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Mail::Box::File(3pm)  User Contributed Perl Documentation Mail::Box::File(3pm)



NAME
       Mail::Box::File - handle file-based folders

INHERITANCE
        Mail::Box::File
          is a Mail::Box
          is a Mail::Reporter

        Mail::Box::File is extended by
          Mail::Box::Dbx
          Mail::Box::Mbox

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
       "Mail::Box::File" is the base-class for all file-based folders: folders
       which bundle multiple messages into one single file.  Usually, these
       messages are separated by a special line which indicates the start of
       the next one.

OVERLOADED
       overload: ""

           See "OVERLOADED" in Mail::Box

       overload: @{}

           See "OVERLOADED" in Mail::Box

       overload: cmp

           See "OVERLOADED" in Mail::Box

METHODS
       Constructors

       Mail::Box::File->new(OPTIONS)

        Option           --Defined in     --Default
        access             Mail::Box        'r'
        body_delayed_type  Mail::Box        Mail::Message::Body::Delayed
        body_type                           <see description>
        coerce_options     Mail::Box        []
        create             Mail::Box        <false>
        extract            Mail::Box        10240
        field_type         Mail::Box        undef
        fix_headers        Mail::Box        <false>
        folder             Mail::Box        $ENV{MAIL}
        folderdir          Mail::Box        $ENV{HOME}.'/Mail'
        head_delayed_type  Mail::Box        Mail::Message::Head::Delayed
        head_type          Mail::Box        Mail::Message::Head::Complete
        keep_dups          Mail::Box        <false>
        lock_extension                      '.lock'
        lock_file          Mail::Box        <foldername><lock-extension>
        lock_timeout       Mail::Box        1 hour
        lock_type          Mail::Box        Mail::Box::Locker::DotLock
        lock_wait          Mail::Box        10 seconds
        locker             Mail::Box        undef
        log                Mail::Reporter   'WARNINGS'
        manager            Mail::Box        undef
        message_type       Mail::Box        Mail::Box::File::Message
        multipart_type     Mail::Box        Mail::Message::Body::Multipart
        remove_when_empty  Mail::Box        <true>
        save_on_exit       Mail::Box        <true>
        trace              Mail::Reporter   'WARNINGS'
        trusted            Mail::Box        <depends on folder location>
        write_policy                        undef

           . access => MODE

           . body_delayed_type => CLASS

           . body_type => CLASS|CODE

               The default "body_type" option for "File" folders, which will
               cause messages larger than 10kB to be stored in files and
               smaller files in memory, is implemented like this:

                sub determine_body_type($$)
                {   my $head = shift;
                    my $size = shift || 0;
                    'Mail::Message::Body::'
                       . ($size > 10000 ? 'File' : 'Lines');
                }

           . coerce_options => ARRAY

           . create => BOOLEAN

           . extract => INTEGER | CODE | METHOD | 'LAZY'|'ALWAYS'

           . field_type => CLASS

           . fix_headers => BOOLEAN

           . folder => FOLDERNAME

           . folderdir => DIRECTORY

           . head_delayed_type => CLASS

           . head_type => CLASS

           . keep_dups => BOOLEAN

           . lock_extension => FILENAME|STRING

               When the dotlock locking mechanism is used, the lock is created
               with a hardlink to the folder file.  For "Mail::Box::File" type
               of folders, this file is by default named as the folder-file
               itself followed by ".lock".  For example: the "Mail/inbox"
               folder file will have a hardlink made as "Mail/inbox.lock".

               You may specify an absolute filename, a relative (to the
               folder's directory) filename, or an extension (preceded by a
               dot).  So valid examples are:

                .lock        # appended to the folder's filename
                my_own_lockfile.test   # full filename, same dir
                /etc/passwd            # somewhere else

               When the program runs with less priviledges (as normal user),
               often the default inbox folder can not be locked with the
               lockfile name which is produced by default.

           . lock_file => FILENAME

           . lock_timeout => SECONDS

           . lock_type => CLASS|STRING|ARRAY

           . lock_wait => SECONDS

           . locker => OBJECT

           . log => LEVEL

           . manager => MANAGER

           . message_type => CLASS

           . multipart_type => CLASS

           . remove_when_empty => BOOLEAN

           . save_on_exit => BOOLEAN

           . trace => LEVEL

           . trusted => BOOLEAN

           . write_policy => 'REPLACE'|'INPLACE'|undef

               Sets the default write policy, as default for a later call to
               write(policy).  With "undef", the best policy is autodetected.

       The folder

       $obj->addMessage(MESSAGE, OPTIONS)

           See "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->addMessages(MESSAGE [, MESSAGE, ...])

           See "The folder" in Mail::Box

       Mail::Box::File->appendMessages(OPTIONS)

           Appending messages to a file based folder which is not opened is a
           little risky.  In practice, this is often done without locking the
           folder.  So, an other application may write to the folder at the
           same time... :(  Hopefully, all goes fast enough that the chance on
           collition is small.

           All OPTIONS of Mail::Box::Mbox::new() can be supplied.

            Option   --Defined in     --Default
            folder     Mail::Box        <required>
            lock_type                   NONE
            message    Mail::Box        undef
            messages   Mail::Box        undef
            share      Mail::Box        <false>

           . folder => FOLDERNAME

           . lock_type => ...

               See Mail::Box::new(lock_type) for possible values.

           . message => MESSAGE

           . messages => ARRAY-OF-MESSAGES

           . share => BOOLEAN

       $obj->close(OPTIONS)

           See "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->copyTo(FOLDER, OPTIONS)

           See "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->delete(OPTIONS)

           See "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->filename

           Returns the filename for this folder, which may be an absolute or
           relative path to the file.

           example:

            print $folder->filename;

       $obj->folderdir([DIRECTORY])

           See "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->name

           See "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->organization

           See "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->size

           See "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->type

           See "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->update(OPTIONS)

           See "The folder" in Mail::Box

       $obj->url

           See "The folder" in Mail::Box

       Folder flags

       $obj->access

           See "Folder flags" in Mail::Box

       $obj->isModified

           See "Folder flags" in Mail::Box

       $obj->modified([BOOLEAN])

           See "Folder flags" in Mail::Box

       $obj->writable

           See "Folder flags" in Mail::Box

       The messages

       $obj->current([NUMBER|MESSAGE|MESSAGE-ID])

           See "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->find(MESSAGE-ID)

           See "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->findFirstLabeled(LABEL, [BOOLEAN, [ARRAY-OF-MSGS]])

           See "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->message(INDEX [,MESSAGE])

           See "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->messageId(MESSAGE-ID [,MESSAGE])

           See "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->messageIds

           See "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->messages(['ALL',RANGE,'ACTIVE','DELETED',LABEL,!LABEL,FILTER])

           See "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->nrMessages(OPTIONS)

           See "The messages" in Mail::Box

       $obj->scanForMessages(MESSAGE, MESSAGE-IDS, TIMESPAN, WINDOW)

           See "The messages" in Mail::Box

       Sub-folders

       $obj->listSubFolders(OPTIONS)

       Mail::Box::File->listSubFolders(OPTIONS)

           See "Sub-folders" in Mail::Box

       $obj->nameOfSubFolder(SUBNAME, [PARENTNAME])

       Mail::Box::File->nameOfSubFolder(SUBNAME, [PARENTNAME])

           See "Sub-folders" in Mail::Box

       $obj->openRelatedFolder(OPTIONS)

           See "Sub-folders" in Mail::Box

       $obj->openSubFolder(SUBNAME, OPTIONS)

           See "Sub-folders" in Mail::Box

       $obj->topFolderWithMessages

       Mail::Box::File->topFolderWithMessages

           See "Sub-folders" in Mail::Box

       Internals

       $obj->coerce(MESSAGE, OPTIONS)

           See "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->create(FOLDERNAME, OPTIONS)

       Mail::Box::File->create(FOLDERNAME, OPTIONS)

        Option   --Defined in--Default
        folderdir  Mail::Box   undef

           . folderdir => DIRECTORY

       $obj->determineBodyType(MESSAGE, HEAD)

           See "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->folderToFilename(FOLDERNAME, FOLDERDIR, [SUBEXT])

       Mail::Box::File->folderToFilename(FOLDERNAME, FOLDERDIR, [SUBEXT])

           Translate a folder name into a filename, using the FOLDERDIR value
           to replace a leading "=".  SUBEXT is only used for MBOX folders.

       Mail::Box::File->foundIn([FOLDERNAME], OPTIONS)

           See "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->lineSeparator([STRING|'CR'|'LF'|'CRLF'])

           See "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->locker

           See "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->messageCreateOptions([TYPE, CONFIG])

           Returns a key-value list of options to be used each time a new
           message is read from a file.  The list is preceeded by the TYPE of
           message which has to be created.

           This data is used by readMessages() and updateMessages().  With
           TYPE and CONFIG, a new configuration is set.

       $obj->moveAwaySubFolder(DIRECTORY, EXTENSION)

           The DIRECTORY is renamed by appending the EXTENSION, which defaults
           to ".d", to make place for a folder file on that specific location.
           "false" is returned if this failed.

       $obj->parser

           Create a parser for this mailbox.  The parser stays alive as long
           as the folder is open.

       $obj->read(OPTIONS)

           See "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->readMessages(OPTIONS)

           See "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->storeMessage(MESSAGE)

           See "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->toBeThreaded(MESSAGES)

           See "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->toBeUnthreaded(MESSAGES)

           See "Internals" in Mail::Box

       $obj->updateMessages(OPTIONS)

           For file based folders, the file handle stays open until the folder
           is closed.  Update is therefore rather simple: move to the end of
           the last known message, and continue reading...

       $obj->write(OPTIONS)

        Option      --Defined in     --Default
        force         Mail::Box        <false>
        policy                         undef
        save_deleted  Mail::Box        <false>

           . force => BOOLEAN

           . policy => 'REPLACE'|'INPLACE'|undef

               In what way will the mail folder be updated.  If not specified
               during the write, the value of the new(write_policy) at folder
               creation is taken.

               Valid values:

               o   "REPLACE"

                   First a new folder is written in the same directory as the
                   folder which has to be updated, and then a call to move
                   will throw away the old immediately replacing it by the
                   new.

                   Writing in "REPLACE" module is slightly optimized: messages
                   which are not modified are copied from file to file, byte
                   by byte.  This is much faster than printing the data which
                   is will be done for modified messages.

               o   "INPLACE"

                   The original folder file will be opened read/write.  All
                   message which where not changed will be left untouched,
                   until the first deleted or modified message is detected.
                   All further messages are printed again.

               o   "undef"

                   As default, or when "undef" is explicitly specified, first
                   "REPLACE" mode is tried.  Only when that fails, an
                   "INPLACE" update is performed.

               "INPLACE" will be much faster than "REPLACE" when applied on
               large folders, however requires the "truncate" function to be
               implemented on your operating system (at least available for
               recent versions of Linux, Solaris, Tru64, HPUX).  It is also
               dangerous: when the program is interrupted during the update
               process, the folder is corrupted.  Data may be lost.

               However, in some cases it is not possible to write the folder
               with "REPLACE".  For instance, the usual incoming mail folder
               on UNIX is stored in a directory where a user can not write.
               Of course, the "root" and "mail" users can, but if you want to
               use this Perl module with permission of a normal user, you can
               only get it to work in "INPLACE" mode.  Be warned that in this
               case folder locking via a lockfile is not possible as well.

           . save_deleted => BOOLEAN

       $obj->writeMessages(OPTIONS)

           See "Internals" in Mail::Box

       File based folders

       File based folders maintain a folder (a set of messages) in one single
       file.  The advantage is that your folder has only one single name,
       which speeds-up access to all messages at once.

       The disadvantage over directory based folder (see Mail::Box::Dir) is
       that you have to construct some means to keep all message apart, for
       instance by adding a message separator, and this will cause problems.
       Where access to all messages at once is faster in file based folders,
       access to a single message is (much) slower, because the whole folder
       must be read.

       File based folders

       File based folders maintain a folder (a set of messages) in one single
       file.  The advantage is that your folder has only one single name,
       which speeds-up access to all messages at once.

       The disadvantage over directory based folder (see Mail::Box::Dir) is
       that you have to construct some means to keep all message apart, for
       instance by adding a message separator, and this will cause problems.
       Where access to all messages at once is faster in file based folders,
       access to a single message is (much) slower, because the whole folder
       must be read.

       Other methods

       $obj->timespan2seconds(TIME)

       Mail::Box::File->timespan2seconds(TIME)

           See "Other methods" in Mail::Box

       Error handling

       $obj->AUTOLOAD

           See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->addReport(OBJECT)

           See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->defaultTrace([LEVEL]|[LOGLEVEL, TRACELEVEL]|[LEVEL, CALLBACK])

       Mail::Box::File->defaultTrace([LEVEL]|[LOGLEVEL, TRACELEVEL]|[LEVEL,
       CALLBACK])

           See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->errors

           See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->log([LEVEL [,STRINGS]])

       Mail::Box::File->log([LEVEL [,STRINGS]])

           See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->logPriority(LEVEL)

       Mail::Box::File->logPriority(LEVEL)

           See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->logSettings

           See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->notImplemented

           See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->report([LEVEL])

           See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->reportAll([LEVEL])

           See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->trace([LEVEL])

           See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       $obj->warnings

           See "Error handling" in Mail::Reporter

       Cleanup

       $obj->DESTROY

           See "Cleanup" in Mail::Box

       $obj->inGlobalDestruction

           See "Cleanup" in Mail::Reporter

DETAILS
DIAGNOSTICS
       Error: Cannot append messages to folder file $filename: $!

           Appending messages to a not-opened file-organized folder may fail
           when the operating system does not allow write access to the file
           at hand.

       Error: Cannot create directory $dir for folder $name.

           While creating a file-organized folder, at most one level of
           directories is created above it.  Apparently, more levels of
           directories are needed, or the operating system does not allow you
           to create the directory.

       Error: Cannot create folder file $name: $!

           The file-organized folder file cannot be created for the indicated
           reason.  In common cases, the operating system does not grant you
           write access to the directory where the folder file should be
           stored.

       Error: Cannot get a lock on $type folder $self.

           A lock is required to get access to the folder.  If no locking is
           needed, specify the NONE lock type.

       Error: Cannot move away sub-folder $dir

       Warning: Cannot remove folder $name file $filename: $!

           Writing an empty folder will usually cause that folder to be
           removed, which fails for the indicated reason.
           new(remove_when_empty)

       Warning: Cannot remove folder $name file $filename: $!

           Writing an empty folder will usually cause that folder to be
           removed, which fails for the indicated reason.
           new(remove_when_empty) controls whether the empty folder will
           removed; setting it to false (0) may be needed to avoid this
           message.

       Error: Cannot replace $filename by $tempname, to update folder $name:
       $!

           The replace policy wrote a new folder file to update the existing,
           but was unable to give the final touch: replacing the old version
           of the folder file for the indicated reason.

       Warning: Changes not written to read-only folder $self.

           You have opened the folder read-only --which is the default set by
           new(access)--, made modifications, and now want to close it.  Set
           close(force) if you want to overrule the access mode, or close the
           folder with close(write) set to "NEVER".

       Error: Copying failed for one message.

           For some reason, for instance disc full, removed by external
           process, or read-protection, it is impossible to copy one of the
           messages.  Copying will proceed for the other messages.

       Error: Destination folder $name is not writable.

           The folder where the messages are copied to is not opened with
           write access (see new(access)).  This has no relation with write
           permission to the folder which is controled by your operating
           system.

       Warning: Different messages with id $msgid

           The message id is discovered more than once within the same folder,
           but the content of the message seems to be different.  This should
           not be possible: each message must be unique.

       Error: File too short to get write message $nr ($size, $need)

           Mail::Box is lazy: it tries to leave messages in the folders until
           they are used, which saves time and memory usage.  When this
           message appears, something is terribly wrong: some lazy message are
           needed for updating the folder, but they cannot be retreived from
           the original file anymore.  In this case, messages can be lost.

           This message does appear regularly on Windows systems when using
           the 'replace' write policy.  Please help to find the cause,
           probably something to do with Windows incorrectly handling multiple
           filehandles open in the same file.

       Warning: Folder $name file $filename is write-protected.

           The folder is opened writable or for appending via new(access), but
           the operating system does not permit writing to the file.  The
           folder will be opened read-only.

       Error: Folder $name not deleted: not writable.

           The folder must be opened with write access via new(access),
           otherwise removing it will be refused.  So, you may have write-
           access according to the operating system, but that will not
           automatically mean that this "delete" method permits you to.  The
           reverse remark is valid as well.

       Error: Invalid timespan '$timespan' specified.

           The string does not follow the strict rules of the time span syntax
           which is permitted as parameter.

       Warning: Message-id '$msgid' does not contain a domain.

           According to the RFCs, message-ids need to contain a unique random
           part, then an "@", and then a domain name.  This is made to avoid
           the creation of two messages with the same id.  The warning emerges
           when the "@" is missing from the string.

       Error: Package $package does not implement $method.

           Fatal error: the specific package (or one of its superclasses) does
           not implement this method where it should. This message means that
           some other related classes do implement this method however the
           class at hand does not.  Probably you should investigate this and
           probably inform the author of the package.

       Error: Unable to create subfolder $name of $folder.

           The copy includes the subfolders, but for some reason it was not
           possible to copy one of these.  Copying will proceed for all other
           sub-folders.

       Error: Unable to update folder $self.

           When a folder is to be written, both replace and inplace write
           policies are tried,  If both fail, the whole update fails.  You may
           see other, related, error messages to indicate the real problem.

SEE ALSO
       This module is part of Mail-Box distribution version 2.082, built on
       April 28, 2008. Website: http://perl.overmeer.net/mailbox/

LICENSE
       Copyrights 2001-2008 by Mark Overmeer. For other contributors see
       ChangeLog.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.  See
       http://www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.html



perl v5.10.0                      2008-04-28              Mail::Box::File(3pm)