', in particular when attempting to
           split a folder.  This method inserts a leading "`"'> on anyline
           that matches the regular expression "/^"*From/>


           Post an article via NNTP.  Requires Net::NNTP to be installed.

            Debug   <false>
            Host    <required>
            Port    119

           . Debug => BOOLEAN

               Debug value to pass to Net::NNTP, see Net::NNTP

           . Host => HOSTNAME|Net::NNTP object

               Name of NNTP server to connect to, or a Net::NNTP object to

           . Port => INTEGER

               Port number to connect to on remote host


           Create a new object with header initialised for a reply to the cur-
           rent object. And the body will be a copy of the current message

           The ".mailhdr" file in your home directory (if exists) will be read
           first, to provide defaults.

            Option  --Default
            Exclude   []
            Indent    '>'
            Keep      []
            ReplyAll  false

           . Exclude => ARRAY-of-FIELDS

               Remove the listed FIELDS from the produced message.

           . Indent => STRING

               Use as indentation string.  The string may contain "%%" to get
               a single "%", %f to get the first from name, %F is the first
               character of %f, %l is the last name, %L its first character,
               %n the whole from string, and %I the first character of each of
               the names in the from string.

           . Keep => ARRAY-of-FIELDS

               Copy the listed FIELDS from the original message.

           . ReplyAll => BOOLEAN

               Automatically include all To and Cc addresses of the original
               mail, excluding those mentioned in the Bcc list.

       $obj->send([TYPE, [ARGS...]])

           Send a Mail::Internet message using Mail::Mailer.  TYPE and ARGS
           are passed on to Mail::Mailer::new().


           Send a Mail::Internet message using direct SMTP.  to the given
           ADDRESSES, each can be either a string or a reference to a list of
           email addresses. If none of "To", <Cc> or "Bcc" are given then the
           addresses are extracted from the message being sent.

           The return value will be a list of email addresses that the message
           was sent to. If the message was not sent the list will be empty.

           Requires Net::SMTP and Net::Domain to be installed.

            Option  --Default
            Bcc       undef
            Cc        undef
            Debug     <false>
            Hello     localhost.localdomain
            Host      $ENV{SMTPHOSTS}
            MailFrom  Mail::Util::mailaddress()
            Port      25
            To        undef

           . Bcc => ADDRESSES

           . Cc => ADDRESSES

           . Debug => BOOLEAN

               Debug value to pass to Net::SMPT, see <Net::SMTP>

           . Hello => STRING

               Send a HELO (or EHLO) command to the server with the given

           . Host => HOSTNAME

               Name of the SMTP server to connect to, or a Net::SMTP object to

               If "Host" is not given then the SMTP host is found by attempt-
               ing connections first to hosts specified in $ENV{SMTPHOSTS}, a
               colon separated list, then "mailhost" and "localhost".

           . MailFrom => ADDRESS

               The e-mail address which is used as sender.  By default,
               Mail::Util::mailaddress() provides the address of the sender.

           . Port => INTEGER

               Port number to connect to on remote host

           . To => ADDRESSES


           Remove the escaping added by escape_from().

       This module is part of the MailTools distribution, http://perl.over-

       The MailTools bundle was developed by Graham Barr.  Later, Mark Over-
       meer took over maintenance without development.

       Mail::Cap by Gisle Aas <aasAToslonett.no>.  Mail::Field::AddrList by
       Peter Orbaek <poeATcit.dk>.  Mail::Mailer and Mail::Send by Tim Bunce
       <Tim.BunceATig.uk>.  For other contributors see ChangeLog.

       Copyrights 1995-2000 Graham Barr <gbarrATpobox.com> and 2001-2007 Mark
       Overmeer <perlATovermeer.net>.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.  See

perl v5.8.8                       2008-04-14               Mail::Internet(3pm)